|"Secular cantata by "J. S. Bach|
|Related||based on movements from "St Matthew Passion and "BWV 198|
|Performed||23 March 1729"Köthen:|
|Movements||24 in four parts|
Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt (Cry, children, cry to all the world), also called Köthener Trauermusik (Köthen funeral music), BWV 244a,[a] is a "cantata by "Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in 1729 for the funeral of "Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen. The music is lost, but the libretto survives. As Bach is known to have used musical material which also appeared in his "St Matthew Passion, it has been possible to make reconstructions.
The cantata is in 24 movements ("choruses, "arias and "recitatives) divided into four parts. The first deals with the principality in mourning, the second the prince's departing and the salvation of his soul. The third part, followed by a homily, details Leopold's commemoration. The final section is about the farewell and about eternal rest.
The choice of Bach for the funeral music was not surprising. He had worked full-time at Leopold's court between 1717 and 1723. When he moved to "Leipzig, he retained a role as court composer. His commissions in the period 1723–29 included the 1726 secular cantata "Steigt freudig in die Luft, BWV 36a, to celebrate the birthday of Princess Charlotte, Leopold's wife, who was to survive the deaths of her husband and two children from "smallpox.
Although the prince's death took place in 1728, his funeral was delayed until March the following year. Presumably the delay in burying the prince gave Bach a reasonable amount of time to compose the Trauermusik (funeral music). However, he chose to adapt material he had already composed, rather than create something completely new. While no score survives for the cantata as such, there is evidence of how Bach set the text, which was by "Picander, a librettist Bach had been working with since his move to Leipzig. It has been demonstrated that Bach used music from an earlier funeral ode (to a text by "Johann Christoph Gottsched) and music from the St Matthew Passion (to a text by Picander), which "fit" the words of the funeral text. (see Reconstructions section below)
Picander's text for the funeral music exists in three different versions.
The court at Kothen and St James' church were "Calvinist and therefore not usually a venue for elaborate music.
On 23 March 1729 the prince's body was transferred from the court chapel to St James' church, for burial in the crypt. There is documentary evidence that the cantata was performed at a memorial service the following day, but it has been suggested by "Andrew Parrott that part of the cantata would have been appropriate for the burial service. There is also documentary evidence regarding the performers, which throws light on the scoring. The composer's wife, "Anna Magdalena Bach was "soprano soloist and "Christian Ferdinand Abel was probably a soloist on "viola da gamba.
Bach sometimes reused an earlier composition, typically revising and improving it in a process called "parody. Exactly how Bach recycled his music in this case is open to interpretation. However, Bach may have simply given his musicians music sheets from the existing works to save copying another set.
The close relationship between the Passion and the Trauermusik for Prince Leopold is reflected in their sharing a number in the "Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV), the standard catalogue of Bach's works. However, the relationship is complicated by the fact that, although the first performance of the Passion appears to predate the Trauermusik, the Passion was revised by Bach for later performances.
Several reconstructions exist:
There exists two recordings of the cantata.
J.S. Bach Trauer-Music: 'Music to mourn Prince Leopold, "Avie Records, 2011
Köthener Trauermusik BWV 244a, "Harmonia Mundi, 2014
An aria from the Trauermusik was used in the 1968 film "The Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach. The piece in question is "Mit Freuden sei die Welt verlassen" (music lost, reconstructed from St Matthew Passion, BWV 244, "Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben")