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Korean honorifics
"Hangul 높임말 / 경어
"Hanja 높임말 / 敬語
"Revised Romanization nopimmal / gyeongeo
"McCune–Reischauer nopimmal /kyŏngŏ

The "Korean language reflects the important observance of a speaker or writer's relationships with both the subject of the sentence and the audience. "Korean grammar uses an extensive system of "honorifics to reflect the speaker's relationship to the subject of the sentence and "speech levels to reflect the speaker's relationship to the audience. Originally, the honorifics expressed the differences in social status between speakers. In contemporary "Korean culture, honorifics are used to differentiate between formal and informal speech based on the level of familiarity between the speaker and the listener.

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Honorific nouns[edit]

When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer must indicate the subject's superiority by using special nouns or verb endings. Generally, someone is superior in status if he or she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or greater age, an employer, a teacher, a customer, or the like. Someone is equal or inferior in status if he or she is a younger stranger, a student, an employee or the like. The use of wrong speech levels or diction is likely to be considered insulting, depending on the degree of difference between the used form and the expected form.

One way of using honorifics is to use special "honorific" nouns in place of regular ones. A common example is using 진지 (jinji) instead of (bap) for "food". Often, honorific nouns are used to refer to relatives. The honorific suffix -님 (-nim) is affixed to many kinship terms to make them honorific. Thus, someone may address his own grandmother as 할머니 (halmeoni) but refer to someone else's grandmother as 할머님 (halmeonim).

Base noun Honorific English translation
할아버지 (harabeoji) 할아버님 (har-abeonim) grandfather
할머니 (halmeoni) 할머님 (halmeonim) grandmother
아버지 (abeoji) 아버님 (abeonim) father
어머니 (eomeoni) 어머님 (eomeonim) mother
(hyeong) 형님 (hyeongnim) a male's older brother
누나 (nuna) 누님 (nunim) a male's older sister
오빠 (oppa) 오라버니 (orabeoni) a female's older brother
언니 (eonni) a female's older sister
아들 (adeul) 아드님 (adeunim) son
(ttal) 따님 (ttanim) daughter

Honorific verbs[edit]

All verbs and adjectives can be converted into an honorific form by adding the infix -시- (-si-) or -으시- (-eusi-) after the "stem and before the ending. Thus, 가다 (gada, "to go") becomes 가시다 (gasida). A few verbs have "suppletive honorific forms:

Base verb/adjective Regular honorific English translation
가다 (gada) 가시다 (gasida) "to go"
받다 (batda) 받으시다 (badeusida) "to receive"
작다 (jakda) 작으시다 (jageusida) "(to be) small"
Base verb/adjective Suppletive honorific English translation
있다 (itda) 계시다 (gyesida) "to be"
마시다 (masida) 드시다 (deusida) "to drink"
먹다 (meokda) 드시다 (deusida) "to eat"
먹다 (meokda) 잡수시다 (japsusida) "to eat"
자다 (jada) 주무시다 (jumusida) "to sleep"
배고프다 (baegopeuda) 시장하시다 (sijanghasida) "to be hungry"

A few verbs have suppletive humble forms, used when the speaker is referring to him/herself in polite situations. These include 드리다 (deurida) and 올리다 (ollida) for 주다 (juda, "give"). 드리다 (deurida) is substituted for 주다 (juda) when the latter is used as an "auxiliary verb, while 올리다 (ollida, literally "raise up") is used for 주다 (juda) in the sense of "offer".

Honorific forms of address[edit]

"Pronouns in Korean have their own set of polite equivalents (e.g., (jeo) is the humble form of (na, "I") and 저희 (jeohui) is the humble form of 우리 (uri, "we")). However, Korean language allows for coherent syntax without pronouns, effectively making Korean a so-called "pro-drop language, thus Koreans usually avoid using the second-person singular pronoun, especially when using honorific forms. Third-Person Pronouns are occasionally avoided as well, mainly to maintain sense of politeness. Although honorific form of (neo, singular "you") is 당신 (dangsin, literally, "friend" or "dear"), that term is used only as a form of address in a few specific social contexts, such as between two married couples or in an ironic sense between strangers. Other words are usually substituted where possible (e.g., the person's name, a "kinship term, a professional title, the plural 여러분 yeoreobun, or no word at all, relying on context to supply meaning instead).

-ssi[edit]

-ssi (씨) is the most commonly used honorific used amongst people of approximately equal speech level. It is attached at the end of the full name, such as Park Jimin-ssi (박지민씨) or simply after the first name, Jimin-ssi (지민씨) if the speaker is more familiar with someone. Appending -ssi to the surname, for instance Park-ssi (박씨), can be quite rude, as it indicates the speaker considers himself to be of a higher social status than the person he is speaking to.[1]

-nim[edit]

-nim ("Hangul: 님) is the highest form of honorifics and above -ssi, but is still used as a commonplace honorific for guests, customers, clients, and unfamiliar individuals. -nim is also used towards someone who is revered and admired for having a significant amount of skill, intellect, knowledge, etc. and is used for people who are of a higher rank than oneself. Examples include family members (eomeo-nim 어머님 & abeo-nim 아버님), teachers (seonsaeng-nim 선생님), holy men (e.g. pastors – moksa-nim 목사님), and the "Christian God (haneu-nim 하느님 / hana-nim 하나님). -nim will follow addressees' names on letters/emails and postal packages.

-ya / -a[edit]

-ya or -a ("Hangul: 야, 아) is a casual title used at the end of names. It is not gender exclusive. If a name ends in a consonant -a is used (e.g. Jungkook-a 정국아), while -ya is used if the name ends in a vowel (e.g. Yoongi-ya 윤기야). -ya / -a is used only between close friends and people who are familiar with each other, and its use between strangers or distant acquaintances would be considered extremely rude. -ya / -a is only used hierarchically horizontally or downwards: an adult or parent may use it for young children, and those with equal social standing may use it with each other, but a young individual will not use -ya or -a towards one who is older than their self.

Seonbaehubae[edit]

Seonbae (선배) is used to address senior colleagues or mentor figures relating to oneself (e.g. older students in school, older/more experienced athletes, mentors, senior colleagues in academia, business, work, etc.). As with English titles such as Doctor, Seonbae can be used either by itself or as a title. Hubae (후배) is used to refer to juniors. However, an individual is not addressed as such directly, as the term is mainly used in the "third person.

-gun /-yang[edit]

-gun (군) is used moderately in formal occasions (such as weddings), for young, unmarried males. -gun is also used to address young boys by an adult. -yang (양) is the female equivalent of 군 and is used to address young girls. Both are used in a similar fashion to -ssi, succeeding either the whole name or the first name in solitude.

Less common forms of address[edit]

Relative honorifics[edit]

When speaking to someone about another person, you must calculate the relative difference in position between the person you’re referring to and the person you are speaking to. This is known as apjonbeop 압존법 or “relative honorifics”.

For example, one must change the post positional particle and verb if the person you are speaking to is a higher position (age, title, etc.) than the person you are referring to. “부장, 이 과장님께서는 지금 자리에 안 계십니다 (bujangnim, I gwajangnimkkeseoneun jigeum jarie an gyeshimnida)” This means, “General Manager, Manager Lee is not at his desk now”, with the bolded parts elevating the Manager higher than the General Manager, even though they both are in a higher position than you. The General Manager would be offended by the fact that you elevated the Manager above him. Most Koreans perfect this while working at their first company job as it is confusing even for them.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ri, Ui-do (리의도) (2005). Proper Procedures for Korean Usage (올바른 우리말 사용법 , Olbareun urimal sayongbeop) (in Korean). Seoul: Yedam. p. 182. "ISBN "89-5913-118-0. 
  2. ^ http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=33802

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Further reading[edit]

  1. ^ "Korean Translation". Lingua Asia. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
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