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Language change is variation over time in a "language's "phonological, "morphological, "semantic, "syntactic, and other features. It is studied by "historical linguistics and "evolutionary linguistics. Some commentators use the label corruption to suggest that language change constitutes a degradation in the quality of a language, especially when the change originates from human error or "prescriptively discouraged usage.[1] "Descriptive linguistics typically does not support this concept, since from a scientific point of view such changes are neither good nor bad.

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Causes[edit]

According to "Guy Deutscher, the tricky question is "Why are changes not brought up short and stopped in their tracks? At first sight, there seem to be all the reasons in the world why society should never let the changes through." He sees the reason for tolerating change in the fact that we already are used to ""synchronic variation", to the extent that we are hardly aware of it. For example, when we hear the word "wicked", we automatically interpret it as either "evil" or "wonderful", depending on whether it is uttered by an elderly lady or a teenager. Deutscher speculates that "[i]n a hundred years' time, when the original meaning of 'wicked' has all but been forgotten, people may wonder how it was ever possible for a word meaning 'evil' to change its sense to 'wonderful' so quickly."[6]

Types[edit]

All languages change continually,[7] and do so in many and varied ways.

Marcel Cohen details various types of language change under the overall headings of the external evolution[8] and internal evolution of languages.[9]

Lexical changes[edit]

The study of lexical changes forms the "diachronic portion of the science of "onomasiology.

The ongoing influx of new words into the "English language (for example) helps make it a rich field for investigation into language change, despite the difficulty of defining precisely and accurately the vocabulary available to speakers of English. Throughout "its history English has not only "borrowed words from other languages but has re-combined and recycled them to create new meanings, whilst "losing some old words.

"Dictionary-writers try to keep track of the changes in languages by recording (and, ideally, dating) the appearance in a language of new words, or of new usages for existing words. By the same token, they may tag some words eventually as "archaic" or "obsolete".

Phonetic and phonological changes[edit]

The concept of "sound change covers both phonetic and "phonological developments.

The sociolinguist "William Labov recorded the change in "pronunciation in a relatively short period in the American resort of "Martha's Vineyard and showed how this resulted from social tensions and processes.[10] Even in the relatively short time that broadcast media have recorded their work, one can observe the difference between the "pronunciation of the newsreaders of the 1940s and the 1950s and the pronunciation of today. The greater acceptance and fashionability of "regional accents in media may["original research?] also reflect a more democratic, less formal society — compare the widespread adoption of "language policies.

The mapping and recording of small-scale phonological changes poses difficulties, especially as the practical technology of "sound recording dates only from the 19th century. Written texts provide the main (indirect) evidence of how language sounds have changed over the centuries. But note "Ferdinand de Saussure's work on postulating the existence and disappearance of "laryngeals in "Proto-Indo-European as an example of other methods of detecting/reconstructing sound-changes within historical linguistics. Poetic devices such as rhyme and rhythm may provide clues to previous phonological habits.

Spelling changes[edit]

Standardisation of "spelling originated relatively recently.["vague]["citation needed] Differences in spelling often catch the eye of a reader of a text from a previous century. The pre-print era had fewer "literate people: languages lacked fixed systems of orthography, and the handwritten manuscripts that survive often show words spelled according to regional pronunciation and to personal preference.

Semantic changes[edit]

Semantic changes are shifts in the meanings of existing words. Basic types of semantic change include:

After a word enters a language, its meaning can change as through a shift in the "valence of its connotations. As an example, when "villain" entered English it meant 'peasant' or 'farmhand', but acquired the connotation 'low-born' or 'scoundrel', and today only the negative use survives. Thus 'villain' has undergone "pejoration. Conversely, the word "wicked" is undergoing amelioration in colloquial contexts, shifting from its original sense of 'evil', to the much more positive one as of 2009 of 'brilliant'.

Words' meanings may also change in terms of the breadth of their semantic domain. Narrowing a word limits its alternative meanings, whereas broadening associates new meanings with it. For example, "hound" ("Old English hund) once referred to any dog, whereas in modern English it denotes only a particular type of "canid. On the other hand, the word "dog" has been broadened from its Old English root 'dogge', the name of a particular breed, to become the general term for all canines.[11]

Syntactic change[edit]

"Syntactic change is the evolution of the "syntactic structure of a "natural language.

Over time, syntactic change is the greatest modifier of a particular language.["citation needed] Massive changes – attributable either to "creolization or to "relexification – may occur both in syntax and in vocabulary. Syntactic change can also be purely language-internal, whether independent within the syntactic component or the eventual result of phonological or morphological change.["citation needed]

Sociolinguistics[edit]

The "sociolinguist Jennifer Coates, following William Labov, describes linguistic change as occurring in the context of linguistic "heterogeneity. She explains that "[l]inguistic change can be said to have taken place when a new linguistic form, used by some sub-group within a speech community, is adopted by other members of that community and accepted as the norm."[12]

Can and Patton (2010) provide a quantitative analysis of twentieth century Turkish literature using forty novels of forty authors. Using weighted least squares regression and a sliding window approach, they show that, as time passes, words, in terms of both tokens (in text) and types (in vocabulary), have become longer. They indicate that the increase in word lengths with time can be attributed to the government-initiated language "reform" of the 20th century. This reform aimed at replacing foreign words used in Turkish, especially Arabic- and Persian-based words (since they were in majority when the reform was initiated in early 1930s), with newly coined pure Turkish neologisms created by adding suffixes to Turkish word stems (Lewis, 1999).

Can and Patton (2010), based on their observations of the change of a specific word use (more specifically in newer works the preference of ama over fakat, both borrowed from Arabic and meaning 'but', and their inverse usage correlation is statistically significant), also speculate that the word length increase can influence the common word choice preferences of authors.

Quantification[edit]

Altintas, Can, and Patton (2007) introduce a systematic approach to language change quantification by studying unconsciously-used language features in time-separated parallel translations. For this purpose, they use objective style markers such as vocabulary richness and lengths of words, word stems and suffixes, and employ statistical methods to measure their changes over time.

Language shift and social status[edit]

Languages perceived to be "higher status" stabilise or spread at the expense of other languages perceived by their own speakers to be "lower-status".

Historical examples are the early Welsh and Lutheran bible translations, leading to the liturgical languages Welsh and High German thriving today, unlike other Celtic or German variants.[13]

For prehistory, Forster and Renfrew (2011)[14] argue that in some cases there is a correlation of language change with intrusive male Y chromosomes but not with female mtDNA. They then speculate that technological innovation (transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture, or from stone to metal tools) or military prowess (as in the abduction of British women by Vikings to Iceland) causes immigration of at least some males, and perceived status change. Then, in mixed-language marriages with these males, prehistoric women would often have chosen to transmit the "higher-status" spouse's language to their children, yielding the language/Y-chromosome correlation seen today.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lyons, John (1 June 1968). Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. "ISBN "978-0-521-09510-5. The traditional grammarian tended to assume [...] that it was his task, as a grammarian, to 'preserve' this form of language from 'corruption'. 
  2. ^ a b "The teaching of pidgin and Creole studies - LLAS Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies". Retrieved 25 September 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (1997, p. 335)
  4. ^ Ben (7 October 2012). "Was Received Pronunciation Ever Rhotic?". Retrieved 25 September 2016. 
  5. ^ "The fall of the r-less class - Macmillan". Retrieved 25 September 2016. 
  6. ^ The Unfolding of Language, 2005, chapter 2, esp. pp. 63, 69 and 71
  7. ^ "Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius (1651) [1510]. "23: Of the tongue of Angels, and of their speaking amongst themselves, and with us". De Occulta Philosophia [Occult Philosophy]. [...] all tongues have, and do undergo various mutations, and corruptions [...]. 
  8. ^ "Cohen, Marcel (1975) [1970]. Language: its structure and evolution. Translated by Leonard Muller. London: Souvenir Press (Educational & Academic). pp. 74–98. "ISBN "0-285-64779-2. [...] the shifting movements of languages in light of whatever knowledge is available of the history of humanity. 
  9. ^ "Cohen, Marcel (1975) [1970]. Language: its structure and evolution. Translated by Leonard Muller. London: Souvenir Press (Educational & Academic). pp. 98–141. "ISBN "0-285-64779-2. Internal evolution [...] is the passing from one system to another. [...] Internal evolution proceeds progressively, by modification and substitution of details. It is the sum of these details which, at the end of a certain period of time, constitutes a total change. 
  10. ^ Labov, William (1963). "The social motivation of a sound change". Word. 19: 273–309. 
  11. ^ Crowley, Terry; Bowern, Claire (2010). An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 200–201. "ISBN "0195365542. 
  12. ^ Coates, 1992: 169
  13. ^ Barker, Christopher (1588). The Bible in Welsh. London. 
  14. ^ Forster P, Renfrew C; Renfrew (2011). "Mother tongue and Y chromosomes". Science. 333 (6048): 1390–1391. "Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1390F. "doi:10.1126/science.1205331. "PMID 21903800. 

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