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The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of "metropolitan areas in "Europe.[1] It consists of a city and its commuting zone.[2]

The definition was introduced in 2004 by "Eurostat, the statistical agency of the "European Union (EU), in agreement with the national statistics offices in the member states.[3][4] Data is provided on cities in the EU, its "candidate countries and "EFTA countries. Several cities were excluded by definition from the 2004 list of LUZs on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.[5][6][7]

The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the "metropolitan area. Eurostat's objective was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region." To ensure a good data availability, Eurostat adjusts the LUZ boundaries to administrative boundaries that approximate the functional urban region.

In 2006 LUZ definitions were changed significantly, improving the comparability of LUZ definitions across different countries, and allowing for almost all cities to be included.

Contents

List of larger urban zones[edit]

This is a list of larger urban zones. The Urban Audit also includes cities from "EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries.

The figures in the Eurostat database are an attempt at a compromise between harmonised data for all of the European Union, and with availability of statistical data, making comparisons more accurate.[8]

  Areas within the "European Union
Larger urban zone Country Population (2006)[9] Population (2014)[10]
"Amsterdam metropolitan area  "Netherlands 2,497,000[a] 2,437,114
"Antwerp  "Belgium 1,406,000[b] 998,211
"Athens  "Greece 3,761,000 3,863,763
"Barcelona metropolitan area  "Spain 4,082,000[c] 5,445,616
"Berlin  "Germany 4,016,000 5,005,216
"Bilbao  "Spain 947,000 1,025,109
"Birmingham ("West Midlands)  "United Kingdom 3,701,107 2,332,629
"Bremen  "Germany 1,077,000 1,244,363
"Greater Bristol  "United Kingdom 1,041,000 1,090,080
"Brussels-Capital Region  "Belgium 2,639,000[b] 2,967,513
"Bucharest metropolitan area  "Romania 2,158,558 2,403,107
"Budapest metropolitan area  "Hungary 2,523,000 2,971,246
"Cardiff  "United Kingdom 1,097,000 1,085,526
"Copenhagen  "Denmark 1,881,000[d] 1,893,010
"Dublin Metropolitan Area  "Ireland 1,261,332 1,263,035
"Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Region  "Germany 2,764,000[e] 2,573,745
"Greater Glasgow  "United Kingdom 1,395,000 1,789,003
"The Hague  "Netherlands 1,404,000[a] No data
"Hamburg Metropolitan Region  "Germany 2,983,000 3,173,871
"Helsinki Metropolitan Area  "Finland 1,285,000 1,532,309
"Katowice metropolitan area  "Poland 3,029,000[f] 2,743,929
"Kraków metropolitan area  "Poland 1,236,000 1,276,438
"West Yorkshire ("Bradford - "Leeds)  "United Kingdom 2,302,000 2,238,127
"Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai  "France/
 "Belgium
1,379,000[g] 2,572,374
"Lisbon Metropolitan Area  "Portugal 2,591,000 2,839,908
"Liverpool/"Birkenhead  "United Kingdom 2,241,000 1,352,000
"Łódź  "Poland 1,165,000 1,116,660
"London metropolitan area  "United Kingdom 13,709,000 14,031,830
"Lyon  "France 1,669,000 2,188,759
"Madrid metropolitan area  "Spain 5,263,000 6,378,297
"Greater Manchester  "United Kingdom 2,556,000 2,615,144
"Marseille  "France 1,530,000 No data
"Milan metropolitan area  "Italy 4,136,000[h] 4,267,946
"Munich  "Germany 2,665,000[i] 2,808,581
"Naples metropolitan area  "Italy 2,905,000[j] 3,127,390
"Nice  "France 1,082,000 1,082,847
"Nottingham-"Derby  "United Kingdom 1,534,000 1,129,096
"Nuremberg Metropolitan Region  "Germany 1,443,000 1,301,504
"Greater Oslo  "Norway 1,037,000 1,144,883
"Paris metropolitan area  "France 11,175,000 12,005,077
"Porto Metropolitan Area  "Portugal 1,245,000[k] 1,286,111
"Portsmouth-"Southampton  "United Kingdom 1,547,000 1,498,402[l]
"Prague  "Czech Republic 1,669,000 2,522,136
Rhein-Nord[m] ("Düsseldorf - "Neuss)  "Germany 3,073,000[n] No Data
Rhein-Süd[m] ("Cologne - Bonn)  "Germany 3,070,000[n] 3,023,545[o]
"Riga  "Latvia 1,195,000 1,089,767
"Rome metropolitan area  "Italy 3,190,000 3,700,000
"Rotterdam  "Netherlands 1,904,000[a] 2,808,550
"Ruhr area  "Germany 5,376,000[n] 5,045,784
"Saarbrücken - "Forbach  "Germany/
 "France
1,102,000 822,128
"Seville  "Spain 1,180,000[p] 1,877,060
"Sofia  "Bulgaria 1,260,120 1,543,377
"Metropolitan Stockholm  "Sweden 2,171,000 2,034,354["citation needed]
"South Yorkshire ("Sheffield)  "United Kingdom 1,569,000 1,596,298
"Stuttgart Metropolitan Region  "Germany 2,289,000 2,678,795
"Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area  "Greece 1,052,000 1,166,914
"Turin metropolitan area  "Italy 1,601,000[q] 2,302,353
"Newcastle-"Sunderland  "United Kingdom 1,599,000 1,141,879
"Valencia  "Spain 1,398,000[r] 2,516,818
"Vienna  "Austria 2,584,000 2,339,807
"Warsaw metropolitan area  "Poland 2,785,000 3,304,641
"Zagreb  "Croatia 1,107,115 1,123,374
"Zürich metropolitan area   "Switzerland 1,615,000 1,984,534

List of larger urban zones by population as of 2004[edit]

This is a list of larger urban zones by population as of 2004. The 2004 Urban Audit also includes cities from "EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries, although the only candidate country for which there is available data is Turkey. Some cities, including Marseille, Lille, Nice, Cordoba, Badajoz, Toulon and Montpellier were excluded from the 2004 list on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.

Rank Larger urban zone Country Population Area (km²)
1 "London  "United Kingdom 11,917,000 8,920[11]
2 "Istanbul  "Turkey (non EU state) 11,154,928
3 "Paris  "France 11,089,124 12,079.87[11]
4 "Madrid  "Spain 5,804,829 8,022
5 "Ruhr Area  "Germany 5,302,179 4,435
6 "Berlin  "Germany 4,971,331 17,385
7 "Barcelona  "Spain 4,233,638 1,796.64
8 "Athens  "Greece 4,013,368 3,806.92
9 "Ankara  "Turkey (non EU state) 3,736,359
10 "Rome  "Italy 3,457,690 3,666.66
11 "Hamburg  "Germany 3,134,620 7,304
12 "Milan  "Italy 3,076,643 1,348.32
13 "Upper Silesian Industrial Region  "Poland 2,710,397 2,650.65
14 "Stuttgart  "Germany 2,663,660 3,654
15 "Warsaw  "Poland 2,660,406 5,198.52
16 "Manchester  "United Kingdom 2,539,100 1,280
17 "Munich  "Germany 2,531,706 5,504
18 "Frankfurt  "Germany 2,517,561 4,305
19 "Izmir  "Turkey (non EU state) 2,459,474
20 "Lisbon  "Portugal 2,435,837 1,432.49
21 "Budapest  "Hungary 2,393,846 2,538[11]
22 "Leeds  "United Kingdom 2,393,300 5,114[11]
23 "Birmingham  "United Kingdom 2,357,100 1,598
24 "Naples  "Italy 2,253,964 564.95
25 "Vienna  "Austria 2,179,769 4,610.93[11]
26 "Bucharest  "Romania 2,140,194 662
27 "Prague  "Czech Republic 1,964,750 6,977[11]
28 "Cologne  "Germany 1,873,580 1,626
29 "Stockholm  "Sweden 1,860,872 6,519
30 "Copenhagen  "Denmark 1,806,667[11] 2,759[11]
31 "Brussels  "Belgium 1,800,663 1,613.91
32 "Glasgow  "United Kingdom 1,747,100 3,346
33 "Turin  "Italy 1,745,221 1,878.97
34 "Lyon  "France 1,717,300 5,997.68[11]
35 "Valencia  "Spain 1,564,145 1,440.58
36 "Dublin  "Republic of Ireland 1,535,446[11]
37 "Düsseldorf  "Germany 1,525,029 1,201
38 "Bursa  "Turkey (non EU state) 1,474,482
39 "Amsterdam  "Netherlands 1,443,258 859.28
40 "Adana  "Turkey 1,394,130
41 "Liverpool  "United Kingdom 1,365,900 821
42 "Bielefeld  "Germany 1,297,876 2,921
43 "Hanover  "Germany 1,294,447 2,966
44 "Nuremberg  "Germany 1,288,797 2,934
45 "Sheffield  "United Kingdom 1,277,100 1,846
46 "Kraków  "Poland 1,264,322 2,988.65
47 "Sofia  "Bulgaria 1,263,807[11] 3,424.2[11]
48 "Seville  "Spain 1,249,346 3,081.9
49 "Bremen  "Germany 1,249,291 5,885
50 "Helsinki  "Finland 1,224,107 2,969.94
51 "Rotterdam  "Netherlands 1,186,818 611.75
52 "Łódź  "Poland 1,163,516 2,857.51
53 "Ostrava  "Czech Republic 1,153,876 3,889.6[11]
54 "Zurich   "Switzerland (non EU state) 1,110,478 1,086.14
55 "Tricity  "Poland 1,105,203 3,457.32
56 "Porto  "Portugal 1,099,040 562.32
57 "Oslo  "Norway (non EU state) 1,090,513 6,920
58 "Newcastle upon Tyne  "United Kingdom 1,055,600 3,385
59 "Gaziantep  "Turkey 1,052,795
60 "Toulouse  "France 1,052,497 4,706.93[11]
61 "Wrocław  "Poland 1,031,439 4,582.2
62 "Poznań  "Poland 1,018,511 3,719.2
63 "Bristol  "United Kingdom 1,006,600 1,635
64 "Riga  "Latvia 1,003,949 5,382.5

Urban Audit[edit]

Eurostat's Urban Audit is about much more than demographics. In order for it to be useful as a policy tool to the European Commission and other authorities it contains data for over 250 indicators across the following domains:[12][13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Part of the "Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and "Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 7,100,000.
  2. ^ a b The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
  3. ^ Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of "Mataro (169,000) is included.
  4. ^ Part of the wider "Öresund region, which includes the Swedish metropolitan area of Malmö (961,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
  5. ^ Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of "Darmstadt (501,000), "Wiesbaden (453,000), and "Mainz (431,000).
  6. ^ Part of the polycentric Upper Silesian urban region with a total population of 5,294,000. The region additionally includes the metropolitan areas of "Ostrava (1,046,000), "Bielsko-Biala (584,000) and Rybnik (526,000).
  7. ^ Part of the wider Lille-Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
  8. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 6,011,000.
  9. ^ When combined with the "Augsburg metropolitan area (606,000), the region has a total population of 3,271,000.
  10. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 3,714,000.
  11. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
  12. ^ Excludes Southampton
  13. ^ a b Polycentric metropolitan area
  14. ^ a b c Part of the polycentric urban region of "Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
  15. ^ Excludes Bonn
  16. ^ Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of "Utrera (82,000) is included.
  17. ^ Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan of "Pinerolo is included.
  18. ^ Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of "Sagunto is included.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Position Statement on Cohesion Policy 2014-2020, EuroMETREX. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  2. ^ "European cities – the EU-OECD functional urban area definition". "Eurostat. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "City statistics - Urban audit". Eurostat. 2006. 
  4. ^ "The shift of Eurostat to Urban Statistics". Dr. Berthold Feldmann, Eurostat. March 2006. 
  5. ^ http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999003.pdf Archived 27 July 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094843/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999004.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  7. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094905/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999006.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= ("help)
  8. ^ "Urban Audit Database". Urbanaudit.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  9. ^ "European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  10. ^ Eurostat
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Data for 2001 (2004 data not yet available)
  12. ^ "Urban Audit". European Commission. 2006. 
  13. ^ "State of European Cities Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-29. 

External links[edit]

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