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"Lowen" redirects here. For Löwen, see "Löwen (disambiguation).
Leuven
"Municipality
""Leuven Town Hall
Leuven Town Hall
""Flag of Leuven
Flag
""Coat of arms of Leuven
Coat of arms
""Leuven is located in Belgium
Leuven
Leuven
Location in Belgium
Coordinates: 50°53′N 04°42′E / 50.883°N 4.700°E / 50.883; 4.700"Coordinates: 50°53′N 04°42′E / 50.883°N 4.700°E / 50.883; 4.700
Country "Belgium
"Community "Flemish Community
"Region "Flemish Region
"Province "Flemish Brabant
"Arrondissement "Leuven
Government
 • Mayor "Louis Tobback ("sp.a)
 • Governing party/ies "SP.A, "CD&V
Area
 • Total 56.63 km2 (21.86 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2016)[1]
 • Total 99,288
 • Density 1,800/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
"Postal codes 3000, 3001, 3010, 3012, 3018
"Area codes 016
Website www.leuven.be

Leuven (Dutch: "[ˈløːvə(n)] ("" listen)) or Louvain ("French: Louvain, pronounced: "[luvɛ̃]; "German: Löwen; "Italian: Lovanio) is the capital of the province of "Flemish Brabant in "Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres (16 miles) east of "Brussels. The "municipality itself comprises the historic "city and the "former neighboring municipalities of "Heverlee, "Kessel-Lo, a part of "Korbeek-Lo, "Wilsele and "Wijgmaal. It is the 10th largest municipality in Belgium and the fourth in "Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants (Federal Ministry of Home Affairs, 1/11/2016).

Leuven is home to the "Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the "Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence.[2] The related university hospital of "UZ Leuven, is one of the largest hospitals in Europe. The city is also known for being the headquarters of "Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world's largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world.

Contents

History[edit]

Timeline of Leuven
""
""
Leuven on the "Ferraris map (around 1775)
""
""
View over Leuven, late 19th century
""
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Destruction of the university library, 1914

The earliest mention of Leuven ("Loven") is from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the "Frankish king "Arnulf of Carinthia (see: "Battle of Leuven). According to a legend the city's red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river "Dyle after this battle.

Situated beside this river, and near to the stronghold of the "Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became the most important centre of trade in the "duchy between the 11th and 14th centuries. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth is known in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts as lewyn (other spellings: Leuwyn, Levyne, Lewan(e), Lovanium, Louvain).[3]

In the 15th century a new golden era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the "Low Countries, the "Catholic University of Leuven, in 1425.[4]

In the 18th century the brewery Den Horen (meaning "the horn") flourished. In 1708 Sebastien Artois became the master brewer at Den Horen, and gave his name to the brewery in 1717, now part of "AB InBev, whose flagship beer, "Stella Artois, is brewed in Leuven and sold in many countries.

Leuven has several times been besieged or occupied by foreign armies; these include the "Battle of Leuven (891), "Siege of Leuven (1635) and "Battle of Leuven (1831).

Both world wars in the 20th century inflicted major damage upon the city. Upon Germany's entry into "World War I, the town was heavily damaged by rampaging soldiers. [5] In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives.[6] The university library was also "destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles.[7][8] 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, and more than 1,000 "incunabula (books printed before 1501).[8][9] The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the "Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians but also against "posterity to the utmost generation."[10] It was rebuilt after the war, and much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain (on the initiative of the "John Rylands Library, "Manchester) and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection.[6] The new library building was financed by the National Committee of the United States for the Restoration of the University of Louvain and built to the design of architect "Whitney Warren; it was officially opened on 4 July 1928.[11] Richard Harding Davis, a war correspondent for the "New York Tribune, was in Leuven (or Louvain, in Davis' account) and wrote a column titled "The Germans Were Like Men After an Orgy" in which he described the organized civilian murders and vandalism committed by the occupying troops.[12]

The Rape of Belgium § War crimes

In World War II, after the start of the "German offensive, Leuven formed part of the "British Expeditionary Force's front line and was defended by units of the "3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German "Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air and artillery support. The British withdrew their forces to the "River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day.[13] The new university library building was set on fire by shelling on 16 May and nearly a million books were lost.[14]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Leuven (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
6.8
(44.2)
10.6
(51.1)
14.4
(57.9)
18.5
(65.3)
21.1
(70)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
19.5
(67.1)
15.1
(59.2)
9.8
(49.6)
6.3
(43.3)
14.6
(58.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.5
(38.3)
6.6
(43.9)
9.5
(49.1)
13.5
(56.3)
16.2
(61.2)
18.4
(65.1)
18.0
(64.4)
14.9
(58.8)
11.1
(52)
6.8
(44.2)
3.8
(38.8)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
4.4
(39.9)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
13.4
(56.1)
12.8
(55)
10.2
(50.4)
7.3
(45.1)
3.9
(39)
1.4
(34.5)
6.4
(43.5)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 70.5
(2.776)
59.5
(2.343)
65.4
(2.575)
50.0
(1.969)
63.6
(2.504)
70.4
(2.772)
72.7
(2.862)
71.3
(2.807)
64.8
(2.551)
71.9
(2.831)
70.6
(2.78)
76.1
(2.996)
806.8
(31.764)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12.6 10.9 12.9 9.9 11.3 10.7 10.4 10.2 10.6 11.1 11.9 12.7 135.2
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 56 74 119 170 202 197 210 200 143 118 63 46 1,597
Source: KMI/IRM[15]


Economy[edit]

Given the presence of the KULeuven, an important European institution for academic research and education, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. There are several biotech and ICT companies; Gasthuisberg (nl), the academic hospital and research centre and a large number of private service providers in the medical and legal fields.

Because it is the capital of the region of Flemish-Brabant, many governmental institutions are located in Leuven, as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as "De Lijn. As the largest and one of the oldest Flemish cities in the immediate vicinity, with a large range of cafés, restaurants, cultural institutions and shopping neighbourhoods, Leuven also attracts people from nearby cities and villages.

Leuven is the worldwide headquarters of "Anheuser-Busch InBev, the largest beer company in the world. InBev's "Stella Artois brewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the "railway station and the "canal to "Mechelen.

Demographics[edit]

As of 1/11/2016, the population of Leuven was 100,244. The arrondissement of Leuven counted 494,189 in 2014.

The city itself is made up out of the center of Leuven (30,313), Kessel-Lo (29,147), Heverlee (22,521), Wilsele (9,786) and Wijgmaal (3,592).

Student population[edit]

Nowadays Leuven has a large student population, mainly concentrated around the city centre. The "Katholieke Universiteit Leuven ("KU Leuven; University of Leuven) is the oldest Catholic university still in existence in the world, and the largest university in Belgium. There are also a number of "hogescholen (technical universities, literally translated: "high schools"), such as the KHLeuven (the Catholic High School Leuven).

Transport[edit]

Within the city and its immediate surroundings most distances can be covered on foot or with a bicycle. Several streets are off-limits to vehicle traffic and within the city centre road speed regulations prescribe 30 km/h (19 mph) as the maximum speed limit, making it a pedestrian and bicycle-friendly city. There are also a few car parking lots.

There are numerous buses, primarily from the "public transport company "De Lijn, that connect the city with the region while providing travel options within the city center. The so-called Ringbus follows the "ring road of the city. Except for long distance routes (such as to other cities) and other irregular bus services, most buses come by every 10 minutes. Buses 616, 652 and 651 connect Leuven with "Brussels Airport.

"Leuven railway station is located on the "NMBS railway lines 35 (Leuven - "Aarschot - "Hasselt), 36 ("Brussels - "Liège), 36N ("Schaarbeek - Leuven), 53 ("Schellebelle - Leuven), and 139 (Leuven - "Ottignies). In "Bierbeek, south-west of Leuven, lies the beginning of "HSL 2, the high-speed railway towards Liège.

Politics[edit]

Mayor[edit]

The current "mayor of Leuven is "Louis Tobback, a socialist prominent on the national level, formerly minister of internal affairs and leader of the socialist faction in the lower chamber of the "Belgian parliament, among other positions held. The governing coalition consists of "SP.A (16 out of 45 seats in the municipal council) and "CD&V (9 seats). The opposition is composed of "N-VA (9 seats), "Groen! (7 seats), "open VLD (3 seats) and "Vlaams Belang (1 seat).

Culture[edit]

One of Belgium's finest conservatories is based in Leuven: the "Lemmens Institute, which is described as "Faculty of Music, Performing Arts and Education". It is known for its Music Therapy Education and its Wordart-Drama Education.

Leuven is well known for its summer rock festival, "Marktrock. The main "football club of the municipality is "Oud-Heverlee Leuven, successor of "K. Stade Leuven. The city's prime basketball team are the "Leuven Bears. They play their home games in the SportOase. Leuven also has some orchestras, such as the famous Arenberg Orchestra (nl).[16] The "Cyclocross Leuven is a "cyclo-cross race held in January.

In September 2009 the '"M - Museum Leuven' opened in Leuven. It is a museum for both contemporary and historical art located near het Ladeuzeplein. It has hosted exhibitions by international artists such as Angus Fairhurst, Sol LeWitt, Roe Ethridge and Charles Burns as well as Belgian artists like Ilse D'Hollander, Jan Vercruysse, Antoon Van Dyck and Freek Wambacq.

Leuven also has a rich beer culture, being the birthplace of several beers such as "Stella Artois,[4] Leuvense Tripel, "Domus[4] and Keizersberg. It also has several bars priding themselves in offering a wide variety of local and international beers, including a bar that claims to offer more than 3000 different beers.

The "Higher Institute of Philosophy is famous worldwide for the archives of the German philosopher "Edmund Husserl.

Buildings and landmarks[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notable people from Leuven[edit]

Born in Leuven[edit]

Lived in Leuven[edit]

International relations[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium

Twin towns/sister cities[edit]

Leuven is "twinned with:

Friendly relations[edit]

Besides these, Leuven has friendly relations with:

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2016 (XLS; 397 KB)
  2. ^ "History of KU Leuven". kuleuven.be. 
  3. ^ "Blaeu Atlas (UCLA Library – YRL Reference and Instructional Services)". Library.ucla.edu. 2 April 2003. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Fodor's Travel Publications, Inc (January 2009). Fodor's Belgium. Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 27. "ISBN "978-1-4000-0881-0. 
  5. ^ Michael S. Neiberg, Fighting the Great War: A Global History, Harvard University Press, 2005. p. 15.
  6. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Louvain". "Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York. 
  7. ^ Kramer, Alan (2008). Dynamic Of Destruction, Culture and mass killing in the first world war. Penguin. "ISBN "9781846140136. 
  8. ^ a b Gibson, Craig (30 January 2008). "The culture of destruction in the First World War". Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 
  9. ^ Knuth 2006, p. 164.
  10. ^ Tuchman 1962, p. 321.
  11. ^ The burning of the library of Leuven and the international response, Mark Derez, 2012, University Archives KU Leuven (pp. 9-12)
  12. ^ https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Burning_of_Louvain
  13. ^ *Ellis, L. F. (1954) The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940. J. R. M. Butler (ed.). HMSO. London (p. 62)
  14. ^ Derez p. 13
  15. ^ "Climate data Leuven" (PDF). KMI/IRM. Retrieved 15 October 2016. 
  16. ^ arenbergorkest.ulyssis.be (Dutch)
  17. ^ "'Apostle of the Lepers,' Spanish mystic among 10 to be canonized". Catholic News Agency. www.catholicnewsagency.com. Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "Pope Proclaims Five New Saints". Radio Vaticana. Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  19. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Boeynaems, Libert H. (1913). "Father Damien (Joseph de Veuster)". In Herbermann, Charles. "Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  20. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Bliźniacze" [Kraków - Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
Bibliography
  • "Louvain", chapter from "George Wharton Edwards's 1911 book, Some Old Flemish Towns. (Wikisource)
  • Knuth, Rebecca (2006). Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
  • Tuchman, Barbara (1962). The Guns of August. New York: Macmillan.

External links[edit]

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