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Landscape planning is a branch of "landscape architecture. According to Erv Zube (1931–2002) landscape planning is defined as an activity concerned with developing landscaping amongst competing "land uses while protecting natural processes and significant cultural and "natural resources. "Park systems and "greenways of the type designed by "Frederick Law Olmsted are key examples of landscape planning. Landscape designers tend to work for clients who wish to commission construction work. Landscape planners analyze broad issues as well as project characteristics which constrain design projects.

Landscape planners may work on projects which are of broad geographical scope, concern many land uses or many clients or are implemented over a long period of time. As an example, the damage caused by unplanned "mineral extraction was one of the early reasons for a public demand for landscape planning.


In Asia[edit]

In India, the history of landscape planning can be traced to the "Vedas and to the "Vaastu Shastras. These ancient texts set forth principles for planning settlements, temples and other structures in relation to the "natural landscape. Relationships with mountains (the home of the gods) and with rivers (regarded as goddesses) were of particular importance. A square form represented the earth and a circular form represented heaven. A "mandala explained the relationship between heaven and earth. Square plans, for both secular and religious structures, were set out with their sides facing north, south, east and west. The earliest surviving stone temple set out in this way is "Sanchi.

In China, landscape planning originated with "Feng Shui, which is translated into English as 'wind and water' and is used to describe a set of general principles for the planning of development in relation to the "natural landscape. The aim was to find the most auspicious environment possible, one sited in harmony with natural phenomena and the physical and psychological needs of man.[1]

In Europe[edit]

In "Europe, the history of landscape planning can be traced to the work of "Vitruvius.[2] In discussing the planning of towns, he wrote about site planning with regard to microclimate, about the planning of streets and about the role of metaphor in design. Vitruvius' theories were revived during the renaissance and came to influence the planning of towns throughout Europe and the Americas. "Alberti wrote on the need for town squares for markets and specific implementations to make most use of the space.[3] In North Europe this developed into the idea that residential squares should planned around green spaces. The first space of this type was the "Place des Vosges. Residential squares were also made in Britain and their planning developed into the idea of incorporating public open space ("public parks within towns). "Frederick Law Olmsted gave momentum to this idea with his proposal for a "park systems in Boston - the famous "Emerald Necklace. "Patrick Abercrombie took up this idea and incorporated it in his great 1943-4 Open Space Plan for the County of London.

In the US[edit]

In the United States, landscape architects provide landscape planning services focused on the natural environment along with "urban planners. But, unlike Canada and Europe, the US does not have a national "land use planning system. "Frederick Law Olmsted and "Ian McHarg are two influential American landscape architects that also worked as planners. McHarg's work on overlay landscape planning contributed to the development of "GIS and to the foundation of "ESRI by "Jack Dangermond.


The principles of landscape planning are now incorporated in various types of legislation and policy documents. In America, the "National Environmental Policy Act was influenced by the work of "Ian McHarg on "Environmental impact assessment. In Germany, the Federal Nature Conservation Act requires the preparation of landscape plans. For the Europe Union as a whole, the "European Landscape Convention has wide-ranging implications for the design and planning of relationships between development and the landscape. In Asia, major development projects are taking place and illustrating the need for good landscape planning. The "Three Gorges Dam, for example, will have extensive impacts on the landscape. They have been planned to a degree but future monitoring of the project is likely to show that better landscape planning and design would have been possible.


Landscape planners are concerned with the 'health' of the landscape, just as doctors are concerned with bodily health. This analogy can be taken further. Medical doctors advise both on the health of individuals and on matters of public health. When individuals take actions injurious to their own health this is regarded as a private matter. But if they take actions injurious to public health, these actions are properly regulated by law. The "collective landscape is a "public good which should be protected and enhanced by legislation and public administration. If, for example, mineral extraction has a damaging impact on the landscape, this is a proper field for intervention. Negative impacts on the landscape could include visual impacts, ecological impacts, hydrological impacts and recreational impacts. As well as protecting existing public goods, societies are responsible for the creation of new public goods. This can be done by positive landscape planning. There are, for example, many former mineral workings (e.g. the "Norfolk Broads) which have become important public goods. Medical doctors are trained in "anatomy, "physiology, "biochemistry etc. before becoming practitioners. Landscape doctors are trained in "geomorphology, "hydrology, "ecology etc. before becoming practitioners in design and planning. When qualified, they can specialize in areas of landscape planning:

The western group of "Khajuraho temples (2005) set in an archaeologically inappropriate parkland landscape

In each case, the aim is to take a specialist land use and make recommendations for what can be done to enhance its implact on the stock of "environmental goods.


The conventional planning process is a linear progression of activities. The common steps are:

Landscape planning not always means an ecological planning method, for that it must be considered that "planning is a process that uses the scientific and technical information for considering and reaching consensus on a range of choices. Ecology is the study of the relationship of all living things, including people, to their biological and physical environments. Ecological planning then may be defined as the use of biophysical and sociocultural information to suggest opportunities and constraints for decision making about the use of landscape". (Steiner, 1991)

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman; Fu, Xinian (2002-01-01). Chinese Architecture. Yale University Press. "ISBN "0300095597. 
  2. ^ "Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture, with regard to landscape and garden design". www.gardenvisit.com. Retrieved 2015-12-28. 
  3. ^ Madanipour, Ali (2003-09-02). Public and Private Spaces of the City. Routledge. "ISBN "1134519850. 
  4. ^ Taghvaei, S-Hassan "Importance of Highway and Expressway Landscape Design." Journal of The Urban Development and Organization: Haft Shahr, 4, No. 55-56. Autumn, 2016. 10–30. [www.haftshahrjournal.ir/article_26567_aedaa43a6bea0c726a9f973112885ee1.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2018]

External links[edit]

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