(Lansdowne portrait of George Washington)
The copy of the portrait as displayed in the "White House
|Medium||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||243.8 cm × 152.4 cm (8 ft × 5 ft)|
|Location||"National Portrait Gallery (United States)|
The Lansdowne portrait is an "iconic "oil-on-canvas "portrait of "George Washington, the first President of the United States. The portrait was painted by "Gilbert Stuart in April 12, 1796 and commissioned by "Senator "William Bingham of "Pennsylvania—one of the wealthiest men in the U.S. at the time—and his wife, Anne.
The portrait measures 8 by 5 feet (2.44 by 1.52 m) and was given as a gift of appreciation to "British Prime Minister, born "William Petty FitzMaurice; the second Earl of Shelburne and subsequently the first "Marquess of Lansdowne. Petty-FitzMaurice was an American sympathizer who supported "independence of the "colonies in "Parliament. He succeeded in securing peace with America during his term as Prime Minister of Great Britain. The Lansdowne portrait was completed in the fall of that year by "American artist "Gilbert Stuart (who made several other portraits of George Washington, and many others of prominent "American revolutionaries). The painting shows Washington at 64 years of age renouncing a third term as "U.S. President.
It is on permanent display at the "National Portrait Gallery of the "Smithsonian Institution. Replicas painted by Stuart are on display in the "East Room of the "White House, the "Old State House in "Hartford, Connecticut, and the "Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Museum. Additional copies painted by other artists are displayed in the "U.S. House Chamber, the Rayburn room of the "Capitol, and the "Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore.
In 2001, "The Donald W. Reynolds Foundation funded the purchase, for $20 million, of the Lansdowne portrait. The Foundation donated an additional $10 million to provide a dedicated space for it at the "National Portrait Gallery where it had been on loan.
The painting is full of symbolism, drawn from American and "ancient Roman symbols of the "Roman Republic. Stuart painted Washington from life, showing him standing up, dressed in a black "velvet suit with an outstretched hand held up in an "oratorical manner. Behind Washington is a row of two "Doric columns, with another row to the left. Wrapped around and between the columns are red tasseled drapes.
Washington's suit is plain and simple, and the "sword he holds on his left side is a dress sword and not a battle sword (symbolizing a "democratic "form of government, rather than a "monarchy or "military dictatorship). In the sky, storm clouds appear on the left while a "rainbow appears on the right, signifying the "American Revolutionary War giving way to the peace and prosperity of the new "United States after the 1783 "Treaty of Paris. The medallion at the top of the chair shows the red, white, and blue colors of the "American flag.
On and under the tablecloth-draped table to the left are two "books: Federalist—probably a reference to the "The Federalist Papers—and Journal of Congress—the "Congressional Record. Another five books are under the table: the three to the right are General Orders, American Revolution, and Constitutional Bylaws—symbolizing Washington's leadership as "commander-in-chief of the "Continental Army and "president of the "Constitutional Convention.
The "pen and "paper on the table signify the "rule of law. The table's leg is shaped like a "fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of "power and "authority ("imperium). On the far left of the table is a "silver "inkwell, emblazed with "George Washington's coat of arms (see "Syng inkstand). A white "quill rests upon silver "dogs, ancient symbols of "loyalty. Behind the table is a large black "hat.
Washington's unusually clenched "facial expression comes from his famous "false teeth. "Jean-Antoine Houdon's "marble "sculpture of Washington shows a more natural expression. Stuart wrote that:
The U.S. government bought a copy of this portrait from Stuart. That painting was rescued from the "White House during the "War of 1812 just before British soldiers captured the mansion, served themselves dinner, and burned it down. "First Lady "Dolley Madison wrote about saving Washington's portrait and is often credited with the rescue. The memoir of "Paul Jennings, who was James Madison's slave and manservant, identifies the doorman John Susé and the gardener Mr. Magraw as the people who removed the portrait for safe keeping.
After the incident, several other copies of the portrait were commissioned. The copy Dolly Madison rescued hangs in the East Room of the White House. The copies are easily identified by a misspelling purposely inserted into each, on the spine of one of the books resting on the floor. The book's title (spelled correctly on the original) reads "Constitution and Laws of the United Sates ["sic]."
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