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This article is about current LGBT rights around the world. For historical and current movements to further LGBT rights, see "LGBT social movements. Intersex rights by country and "Intersex human rights.
""
""
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse legal Same-sex intercourse illegal
  
"Marriage1
  
Unenforced penalty
  
Marriage recognized but not performed1
  
Imprisonment
  
"Civil unions1
  
Up to life in prison
  
"Unregistered cohabitation1
  
Death penalty
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
1Some jurisdictions in this category may currently have other types of partnerships.
""
""
"LGBT rights at the United Nations
  
Support Countries which have signed a "General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights or sponsored the "Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (96 members).
  
Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members).
  
Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (44 members).
  
Non-UN member Countries that are not members of the UN.

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of "same-sex marriage or "other types of partnerships, to the "death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.

LGBT rights are considered "human rights by "Amnesty International[1] and "civil rights by some.[2] LGBT rights laws include, but are not limited to, the following:

As of March 2017, twenty-two countries, most of them located in the "Americas and "Western Europe,[f] recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of (if not all) the other rights listed above to its LGBT citizens.

Anti-LGBT laws include, but are not limited to, the following: "sodomy laws penalizing consensual same-sex sexual activity with fines, jail terms, or the death penalty; anti-""lesbianism" laws; and higher ages of consent for same-sex activity.

In 2011, the "United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, which was followed up with a report from the UN Human Rights Commission documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including "hate crime, criminalization of "homosexuality, and "discrimination. Following up on the report, the UN Human Rights Commission urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.[3][4]

As of May 2016, 16 countries have an unequal age of consent law.[5]

As of August 2016, 72 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions[g] have laws criminalizing homosexuality,[5] with most of them located in "Asia and "Africa. In 2006 that number was 92.[5]

Contents

History of LGBT-related laws[edit]

LGBT history, "Timeline of LGBT history, "LGBT social movements, "History of homosexuality, and "Sodomy law § History

Ancient Celts[edit]

According to "Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers ("Politics II 1269b).[6][7] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does "Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[7] In book XIII of his "Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian "Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by "Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC ("Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be "Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording "some kind of bonding ritual ... which requires abstinence from women at certain times".[7]

Ancient India[edit]

Throughout "Hindu and "Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[8] There are several instances in ancient "Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories depicting love between those of the same sex, especially among kings and queens. "Kamasutra, the ancient "Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. "Transsexuals are also venerated e.g. "Lord Vishnu as "Mohini and "Lord Shiva as "Ardhanarishwara (which means half woman).[9]

Ancient West Asia[edit]

Ancient Israel[edit]

The ancient "Law of Moses (the "Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in "Genesis in the story of "Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed. In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as being "abominable".

Ancient Persia[edit]

In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early "Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of "prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as "Sa’di (d. 1291), "Hafiz (d. 1389), and "Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the "köçeks and "Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God.

Ancient Mesopotamia[edit]

In "Assyrian society, "sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual.[10] An individual faced no punishment for penetrating someone of equal "social class, a cult prostitute, or with someone whose "gender roles were not considered solidly masculine.[10][11] Such sexual relations were even seen as good "fortune.[12] However, homosexual relationships with fellow soldiers, slaves, royal attendants, or those where a social better was "submissive or penetrated, were treated as bad "omens.[13][14] Middle Assyrian "Law Codes dating 1075 BC has a particularly harsh law for "homosexuality in the military, which reads: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch."[15][16][17]

Ancient Rome[edit]

The "conquest mentality" of the "ancient Romans shaped "Roman homosexual practices.[18] In the "Roman Republic, a "citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[19] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[20] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have "same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his "masculinity or social standing.[21] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the "Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime ("stuprum) against a "freeborn male minor.[22] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: "slaves, male "prostitutes, and the "infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of "Roman sexuality, and no words exist in "Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[23] A male citizen who willingly performed "oral sex or received "anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[24] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of "effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians ("populares) such as "Julius Caesar and "Mark Antony.[25]

"Roman law addressed the "rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[26] A law probably dating to the "dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[27] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[28]

In the "Roman army of the Republic, "sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[29] as a violation of "military discipline.[30] The Greek historian "Polybius (2nd century BC) lists "deserters, thieves, "perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the "fustuarium, clubbing to death.[31] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of "sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[32] Soldiers were free to have "relations with their male slaves;[33] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[34] By the late Republic and throughout the "Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[35]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating "traditional marriage rites. "Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[36] The emperor "Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a "freedman "Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort "Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[37]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by "Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the "Roman Empire had come under "Christian rule, passive homosexuality was "punishable by burning.[38] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the "Theodosian Code.[39] Under "Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[40]

Congo[edit]

"E. E. Evans-Pritchard recorded that in the past male "Azande warriors in the northern "Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in "intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[41]

Feudal Japan[edit]

In feudal "Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of "pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior ("samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the "wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[42] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers. The "Samurai period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. Later when Japanese society became pacified, the middle classes adopted many of the practices of the warrior class.

Lesotho[edit]

Anthropologists "Stephen Murray and "Will Roscoe reported that women in "Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called "motsoalle.[43]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

In "Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The "Etoro and "Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[44]

Global LGBT Rights Maps[edit]

LGBT-related laws by country or territory[edit]

Africa[edit]

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Africa
This table:

Northern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Algeria "Algeria ""No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Canary Islands "Canary Islands
("Autonomous community of "Spain)
""Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes De facto unions legal since 2003[47] ""Yes Legal since 2005[48] ""Yes Legal since 2005[49]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[50]
""Yes Spain responsible for defence ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[51] ""Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[52]
"Ceuta "Ceuta ("Autonomous city of "Spain) ""Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes De facto union since 1998[53] ""Yes Legal since 2005[54] ""Yes Legal since 2005[55] ""Yes Spain responsible for defence ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[56] ""Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[57]
"Egypt "Egypt ""No Male "de facto illegal since 2000
Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without torture and fines under broadly written morality laws
""Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain.[5][58]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Libya "Libya ""No Illegal since 1973
Penalty: |""No Illegal
Penalty: Up to death [59]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Madeira "Madeira
(Autonomous region of "Portugal)
""Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "De facto union since 2001[60][61] ""Yes Legal since 2010[62] ""Yes Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[63][64][65] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[51] ""Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[66]
"Melilla "Melilla ("Autonomous city of "Spain) ""Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes De facto union since 2008[67] ""Yes Legal since 2005[54] ""Yes Legal since 2005[55] ""Yes Spain responsible for defence ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[56] ""Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[57]
"Morocco "Morocco
(Including "Southern Provinces)
""No Illegal since 1962
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[5][68]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(Excluding "Southern Provinces)
""No Illegal since 1944 (as part of the "Overseas Province of Spanish Sahara)
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[5][69][70]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"South Sudan "South Sudan ""No Illegal since 1899 (as "Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2011. ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Sudan "Sudan ""No Illegal since 1899 (as "Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Death penalty on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Tunisia "Tunisia ""No Illegal since 1913 (as the "French protectorate of Tunisia)
Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.[5][71]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No

Western Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Benin "Benin ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[5][72] (Age of consent discrepancy)[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Burkina Faso "Burkina Faso ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[5] ""No ""No Constitutional ban since 1991. ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Cape Verde "Cape Verde ""Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""Emblem-question.svg
"Ivory Coast "Côte d'Ivoire ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"The Gambia "Gambia ""No Illegal since 1888 (as "Gambia Colony and Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.[5][73][46]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Ghana "Ghana ""No Male illegal since 1860s (as "Gold Coast)
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more
""Yes Female always legal.[5][74][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Guinea "Guinea ""No Illegal since 1988
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.[5][75]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Guinea-Bissau "Guinea-Bissau ""Yes Legal since 1993[5]
+ UN decl. sign.
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Liberia "Liberia ""No Illegal since 1976
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.[5][76]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Mali "Mali ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Mauritania "Mauritania ""No Illegal since 1983
Penalty: Death penalty[5][77]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Niger "Niger ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Nigeria "Nigeria ""No Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as "Northern Nigeria Protectorate and "Southern Nigeria Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
""No Illegal in the states of "Bauchi, "Borno, "Gombe, "Jigawa, "Kaduna, "Kano, "Katsina, "Kebbi, "Niger, "Sokoto, "Yobe, and "Zamfara
Penalty: Death penalty for men. Whipping and/or imprisonment for women.[5][78][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Senegal "Senegal ""No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.[5][79]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Sierra Leone "Sierra Leone ""No Male illegal since 1861 (as the colony of Sierra Leone)
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced)
""Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Togo "Togo ""No Illegal since 1884 (as "Togoland)
Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No

Central Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Cameroon "Cameroon ""No Illegal since 1972
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Central African Republic "Central African Republic ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Chad "Chad ""No Illegal since 2016. ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Democratic Republic of the Congo "Democratic Republic of the Congo ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[5] ""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2005. ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Equatorial Guinea "Equatorial Guinea ""Yes Legal since 1968.[5][80] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Gabon "Gabon ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Republic of the Congo "Republic of the Congo ""Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Saint Helena "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes/""No (In Ascension from 2016)[81] ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. ""Yes Constitutional ban all anti-gay on discrimination. ""Yes Since 2013.
"São Tomé and Príncipe "São Tomé and Príncipe ""Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg

Southeast Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Burundi "Burundi ""No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.[5][82]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2005. ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Kenya "Kenya ""No Illegal since 1897 (as "East Africa Protectorate)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2010.[83] ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Rwanda "Rwanda ""Yes Legal since 1980[5][84]
+ UN decl. sign.
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2003. ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Uganda "Uganda ""No ""No Male illegal since 1894
Penalty: Up to life in prison[85] or vigilante execution[86]
""No Constitutional ban since 2005. ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Tanzania "Tanzania ""No Illegal since 1864 (only "Zanzibar)
Illegal since 1899
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No

Horn of Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Djibouti "Djibouti ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Eritrea "Eritrea ""No Illegal since 1957 (as part of the "Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea)
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[5][87]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Ethiopia "Ethiopia ""No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Somalia "Somalia ""No Illegal since 1962
Penalty: Up to death[88]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Somaliland "Somaliland ""No Illegal
Penalty: Up to death[89]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No

Indian Ocean States[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"British Indian Ocean Territory "British Indian Ocean Territory
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. ""Emblem-question.svg ""Emblem-question.svg
"Comoros "Comoros ""No Illegal since 1982
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines[5][90]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"French Southern and Antarctic Lands "French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of "France)
""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination ""Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
"Madagascar "Madagascar ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Mauritius "Mauritius ""No Illegal since 1838 (as part of "British Mauritius)
Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment
""Yes Female always legal[91]
+ UN decl. sign.[5][92]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[93][94] ""Emblem-question.svg
"Mayotte "Mayotte
(Overseas department of "France)
""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination ""Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
"Réunion "Réunion
(Overseas department of "France)
""Yes Legal since 1791[5] ""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes Legal since 2013 ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination ""Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
"Seychelles "Seychelles ""Yes Legal since 2016[95]
+ UN decl. sign.
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[5] ""Emblem-question.svg

Southern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Angola "Angola ""No "De facto illegal since 1886 (as part of the "Province of Angola)
Penalty: Fines, restrictions or penal labor (Not enforced)[5][96]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination ""No
"Botswana "Botswana ""No Illegal since 1885 (as part of the "Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Penalty: Fine to up to 7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination ""No
"Lesotho "Lesotho ""Yes Male legal since 2012
Female always legal[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Malawi "Malawi ""No Illegal since 1891 (as part of the Shire Highlands Protectorate and the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings (Law suspended from usage since 2012)[5][97][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Mozambique "Mozambique ""Yes Legal since 2015[98][99] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[5][93] ""Emblem-question.svg
"Namibia "Namibia ""No Male illegal since 1920 (as part of "South-West Africa; not enforced)[46]
""Yes Female always legal[5][100][101]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"South Africa "South Africa ""Yes Male legal since 1998
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. ""Yes "Legal since 2006 ""Yes "Legal since 2002 ""Yes Since 1998 ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination ""Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be "changed after surgical or medical treatment.
"Swaziland "Swaziland ""No Male illegal since the 1880s
""Yes Female always legal[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Zambia "Zambia ""No Illegal since 1911 (as part of the "British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment[5][46]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Zimbabwe "Zimbabwe ""No Male illegal since 1891 (as part of the "British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)
""Yes Female legal[5][46]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2013 ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No

Americas[edit]

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in the Americas



Tables:

North America[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Bermuda "Bermuda
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 1994 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Court decision pending) ""No (Court decision pending) ""Yes Legal since 2015[102] ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""No Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[103] ""No
"Canada "Canada ""Yes Legal since 1969 (age of consent discrepancy and prohibition of anal intercourse in some cases)
+ UN decl. sign.[5][104]
""Yes Domestic partnership in "Nova Scotia (2001)[105];
Civil union in "Quebec (2002)[106];
Adult interdependent relationship in "Alberta (2003)[107];
Common-law relationship in "Manitoba (2004)[108]
""Yes "Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003,
nationwide since 2005
.[109]
""Yes Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2010.[110] ""Yes Since 1992[111] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including "hate speech. "Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Manitoba and Ontario since 2015 (proposed in other jurisdictions). ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after "completion of medical intervention in most provinces and territories (not required in "Ontario, "British Columbia, "Manitoba, "Newfoundland and Labrador and "Nova Scotia); Explicit anti-discrimination protections only in "Nunavut,[112] "Alberta, "British Columbia,[113] "Manitoba, "Saskatchewan, "Prince Edward Island, "Newfoundland and Labrador, "Ontario, "Quebec, the "Northwest Territories and "Nova Scotia implicit elsewhere.[114][115][116][117]
"Greenland "Greenland
(Constituent country of the "Kingdom of Denmark)
""Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Registered partnership since 1996[118] ""Yes Legal since 2016 ""Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.[119] Joint adoption since 2016.[120] ""Yes Since 1978 ("Denmark responsible for defence) ""Yes/""No Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""No
"Mexico "Mexico ""Yes Legal since 1871
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes/""No "Civil union in "Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[121] Colima (2013),[122] Campeche (2013),[123] Jalisco (2014)[124] ""Yes/""No Legal in "Mexico City (2010),[125] "Quintana Roo (2012),[126] "Coahuila (2014), "Chihuahua (2015), "Guerrero (2015), "Nayarit (2015), "Jalisco (2016), "Campeche (2016), "Michoacán (2016), "Colima (2016), "Morelos (2016).
All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[125]
(Proposed nationwide).[127][128]

The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[129] but as state constitutions were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the court.[130][131]

""Yes/""No Explicitly legal in Mexico City (2010)[132], Coahuila (2014), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016). [133]
Nationwide, married same-sex couples may adopt.[134]
""Yes ""Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[135] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[136] Mexico adopted a legal protocol for gender identity and sexual orientation in 2014 based upon constitutional provisions to equally protect the rights of all citizens.[137]
""Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg "Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of "France)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"United States "United States ""Yes "Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Domestic partnership in "California (1999),[142] the "District of Columbia (2002),[143] "Maine (2004),[144] "Oregon (2008),[145] "Maryland (2008),[146] "Wisconsin (2009)[147] and "Nevada (2009)[148];
Civil union in "New Jersey (2007),[149] "Illinois (2011),[150] "Hawaii (2012),[151] and "Colorado (2013)[152]
""Yes "Legal in some states since 2004.
Nationwide since 2015
, except "American Samoa and "some tribal jurisdictions.[153][154]
""Yes Legal in some states since 1993.
Nationwide since 2015, except "American Samoa.[154]
""Yes Since 2011[155] ""Yes Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the "federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the "District of Columbia, and the "United States Postal Service, since 1998 (see "Executive Order 12968 and "Executive Order 13087). "Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation with minors by mental health professionals illegal in some states. (Banned in "California, "Illinois, "New Jersey, "Oregon, the "District of Columbia and some cities such as "Miami Beach, "Cincinnati and "Seattle). "Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.
("Sexual orientation discrimination in public and private employment)
""Yes/""No Gender identity discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[156][157] "Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation banned since 2015.[158]
("Gender identity discrimination in public and private employment)

Central America[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Belize "Belize ""Yes Legal since 2016[159] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Section 16(3) of the constitution bans discrimination on the basis of sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed[160] The ruling overturning Section 53 of the criminal code specifically stated "sex" as mentioned in Section 16(3) of the constitution, includes sexual orientation.[161][162] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries.

""No Gender change is not allowed.[163]

"Costa Rica "Costa Rica ""Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2014;
(De facto union pending)[164][165]
""No (Court decision pending) ""No(Court decision pending) LGBT individuals may adopt.[166] "Has no military. ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required.

""No Gender change is not allowed.

"El Salvador "El Salvador ""Yes Legal since the 1800s
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Court decision pending) ""No (Constitutional ban pending) (Court decision pending)[167] ""No(Court decision pending) ""Yes[168] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[168] ""Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[169][170]
"Guatemala "Guatemala ""Yes Legal since 1800's
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed) ""No (Proposed) ""No (Proposed) ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required.[171]

""No Gender change is not allowed.

"Honduras "Honduras ""Yes Legal since 1899
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2005.[172][173] ""No ""No ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including "hate speech.[174] ""Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[5]
"Nicaragua "Nicaragua ""Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""No
"Panama "Panama ""Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No(Court decision pending) ""No(Court decision pending) ""No(Court decision pending) "Has no military. ""No (Anti-discrimination law proposed).[175] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after "completion of medical intervention since 2006.[176] Legal name change, without surgeries, is allowed since 2016.[177]

Caribbean[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Anguilla "Anguilla
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""No ""No
"Antigua and Barbuda "Antigua and Barbuda ""No Illegal
Penalty: 15-year prison sentence.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Aruba "Aruba
(Constituent country of the "Kingdom of the Netherlands)
""Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Civil Unions since 2016[178] ""No (Proposed)/""Yes["citation needed]
Same-sex marriages performed in the "Netherlands recognized.[179]
""No (Proposed) ""Yes The "Netherlands responsible for defence. ""No ""No
"The Bahamas "Bahamas ""Yes Legal since 1991 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Yes[5] ""No ""No
"Barbados "Barbados ""No Illegal
Penalty: Life imprisonment (not enforced) (Proposed) .[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"British Virgin Islands "British Virgin Islands
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[180] ""No
"Caribbean Netherlands "Caribbean Netherlands
("Bonaire, "Sint Eustatius, "Saba; Special municipalities of the "Netherlands)
""Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Registered partnership since 2012[181] ""Yes Legal since 2012[182] ""Yes[183] ""Yes The "Netherlands responsible for defence. ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[184] ""Yes[185]
"Cayman Islands "Cayman Islands
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000 (age of consent discrepancy)[5]
+ UN decl. sign.
""No ""No/""Yes Same-sex marriage not expressly prohibited under Cayman Islands law, but Constitutional right of a man and a woman to marry a person of the opposite sex since 2009.[186] Same-sex marriages performed in a foreign country are now recognized for immigration purposes. [187] ""No ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""No ""No
"Cuba "Cuba ""Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed) ""No Constitutional ban since 1976. ""No ""Yes[5] ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[188][189] ""Yes[190]
"Curaçao "Curaçao
(Constituent country of the "Kingdom of the Netherlands)
""Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed)["citation needed] ""No (Proposed)/""Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the "Netherlands recognized.[179] ""No (Proposed) ""Yes The "Netherlands responsible for defence. ""No ""No
"Dominica "Dominica ""No Illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution (Not enforced)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Dominican Republic "Dominican Republic ""Yes Legal since 1822
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2010.[191] ""No ""No[192] ""No ""No
"Grenada "Grenada ""No Male illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence
""Yes Female always legal.[5]
""No ""No ""No "Has no military. ""No ""No
"Guadeloupe "Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of "France)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"United States "Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the "United States)
""Yes Legal since 1903 ""Yes ""Yes Legal ""Yes Legal ""Yes USA responsible for defense. ""Yes[193] ""Yes[194]
"Haiti "Haiti ""Yes Legal since 1986[5] ""No ""No ""No "Has no military. ""No ""No
"Jamaica "Jamaica ""No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years hard labor (not enforced)
""Yes Female always legal.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Martinique "Martinique
(Overseas department of "France)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"Montserrat "Montserrat
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2010.[195] ""No ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[196] ""No
"Puerto Rico "Puerto Rico
("Commonwealth of the "United States)
""Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Since 2015 ""Yes Legal since 2015[197] ""Yes Legal since 2015 ""Yes Since 2011[155] ""Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply. ""Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply.
""Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg "Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of "France since 2007)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"Saint Kitts and Nevis "Saint Kitts and Nevis ""No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years
""Yes Female always legal.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Saint Lucia "Saint Lucia ""No Male illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence
""Yes Female always legal.[5]
""No ""No ""No "Has no military. ""No ""No
""Flag of France.svg "Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of "France since 2007)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"Saint Vincent and the Grenadines "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ""No Illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence.[5]
""No ""No ""No "Has no military. ""No ""No
"Sint Maarten "Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the "Kingdom of the Netherlands)
""Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed)["citation needed] ""No (Proposed)/""Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the "Netherlands recognized.[179] ""No (Proposed) ""Yes The "Netherlands responsible for defence. ""No ""No
"Trinidad and Tobago "Trinidad and Tobago ""No Illegal
Penalty: 25-year prison sentence (not enforced).[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Turks and Caicos Islands "Turks and Caicos Islands
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 2011.[198] ""No ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""No
"United States "United States Minor Outlying Islands
("Unincorporated organized territory of the "United States)
""Yes Legal ""Yes ""Yes Legal ""Yes Legal ""Yes USA responsible for defense. ""No ""No
"United States Virgin Islands "United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the "United States)
""Yes Legal since 1985
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Since 2015[154] ""Yes Legal since 2015[154] ""Yes Legal since 2015[154] ""Yes Since 2011[155] ""Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well. ""Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well.

South America[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Argentina "Argentina ""Yes Legal since 1887
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Civil union in Buenos Aires (2003)[199] and Rio Negro (2003)[200]
Cohabitation union nationwide since 2015[201]
""Yes "Legal since 2010.[202] ""Yes Legal since 2010 ""Yes Since 2009[203] ""Yes/""No Legal protection in some provinces (federal law pending).[204] "Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal. ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2012.[205]
"Bolivia "Bolivia ""Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No Constitutional ban on free unions.[206]
(Family life agreement pending)[207]
""No Constitutional ban since 2009.[208] ""No LGBT individuals may adopt.[209] ""Emblem-question.svg[210][211][212] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including "hate speech.[5] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2016.[213][214][215][216]
"Brazil "Brazil ""Yes Legal since 1831
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Stable unions" legal in some states since 2004. All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011.[217][218] ""Yes "Legal in some states since 2012, nationwide since 2013.[219][220] ""Yes "Legal since 2010[221] ""Yes "Since 1969[222] ""Yes/""No "All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988. Legal protection for sexual orientation in many jurisdictions (expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate).[223] "Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999.[224][225] ""Yes "Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after "completion of medical intervention since 2009.[226][227][228]
"Chile "Chile ""Yes Legal since 1999 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil union agreement since 2015.[229] ""No (Pending).[230] ""No/""Yes (Pending) Same-sex couples may adopt, although only one is recognized as legal parent.

LGBT individuals may adopt (Joint and step-child adoption pending).[231]

""Yes Since 2012.[232] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2012.[233] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after "completion of medical intervention since 2007. Judicial permission required.[234] Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[235][236]
"Colombia "Colombia ""Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "De facto marital union since 2007.[237] ""Yes Legal since 2016.[238] ""Yes Step-child adoption since 2014.[239] Joint adoption since 2015.[240] ""Yes Since 1999. Since 2009 the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army.[5] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination including "hate speech since 2011.[241] ""Yes Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.[242]
"Ecuador "Ecuador ""Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "De facto union since 2009.[243][244] ""No Constitutional ban since 2009.[245] ""No LGBT individuals may adopt.[246] ""Emblem-question.svg[247] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[248] ""Yes Since 2016, transgender persons are allowed to change their birth name and gender identity (instead of the sex assigned at birth) on legal documents. No surgeries or judicial order required.[249][250][251]
"Falkland Islands "Falkland Islands
("Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Pending)[252] ""No (Pending)[252] ""No(Pending) ""Yes UK responsible for defence. ""Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[253] ""No
"French Guiana "French Guiana
(Overseas department of "France)
""Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes "Civil solidarity pact since 1999.[138] ""Yes Legal since 2013.[139] ""Yes Legal since 2013.[140] ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[56] ""Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[141]
"Guyana "Guyana ""No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (not enforced).[5]
""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg[254] ""Yes[255] ""No ""No
"Paraguay "Paraguay ""Yes Legal since 1880 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No Constitutional ban since 1992.[256] ""No Constitutional ban since 1992.[257] ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No (Proposed).[258] ""No
"Peru "Peru ""Yes Legal since 1836-1837
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Pending)[259] ""No ""No ""Yes Since 2009.[260] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2017.[261][262][263] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after "completion of medical intervention since 2016. Judicial permission required.[264][265]
"Suriname "Suriname ""Yes Legal since 1869 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl.
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination, including "hate speech since 2015.[266] ""No (Court decision pending).[267][268]
"Uruguay "Uruguay ""Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Concubinage union since 2008.[269] ""Yes "Legal since 2013[270] ""Yes Legal since 2009[271] ""Yes Since 2009.[272] ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2004.[273] ""Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[274]
"Venezuela "Venezuela ""Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed) ""No (Proposed).[275] ""No(Proposed) ""No ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[5] ""No

Asia[edit]

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Asia
This table:

Central Asia[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Kazakhstan "Kazakhstan ""Yes Legal since 1998[5] ""No ""No ""No ""No[276] ""No ""Yes[277]
"Kyrgyzstan "Kyrgyzstan ""Yes Legal since 1998[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes[277]
"Tajikistan "Tajikistan ""Yes Legal since 1998[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes[277]
"Turkmenistan "Turkmenistan ""No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2-year prison sentence
""Yes Female always legal[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Uzbekistan "Uzbekistan ""No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 3-year prison sentence
""Yes Female always legal[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No

Eurasia[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Abkhazia "Abkhazia ""Yes Legal after 1991 ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Akrotiri and Dhekelia "Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the "United Kingdom)
""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Since 2005 ""Yes Legal since 2014 ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes UK responsible for defence ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[278] ""Emblem-question.svg
"Armenia "Armenia ""Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No Constitutionally banned since 2015[279][280] ""No ""No/""Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[281] ""No ""No
"Azerbaijan "Azerbaijan ""Yes Legal since 2000[5] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[282]
"Cyprus "Cyprus ""Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Since 2015 ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[283] ""Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
"Georgia (country) "Georgia ""Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No (Constitutional ban proposed) ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[284] ""Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[282]
"Nagorno-Karabakh Republic "Nagorno-Karabakh ""Yes Legal since 2000 ""No ""No Constitutionally banned since 2006 [285] ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Northern Cyprus "Northern Cyprus ""Yes Legal since 2014[286][287][5] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[286][287] ""Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[286][287]

""Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

"Russia "Russia ""Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[288][5]
""No ""No (Constitutional ban proposed) ""No LGBT individuals may adopt. ""Yes Unofficial "Don't ask, don't tell policy ""No ""Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[282]
"South Ossetia "South Ossetia ""Yes Legal after 1991 ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Turkey "Turkey ""Yes Legal since 1858[5] ""No ""No ""No ""No (Proposed)[289] ""No (Proposed)[290] ""Yes (Requires sterilization for change)

Western Asia[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Bahrain "Bahrain ""Yes Legal since 1976 (Age of consent discrepancy)[5] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Iran "Iran ""No ""No Illegal
Penalty: For men 74 lashes for immature men and death penalty for mature men of sound mind and is consenting. For women 50 lashes for women of mature sound mind and is consenting. Death penalty offense after fourth conviction.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Legal gender recognition in Iran is legal if accompanied by a "medical intervention.[291]
"Iraq "Iraq ""Yes Legal since 2003[292] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Israel "Israel ""Yes Legal since 1963 (de facto), 1988 (de jure)[293]
+ UN decl. sign.[5][294]
""Yes "Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. ""No/""Yes There are no civil marriages available in Israel for Same-Sex or Opposite Sex Couples and any non-religious marriage is unrecognized if performed in country, but "foreign same-sex marriages are fully recognized by the government and recorded in the population registry of the Ministry of the Interior . ""Yes Step-child adoption since 2005.
Joint adoption since 2008.[295][296]
""Yes Since 1993 ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination;[297][298] "Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to homosexuals and bisexuals.[299] ""Yes Full recognition of gender's ID without a surgery or medical intervention;[300] equal employment opportunity law bars discrimination based on gender identity;[301][302] "Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to transgender individuals.[301][303]
"Jordan "Jordan ""Yes Legal since 1951[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes Legal since 2014[304]
"Kuwait "Kuwait ""No Male illegal
Penalty: Fines or up to 6-year prison sentence
""Yes Female always legal[5][305]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Lebanon "Lebanon ""Yes Legal since 2014[306] ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Legal gender change allowed
"Oman "Oman ""No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and prison sentence up to 3 years (Only enforced when dealing with "public scandal")[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"State of Palestine "Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip) West Bank:
""Yes Legal since 1951 (As part of "Jordan)[5]
Gaza:""No
""No Male illegal
Penalty: (de facto) Death/ Extra judicial Execution, (de jure) Up to 10 years imprisonment
""Yes Female always legal[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""No
"Qatar "Qatar ""No Illegal
Penalty: Fines, prison sentence up to 7 years.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Saudi Arabia "Saudi Arabia ""No ""No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentences of several months to life, fines and/or whipping/flogging, castration, torture or death can be sentenced on first conviction. A second conviction merits execution.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Syria "Syria ""No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 3 years (Law in "de-facto suspended)[307][5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
"United Arab Emirates "United Arab Emirates ""No Illegal under federal law
Penalty: deportation, fines or prison time
Illegal in the "emirate of Dubai
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
Illegal in the emirate of Abu Dhabi
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes "Sex reassignment surgery for people whose gender is unclear or whose physical features do not match their physiological, biological and genetic characteristics.[308][309][310]
"Yemen "Yemen ""No ""No Illegal
Penalty: Unmarried men punished

with 100 lashes of the whip or a maximum of one year of imprisonment, married men with death by stoning. Women punished up to three years of imprisonment; where the offense has been committed under duress, the punishment is up to seven years detention.[5]

""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No

Southern Asia[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Afghanistan "Afghanistan ""No Illegal
Penalty: Long imprisonment or death penalty (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity after the end of "Taliban rule)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Bangladesh "Bangladesh ""No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes A third option (hijra) beside male and female[311]
"Bhutan "Bhutan ""No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 1 year (Not enforced)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"India "India ""No Illegal nationwide since 1861, was legal from 2009 to 2013 only for National Capital Territory of Delhi[312]
Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment (sporadically enforced)[313][312][5]
""No No explicit recognition.[314] ""No No explicit recognition.[314] ""No Transgender individuals may adopt. ""No[315] ""No ""Yes "Third gender" recognised by Supreme Court[316]
"Maldives "Maldives ""No Illegal
Penalty: For men the punishment is banishment for nine months to one year or a whipping of 10 to 30 strokes. For women is house arrest for nine months to one year.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No["citation needed] ""No ""No
"Nepal "Nepal ""Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) ""No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) ""No Under consideration ""Yes ""Yes Constitution bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2015. ""Yes Gender change is legal since 2007.
Constitution bans all discrimination.[317]
"Pakistan "Pakistan ""No Illegal
Penalty: 2 years to life sentence[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Right to change gender; transgender and intersex citizens have protection form all discrimination and harassment.[318]
"Sri Lanka "Sri Lanka ""No Illegal
Penalty: Fine and up to 10 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No["citation needed] ""Yes All anti-gay discrimination banned since 2017. ""No

Eastern Asia[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"China "China
(People's Republic of)
""Yes Legal since 1997[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after "sex reassignment surgery.
"Hong Kong "Hong Kong
("Special administrative region of "China)
""Yes Legal since 1991[5] ""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong.["citation needed]
""No Government employment, goods and services only ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after "sex reassignment surgery.
"Japan "Japan ""Yes Legal since 1880
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No/""Yes Non-legally binding partnerships in 6 municipal jurisdictions (Shibuya, Setagaya, Iga, Takaraduka, Naha, Sapporo) ""No ""No ""Yes ""No/""Yes No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discriminations[5] (Nationalwide workplace protections pending) ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after "sex reassignment surgery and in case that the individual has no child under 20 years old
"Macau "Macau
("Special administrative region of "China)
""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the region)[319]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Macau's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Macau.
""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination ""Emblem-question.svg
"Mongolia "Mongolia ""Yes Legal since 1961
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Yes Due to conscription. ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender
"North Korea "North Korea ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See "Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
"South Korea "South Korea ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Life partnership proposed) ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender
"Taiwan "Taiwan
(Republic of China)
""Yes Legal since 1895[320] ""No/""Yes check.svg Registered partnership in Kaohsiung,[321] Taipei,[322] Taichung (2015),[323] Tainan,[324] New Taipei,[325] Taoyuan,[326] Chiayi City,[327] Changhua, [328] and Hsinchu (2016).
(Proposed nationwide)
""No (Pending. The President Tsai Ing-wen also expressed respect for the attitude) ""No (Pending. The President Tsai Ing-wen also expressed respect for the attitude) ""Yes Due to military draft ""Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) ""Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender. Surgery no longer a requirement beginning in 2015[329]

Southeast Asia[edit]

LGBT rights in Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Brunei "Brunei ""No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and imprisonment up to 10 years or death by stoning[5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Myanmar "Myanmar (Burma) ""No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life sentence (Not enforced) [5]
""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""No
"Cambodia "Cambodia ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[5]
""No ""No Constitutional ban since 1993, though there has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage. ""No["citation needed] ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"East Timor "East Timor ""Yes Legal since 1975
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""Yes Bans hate crimes based on sexual orientation ""Emblem-question.svg
"Indonesia "Indonesia ""Yes Legal nationwide, except;
""No Illegal in the "provinces of "Aceh and "South Sumatra and the city of "Palembang (Applies only to "Muslims)[330][331][5] (Age of consent discrepancy)
""No ""No ""No ""No[332] ""No ""Yes[333]
"Laos "Laos ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Emblem-question.svg
"Malaysia "Malaysia ""No Male illegal
Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings

""Yes Female always legal[5]

""No ""No ""No ""No ""No ""Yes[333]
"Philippines "Philippines ""Yes Legal nationwide since 1933
[334][5][335]
""No (Pending)[334] ""No (Pending)[336] ""No LGBT individuals may adopt.[337] ""Yes Since 2009 ""Yes[338] Cebu[339] Quezon City, Davao[340] and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[341] (National bill pending but still not made into law) ""No (Pending)[342]
"Singapore "Singapore ""No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence (Not enforced since 1999)
""Yes Female legal since 2007[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Yes Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units. ""No ""Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after "sex reassignment surgery.
"Thailand "Thailand ""Yes Legal since 1956
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No (Proposed)[343] ""No ""No ""Yes Since 2005 ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. ""Yes Transsexuals may change their legal name after having a sex change operation.[344]
"Vietnam "Vietnam ""Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[5]
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""No ""No ""No ""Emblem-question.svg ""No ""Yes Sex-change recognized for sex assignment for persons of congenital sex defects and unidentifiable sex. Gender reassignment surgery from 2017

Europe[edit]

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Europe


Tables:

European Union[edit]

Main article: "LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"European Union "European Union ""Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[345] ""Yes/""No Legal in 22/28 member states.
""Yes/""No Legal in 11/28 member states.
""Yes/""No Joint adoption legal in 14/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 18/28 member states.
""Yes/""No Legal in 27/28 member states.
""Yes/""No Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment only. ""Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[346]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
"Austria "Austria ""Yes Legal since 1971[5]
+ UN decl. sign.
""Yes Registered partnership since 2010[347] ""No [348] ""Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption since 2016.[349][350]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[351]
""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[51] ""Yes Gender change is legal.[282]
"Croatia "Croatia ""Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of "Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[5]
""Yes Life partnership since 2014[352] ""No Constitutionally banned since "the 2013 referendum.[353] ""Yes/""No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) ""Yes ""Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[51][354] ""