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In the "Byzantine Empire, a kleisoura ("Greek: κλεισούρα, "enclosure, defile") was a term traditionally applied to a fortified "mountain pass and the military district protecting it.[1] By the late 7th century, it came to be applied to more extensive frontier districts, distinct from the larger "themata, chiefly along the Empire's eastern border with the "Caliphate along the line of the "Taurus-"Anti-Taurus mountains (in the "West, only "Strymon was in its early days termed a kleisoura).[1] A kleisoura or kleisourarchia was an autonomous command, under a kleisourarches (Greek: κλεισουράρχης). Eventually, most kleisourai were raised to full themata, and the term fell out of use after the 10th century (in late Byzantine times, "droungos had a similar meaning). Its "Islamic counterpart in "Cilicia and "Mesopotamia was the "al-thughūr.[1]

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  1. ^ a b c Kazhdan 1991, p. 1132; Glykatzi-Ahrweiler 1960, pp. 1–111.


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