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The "United Kingdom has three "legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area.[1] "English law applies in "England and Wales, "Northern Ireland law applies in "Northern Ireland, and "Scots law applies in "Scotland. While these three systems diverge in the more detailed rules, there are also substantive fields of law which apply across the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system because it was created by the political union of previously independent countries. Article 19 of the "Treaty of Union, put into effect by the "Acts of Union in 1707, created the "Kingdom of Great Britain, but guaranteed the continued existence of Scotland's separate legal system.[2] The "Acts of Union of 1800, which combined Great Britain and "Ireland into the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, contained no equivalent provisions but preserved the principle of separate courts to be held in Ireland, of which the part called Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom.

The "Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court in the land for all criminal and civil cases in "England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and for all civil cases in Scots law.[3] The Supreme Court came into being in October 2009, replacing the "Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.[4][5] In "England and Wales, the "court system is headed by the "Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the "High Court of Justice (for civil cases) and the "Crown Court (for criminal cases). The "Courts of Northern Ireland follow the same pattern. In Scotland the chief "courts are the "Court of Session, for civil cases, and the "High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases. "Sheriff courts have no equivalent outside Scotland, as they deal with both criminal and civil caseloads.

The "Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the highest court of appeal for several independent "Commonwealth countries, the "British overseas territories, and the British "Crown dependencies. There are also immigration courts with UK-wide jurisdiction — the "Asylum and Immigration Tribunal and "Special Immigration Appeals Commission. The "Employment tribunals and the "Employment Appeal Tribunal have jurisdiction throughout "Great Britain, but not Northern Ireland.


Three legal systems[edit]

There are three distinct legal jurisdictions in the United Kingdom: "England and Wales, "Northern Ireland and "Scotland.[6] Each has its own "legal system, distinct history and origins.

English law[edit]

"English law" is a term of art. It refers to the "legal system administered by the courts in England and Wales, which rule on both civil and criminal matters. English law is renowned as being the mother of the "common law and is based on those principles. English law can be described as having its own legal doctrine, distinct from "civil law legal systems since 1189.

There has been no major "codification of the law, rather the law is developed by "judges in "court, applying "statute, "precedent and case-by-case reasoning to give explanatory judgments of the relevant legal principles. These judgments are binding in future similar cases ("stare decisis), and for this reason are often reported.

In the early centuries, the justices and judges were responsible for adapting the "Writ system to meet everyday needs, applying a mixture of precedent and common sense to build up a body of internally consistent law, e.g., the "Law Merchant began in the Pie-Powder Courts, see "Court of Piepowder (a corruption of the "Law French "pieds-poudrés" or "dusty feet", meaning ad hoc marketplace courts). As "Parliament developed in strength, subject to the doctrine of "separation of powers, legislation gradually overtook judicial law-making, so that today judges are only able to innovate in certain very narrowly defined areas. The year 1189 was defined in 1276 as being the boundary of "time immemorial.

The "courts of England and Wales are headed by the "Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the "Court of Appeal, the "High Court of Justice (for civil cases) and the "Crown Court (for criminal cases). The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in "England, "Wales, and "Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, and often has persuasive effect in its other jurisdictions. On appeal, a court may overrule the decisions of its inferior courts, such as county courts (civil) and magistrates' courts (criminal). The High Court may also quash on "judicial review both administrative decisions of the Government and delegated legislation. The ultimate body of appeal for all criminal and civil cases in "England and Wales (and Northern Ireland, and for all civil cases in Scots law) is the "Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which took over this function from the "Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (usually just referred to as "The "House of Lords") in October 2009.[3]

After the "Acts of Union, in 1707 English law became one of two legal systems in different parts of the same, united, kingdom and has been influenced by Scots law, most notably in the development and integration of the law merchant by "Lord Mansfield and in time the development of the law of "negligence. Scottish influence may have influenced the abolition of the "forms of action in the nineteenth century and extensive procedural reforms in the twentieth.

Northern Ireland law[edit]

The law of Northern Ireland is a "common law system. It is administered by the courts of Northern Ireland, with ultimate appeal to the "Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in both civil and criminal matters. The law of Northern Ireland is closely similar to English law, the rules of common law having been imported into the "Kingdom of Ireland under English rule. However, there are still important differences.

The sources of the law of Northern Ireland are Irish common law, and statute law. Of the latter, statutes of the Parliaments of "Ireland, of the "United Kingdom and of "Northern Ireland are in force, and latterly statutes of the devolved Assembly. The "courts of Northern Ireland are headed by the Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland, consisting of the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, the Northern Ireland High Court of Justice and the Northern Ireland Crown Court. Below that are county courts and magistrates' courts.

Scots law[edit]


Scots law is a unique "legal system with an ancient basis in "Roman law. Grounded in "uncodified "civil law dating back to the "Corpus Juris Civilis, it also features elements of "common law with "medieval sources. Thus "Scotland has a "pluralistic, or 'mixed', legal system, comparable to that of "South Africa, and, to a lesser degree, the partly "codified pluralistic systems of "Louisiana and "Quebec. Since the formation of the "Kingdom of Great Britain under the 1707 "Acts of Union, Scots Law has shared a legislature with "England and Wales, and while each retained fundamentally different legal systems, the 1707 Union brought English & Welsh influence upon Scots law, and vice versa. In recent years, Scots law has also been affected by both "European law under the "Treaty of Rome, and also following the establishment of the "Scottish Parliament, which legislates within domestic "areas of legislative competence.

The chief courts are the "Court of Session, for civil cases,[7] and the "High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases.[8] The "Supreme Court of the United Kingdom serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases under Scots law, with leave to appeal from the Court of Session not required as a general rule.[9] "Sheriff courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal "trials with a jury, known as sheriff solemn court, or with a sheriff and no jury, known as sheriff summary Court. The sheriff courts provide a local court service with 49 sheriff courts organised across six "sheriffdoms.[10] The Scots legal system is unique in having three possible "verdicts for a criminal trial: ""guilty", ""not guilty" and ""not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an "acquittal with no possibility of "retrial.[11]

The "Cabinet Secretary for Justice is the member of the "Scottish Government responsible for "Police Scotland, the "courts and "criminal justice, and the "Scottish Prison Service, which manages the prisons in Scotland.[12]

United Kingdom legislatures[edit]

United Kingdom Parliament[edit]


The "Parliament of the United Kingdom is "bicameral, with an "upper house, the "House of Lords, and a "lower house, the "House of Commons. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the "Lords Spiritual (the senior "bishops of the "Church of England) and the "Lords Temporal (members of the "Peerage); its members are not elected by the population at large. The House of Commons is a democratically elected chamber. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the "Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament"), in the "City of Westminster in "London. By "constitutional convention, all "government ministers, including the "Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or House of Lords.

Parliament evolved from the "early medieval councils that advised the sovereigns of "England and "Scotland. In theory, power is vested not in Parliament, but in the ""Queen-in-Parliament" (or "King-in-Parliament"). The Queen-in-Parliament is, according to the doctrine of "parliamentary sovereignty, completely sovereign with the power to make and unmake any law other than to bind itself.

In modern times, real power is vested in the House of Commons; the Sovereign acts only as a figurehead and the powers of the House of Lords are greatly limited.

Northern Ireland Assembly[edit]

The Northern Ireland Assembly ("Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann,[13] "Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann Semmlie)[14] is the "devolved "legislature of "Northern Ireland. It has power to legislate in a wide range of areas that are not explicitly "reserved to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom, and to appoint the "Northern Ireland Executive. It sits at "Parliament Buildings at "Stormont in "Belfast.

The latest incarnation of the Assembly was established under the "Good Friday Agreement of 1998, an accord aimed at bringing an end to Northern Ireland's violent 30-year "Troubles. It is based on the principle of "power-sharing under the "D'Hondt method to ensure that Northern Ireland's largest political communities, the "unionist and "nationalist communities both participate in governing the region. The Assembly is a "unicameral, "democratically elected body comprising 108 members who are known as "Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. Members are elected under the "single transferable vote form of "proportional representation.

Scottish Parliament[edit]

The public entrance of the distinctive Scottish Parliament building, opened in October 2004

The Scottish Parliament ("Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; "Scots: Scots Pairlament) is located in the "Holyrood area of the capital "Edinburgh. The Parliament, which is informally referred to as "Holyrood"[15] (cf. ""Westminster"), is a democratically elected body of 129 members who are known as "Members of the Scottish Parliament or MSPs. Members are elected for four-year terms under the "Additional Member System of "proportional representation. As a result, 73 MSPs represent individual geographical "constituencies elected by the "plurality voting system ("first past the post"), with a further 56 returned from eight "additional member regions, each electing seven MSPs.[16] The original "Parliament of Scotland (or "Estates of Scotland") was the national legislature of the independent "Kingdom of Scotland and existed from the early thirteenth century until the Kingdom of Scotland merged with the "Kingdom of England under the "Acts of Union 1707 to form the "Kingdom of Great Britain.[17] As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland merged with "Parliament of England, to form the "Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London.[17]

National Assembly for Wales[edit]

Since 2012, the National Assembly for Wales (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) has been invested with legislative powers. It is situated in Cardiff. The National Assembly, first elected in 1999, is a democratically elected body of 60 members who are known as Assembly Members or AMs. Members are elected for four-year terms under the Additional Member System of proportional representation. As a result, 40 AMs represent individual geographical constituencies elected by the plurality voting system ("first past the post"), with a further 20 returned from five additional member regions, each region electing four AMs.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ “The UK has three legal systems, operating in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland”, ", accessed 12 March 2007
  2. ^ "The Treaty (act) of the Union of Parliament 1706". Scottish History Online. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "Constitutional reform: A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom" (PDF).  (252 "KiB), "Department for Constitutional Affairs; accessed 22 May 2006.
  4. ^ UK Supreme Court judges sworn in BBC News, 1 October 2009
  5. ^ "Constitutional reform: A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom" (PDF).  (252 KB), Department for Constitutional Affairs. Retrieved on 22 May 2006
  6. ^ "pdf file" (PDF).  (64.6 "KiB) "For the purposes of the English "conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of "England and Wales is a foreign country and its laws foreign. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as "France or "Russia... are foreign countries but also "British Colonies such as the "Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland and Northern Ireland – are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other "British Islands, the "Isle of Man, "Jersey and "Guernsey." Conflict of Laws, J. G. Collier, Fellow of "Trinity Hall and lecturer in Law, "University of Cambridge
  7. ^ "Court of Session – Introduction". Scottish Courts. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  8. ^ "High Court of Justiciary – Introduction". Scottish Courts. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  9. ^ "House of Lords – Practice Directions on Permission to Appeal". UK Parliament. Retrieved 22 June 2009. 
  10. ^ "Introduction". Scottish Courts. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  11. ^ "The case for keeping 'not proven' verdict". London: Times Online. 20 March 2005. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  12. ^ "Scottish Cabinet and Ministers". Scottish Executive. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 
  13. ^ "Comhaontú idir Rialtas na hÉireann agus Rialtas Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann ag Bunú Comhlachtaí Forfheidhmithe" (in Irish). "Oireachtas. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 
  14. ^ "Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch – Tha Boord" (in Scots). "Ulster-Scots Agency. Archived from the original on 26 November 2006. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 
  15. ^ "Scottish Parliament Word Bank". Scottish Parliament. Archived from the original on 3 December 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2006. 
  16. ^ "Scottish Parliament MSPs". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 14 November 2006. 
  17. ^ a b "The First Scottish Parliament: the Middle Ages – 1707". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 14 November 2006. 

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