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The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of "metropolitan areas in "Europe and "OECD countries.[1] It consists of a city and its commuting zone.[2]

The definition was introduced in 2004 by "Eurostat, the statistical agency of the "European Union (EU), in agreement with the national statistics offices in the member states.[3][4] Eurostat data is provided on cities in the EU, its "candidate countries and "EFTA countries. Several cities were excluded by definition from the 2004 list of LUZs on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.[5][6][7]

The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the "metropolitan area. Eurostat's objective was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region." To ensure a good data availability, Eurostat adjusts the LUZ boundaries to administrative boundaries that approximate the functional urban region.

In 2006 LUZ definitions were changed significantly, improving the comparability of LUZ definitions across different countries, and allowing for almost all cities to be included.

Contents

List of larger urban zones[edit]

This is a list of larger urban zones. The Urban Audit also includes cities from "EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries. The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses a similar definition of Functional Urban Area to represent population sizes of cities in OECD countries.[8] This data is also included.

The figures in the Eurostat database are an attempt at a compromise between harmonised data for all of the European Union, and with availability of statistical data, making comparisons more accurate.[9]

  Areas within the "European Union
Larger urban zone Country OECD Population (2014) [8] Eurostat Population (2006)[10] Eurostat Population (2014)[11]
"Adelaide  "Australia 1,304,631 No data No data
"Aguascalientes  "Mexico 1,055,539 No data No data
"Amsterdam metropolitan area  "Netherlands 2,452,659 2,497,000[a] 2,437,114
"Antwerp  "Belgium 1,081,904 1,406,000[b] 998,211
"Athens  "Greece 3,535,055 3,761,000 3,863,763
"Atlanta  "United States 4,762,159 No data No data
"Austin  "United States 1,958,079 No data No data
"Baltimore  "United States 1,996,200 No data No data
"Barcelona metropolitan area  "Spain 3,846,697 4,082,000[c] 5,445,616
"Berlin  "Germany 4,399,542 4,016,000 5,005,216
"Bilbao  "Spain 1,013,805 947,000 1,025,109
"Birmingham ("West Midlands)  "United Kingdom 1,957,078 3,701,107 2,332,629
"Bordeaux  "France 1,175,699 No data No data
"Boston  "United States 3,684,250 No data No data
"Bremen  "Germany 1,027,192 1,077,000 1,244,363
"Brisbane  "Australia 2,274,560 No data No data
"Greater Bristol  "United Kingdom 836,621 1,041,000 1,090,080
"Brussels-Capital Region  "Belgium 2,588,102 2,639,000[b] 2,967,513
"Bucharest metropolitan area  "Romania No data 2,158,558 2,403,107
"Budapest metropolitan area  "Hungary 2,879,601 2,523,000 2,971,246
"Buffalo  "United States 1,121,972 No data No data
"Busan  "South Korea 3,432,960 No data No data
"Calgary  "Canada 1,417,661 No data No data
"Cardiff  "United Kingdom 664,861 1,097,000 1,085,526
"Charlotte  "United States 1,474,164 No data No data
"Chicago  "United States 9,655,015 No data No data
"Cincinnati  "United States 2,165,678 No data No data
"Clearwater-"St. Petersburg  "United States 1,438,208 No data No data
"Cleveland  "United States 1,468,288 No data No data
"Columbus  "United States 1,970,809 No data No data
"Copenhagen  "Denmark 2,025,171 1,881,000[d] 1,893,010
"Daegu  "South Korea 2,731,064 No data No data
"Daejeon  "South Korea 1,676,167 No data No data
"Dallas  "United States 4,547,218 No data No data
"Denver  "United States 2,832,325 No data No data
"Detroit  "United States 3,801,161 No data No data
"Dublin Metropolitan Area  "Ireland 1,836,119 1,261,332 1,263,035
"Edmonton  "Canada 1,283,049 No data No data
"Fort Worth  "United States 2,107,791 No data No data
"Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Region  "Germany 2,533,311 2,764,000[e] 2,573,745
"Fresno  "United States 1,152,979 No data No data
"Fukuoka  "Japan 2,599,911 No data No data
"Gdansk  "Poland 1,105,467 No data No data
"Greater Glasgow  "United Kingdom 967,101 1,395,000 1,789,003
"Guadalajara  "Mexico 4,905,204 No data No data
"Gwangju  "South Korea 1,668,574 No data No data
"The Hague  "Netherlands 906,897 1,404,000[a] No data
"Hamburg Metropolitan Region  "Germany 3,008,841 2,983,000 3,173,871
"Hanover  "Germany 1,217,511 No data No data
"Helsinki Metropolitan Area  "Finland 1,498,050 1,285,000 1,532,309
"Hiroshima  "Japan 1,419,358 No data No data
"Houston  "United States 6,519,358 No data No data
"Indianapolis  "United States 1,769,561 No data No data
"Jacksonville  "United States 1,452,647 No data No data
"Juarez  "Mexico 1,417,787 No data No data
"Kansas City  "United States 2,098,357 No data No data
"Katowice metropolitan area  "Poland 2,589,349 3,029,000[f] 2,743,929
"Kitakyushu  "Japan 1,155,450 No data No data
"Kraków metropolitan area  "Poland 1,362,740 1,236,000 1,276,438
"Las Vegas  "United States 2,293,610 No data No data
"West Yorkshire ("Bradford - "Leeds)  "United Kingdom 1,774,552[g] 2,302,000 2,238,127
"Leon  "Mexico 1,775,758 No data No data
"Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai  "France/
 "Belgium
1,363,465[h] 1,379,000[i] 2,572,374
"Lisbon Metropolitan Area  "Portugal 2,886,662 2,591,000 2,839,908
"Liverpool/"Birkenhead  "United Kingdom 954,181 2,241,000 1,352,000
"Łódź  "Poland 939,568 1,165,000 1,116,660
"London metropolitan area  "United Kingdom 12,401,188 13,709,000 14,031,830
"Los Angeles  "United States 17,718,858 No data No data
"Louisville  "United States 1,286,409 No data No data
"Lyon  "France 1,960,847 1,669,000 2,188,759
"Madrid metropolitan area  "Spain 7,079,173 5,263,000 6,378,297
"Greater Manchester  "United Kingdom 1,957,078 2,556,000 2,615,144
"Mannheim  "Germany 1,230,276 No data No data
"Marseille  "France 1,773,503 1,530,000 No data
"Melbourne  "Australia 4,440,328 No data No data
"Memphis  "United States 1,378,346 No data No data
"Mérida  "Mexico 1,422,422 No data No data
"Mexicali  "Mexico 1,041,837 No data No data
"Mexico City  "Mexico 20,404,259 No data No data
"Miami  "United States 5,805,883 No data No data
"Milan metropolitan area  "Italy 4,159,854 4,136,000[j] 4,267,946
"Milwaukee  "United States 1,579,180 No data No data
"Minneapolis  "United States 3,496,061 No data No data
"Monterrey  "Mexico 4,823,452 No data No data
"Montreal  "Canada 4,394,467 No data No data
"Munich  "Germany 2,965,871 2,665,000[k] 2,808,581
"Nagoya  "Japan 6,500,074 No data No data
"Naha  "Japan 1,175,512 No data No data
"Naples metropolitan area  "Italy 3,572,928 2,905,000[l] 3,127,390
"Nashville  "United States 1,328,572 No data No data
"New Orleans  "United States 1,150,702 No data No data
"New York City  "United States 16,713,922 No data No data
"Nice  "France 865,195 1,082,000 1,082,847
"Niigata  "Japan 1,036,187 No data No data
"Norfolk-"Portsmouth-"Chesapeake-"Virginia Beach  "United States 1,109,942 No data No data
"Nottingham-"Derby  "United Kingdom 863,918 1,614,000 1,927,550
"Nuremberg Metropolitan Region  "Germany 1,169,367 1,443,000 1,301,504
"Oklahoma City  "United States 1,323,960 No data No data
"Orlando  "United States 2,374,184 No data No data
"Osaka  "Japan 17,343,816 No data No data
"Greater Oslo  "Norway 1,299,955 1,037,000 1,144,883
"Ottawa-Gatineau  "Canada 1,477,881 No data No data
"Paris metropolitan area  "France 12,037,889 11,175,000 12,005,077
"Perth  "Australia 2,021,203 No data No data
"Phoenix  "United States 4,163,445 No data No data
"Philadelphia  "United States 4,066,064 No data No data
"Pittsburgh  "United States 1,200,874 No data No data
"Portland  "United States 2,358,928 No data No data
"Porto Metropolitan Area  "Portugal 1,313,829 1,245,000[m] 1,286,111
"Portsmouth-"Southampton  "United Kingdom 594,455 1,547,000 1,498,402[n]
"Prague  "Czech Republic 1,910,396 1,669,000 2,522,136
"Puebla  "Mexico 2,342,519 No data No data
"Queretaro  "Mexico 1,273,803 No data No data
"Raleigh  "United States 1,300,612 No data No data
Rhein-Nord[o] ("Düsseldorf - "Neuss)  "Germany 1,427,823[p] 3,073,000[q] No Data
Rhein-Süd[o] ("Cologne - Bonn)  "Germany 1,926,073[r] 3,070,000[q] 3,023,545[s]
"Riga  "Latvia No data 1,195,000 1,089,767
"Rome metropolitan area  "Italy 4,149,364 3,190,000 3,700,000
"Rotterdam  "Netherlands 1,509,373 1,904,000[a] 2,808,550
"Ruhr area  "Germany No data[t] 5,376,000[q] 5,045,784
"Saarbrücken - "Forbach  "Germany/
 "France
570,479[u] 1,102,000 822,128
"Sacramento-"Roseville  "United States 2,311,721 No data No data
"Salt Lake City  "United States 1,195,080 No data No data
"San Antonio  "United States 2,345,730 No data No data
"San Diego  "United States 3,215,637 No data No data
"San Francisco  "United States 6,989,419 No data No data
"San Luis Potosi  "Mexico 1,288,885 No data No data
"Santiago  "Chile 6,679,313 No data No data
"Greater St. Louis  "United States 2,610,223 No data No data
"Sapporo  "Japan 2,224,201 No data No data
"Seattle  "United States 2,776,119 No data No data
"Sendai  "Japan 1,599,433 No data No data
"Seoul  "South Korea 24,948,523 No data No data
"Seville  "Spain 1,500,644 1,180,000[v] 1,877,060
"Sofia  "Bulgaria No data 1,260,120 1,543,377
"Metropolitan Stockholm  "Sweden 2,018,208 2,171,000 2,034,354["citation needed]
"South Yorkshire ("Sheffield)  "United Kingdom 920,128 1,569,000 1,596,298
"Stuttgart Metropolitan Region  "Germany 1,965,942 2,289,000 2,678,795
"Sydney  "Australia 4,840,628 No data No data
"Tampa  "United States 1,335,571 No data No data
"Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area  "Greece 975,439 1,052,000 1,166,914
"Tijuana  "Mexico 1,793,265 No data No data
"Tokyo  "Japan 35,925,101 No data No data
"Toluca  "Mexico 2,167,067 No data No data
"Toronto  "Canada 6,947,229 No data No data
"Torreon  "Mexico 1,348,608 No data No data
"Toulouse  "France 1,309,149 No data No data
"Turin metropolitan area  "Italy 1,774,507 1,601,000[w] 2,302,353
"Tucson  "United States 1,040,867 No data No data
"Newcastle-"Sunderland  "United Kingdom 1,082,729[x] 1,599,000 1,141,879
"Ulsan  "South Korea 1,082,994 No data No data
"Valencia  "Spain 1,668,153 1,398,000[y] 2,516,818
"Valparaiso  "Chile 1,006,737 No data No data
"Vancouver  "Canada 2,479,623 No data No data
"Vienna  "Austria 2,793,631 2,584,000 2,339,807
"Warsaw metropolitan area  "Poland 3,037,890 2,785,000 3,304,641
"Washington  "United States 6,022,391 No data No data
"Zagreb  "Croatia No data 1,107,115 1,123,374
"Zürich metropolitan area   "Switzerland 1,246,968 1,615,000 1,984,534

List of larger urban zones by population as of 2004[edit]

This is a list of larger urban zones by population as of 2004. The 2004 Urban Audit also includes cities from "EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries, although the only candidate country for which there is available data is Turkey. Some cities, including Marseille, Lille, Nice, Cordoba, Badajoz, Toulon and Montpellier were excluded from the 2004 list on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.

Rank Larger urban zone Country Population Area (km²)
1 "London  "United Kingdom 11,917,000 8,920[12]
2 "Istanbul  "Turkey (non EU state) 11,154,928
3 "Paris  "France 11,089,124 12,079.87[12]
4 "Madrid  "Spain 5,804,829 8,022
5 "Ruhr Area  "Germany 5,302,179 4,435
6 "Berlin  "Germany 4,971,331 17,385
7 "Barcelona  "Spain 4,233,638 1,796.64
8 "Athens  "Greece 4,013,368 3,806.92
9 "Ankara  "Turkey (non EU state) 3,736,359
10 "Rome  "Italy 3,457,690 3,666.66
11 "Hamburg  "Germany 3,134,620 7,304
12 "Milan  "Italy 3,076,643 1,348.32
13 "Upper Silesian Industrial Region  "Poland 2,710,397 2,650.65
14 "Stuttgart  "Germany 2,663,660 3,654
15 "Warsaw  "Poland 2,660,406 5,198.52
16 "Manchester  "United Kingdom 2,539,100 1,280
17 "Munich  "Germany 2,531,706 5,504
18 "Frankfurt  "Germany 2,517,561 4,305
19 "Izmir  "Turkey (non EU state) 2,459,474
20 "Lisbon  "Portugal 2,435,837 1,432.49
21 "Budapest  "Hungary 2,393,846 2,538[12]
22 "Leeds  "United Kingdom 2,393,300 5,114[12]
23 "Birmingham  "United Kingdom 2,357,100 1,598
24 "Naples  "Italy 2,253,964 564.95
25 "Vienna  "Austria 2,179,769 4,610.93[12]
26 "Bucharest  "Romania 2,140,194 662
27 "Prague  "Czech Republic 1,964,750 6,977[12]
28 "Cologne  "Germany 1,873,580 1,626
29 "Stockholm  "Sweden 1,860,872 6,519
30 "Copenhagen  "Denmark 1,806,667[12] 2,759[12]
31 "Brussels  "Belgium 1,800,663 1,613.91
32 "Glasgow  "United Kingdom 1,747,100 3,346
33 "Turin  "Italy 1,745,221 1,878.97
34 "Lyon  "France 1,717,300 5,997.68[12]
35 "Valencia  "Spain 1,564,145 1,440.58
36 "Dublin  "Republic of Ireland 1,535,446[12]
37 "Düsseldorf  "Germany 1,525,029 1,201
38 "Bursa  "Turkey (non EU state) 1,474,482
39 "Amsterdam  "Netherlands 1,443,258 859.28
40 "Adana  "Turkey 1,394,130
41 "Liverpool  "United Kingdom 1,365,900 821
42 "Bielefeld  "Germany 1,297,876 2,921
43 "Hanover  "Germany 1,294,447 2,966
44 "Nuremberg  "Germany 1,288,797 2,934
45 "Sheffield  "United Kingdom 1,277,100 1,846
46 "Kraków  "Poland 1,264,322 2,988.65
47 "Sofia  "Bulgaria 1,263,807[12] 3,424.2[12]
48 "Seville  "Spain 1,249,346 3,081.9
49 "Bremen  "Germany 1,249,291 5,885
50 "Helsinki  "Finland 1,224,107 2,969.94
51 "Rotterdam  "Netherlands 1,186,818 611.75
52 "Łódź  "Poland 1,163,516 2,857.51
53 "Ostrava  "Czech Republic 1,153,876 3,889.6[12]
54 "Zurich   "Switzerland (non EU state) 1,110,478 1,086.14
55 "Tricity  "Poland 1,105,203 3,457.32
56 "Porto  "Portugal 1,099,040 562.32
57 "Oslo  "Norway (non EU state) 1,090,513 6,920
58 "Newcastle upon Tyne  "United Kingdom 1,055,600 3,385
59 "Gaziantep  "Turkey 1,052,795
60 "Toulouse  "France 1,052,497 4,706.93[12]
61 "Wrocław  "Poland 1,031,439 4,582.2
62 "Poznań  "Poland 1,018,511 3,719.2
63 "Bristol  "United Kingdom 1,006,600 1,635
64 "Riga  "Latvia 1,003,949 5,382.5

Urban Audit[edit]

Eurostat's Urban Audit is about much more than demographics. In order for it to be useful as a policy tool to the European Commission and other authorities it contains data for over 250 indicators across the following domains:[13][14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Part of the "Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and "Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 7,100,000.
  2. ^ a b The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
  3. ^ Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of "Mataro (169,000) is included.
  4. ^ Part of the wider "Öresund region, which includes the Swedish metropolitan area of Malmö (961,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
  5. ^ Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of "Darmstadt (501,000), "Wiesbaden (453,000), and "Mainz (431,000).
  6. ^ Part of the polycentric Upper Silesian urban region with a total population of 5,294,000. The region additionally includes the metropolitan areas of "Ostrava (1,046,000), "Bielsko-Biala (584,000) and Rybnik (526,000).
  7. ^ Leeds and Bradford counted separately.
  8. ^ Kortrijk not included.
  9. ^ Part of the wider Lille-Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
  10. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 6,011,000.
  11. ^ When combined with the "Augsburg metropolitan area (606,000), the region has a total population of 3,271,000.
  12. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 3,714,000.
  13. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
  14. ^ Excludes Southampton
  15. ^ a b Polycentric metropolitan area
  16. ^ Excludes Neuss.
  17. ^ a b c Part of the polycentric urban region of "Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
  18. ^ Excludes Bonn which has a population of 750,370
  19. ^ Excludes Bonn
  20. ^ Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund counted separately.
  21. ^ Saarbrücken only
  22. ^ Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of "Utrera (82,000) is included.
  23. ^ Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan of "Pinerolo is included.
  24. ^ Excludes Sunderland
  25. ^ Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of "Sagunto is included.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Position Statement on Cohesion Policy 2014–2020, EuroMETREX. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  2. ^ "European cities – the EU-OECD functional urban area definition". "Eurostat. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "City statistics - Urban audit". Eurostat. 2006. 
  4. ^ "The shift of Eurostat to Urban Statistics". Dr. Berthold Feldmann, Eurostat. March 2006. 
  5. ^ http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999003.pdf Archived 27 July 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094843/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999004.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  7. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094905/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999006.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  8. ^ a b "OEDC Populations in cities". OEDC. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Urban Audit Database". Urbanaudit.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  10. ^ "European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  11. ^ Eurostat Archived 6 October 2014 at the "Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Data for 2001 (2004 data not yet available)
  13. ^ "Urban Audit". European Commission. 2006. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "State of European Cities Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-29. 

External links[edit]

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