The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. "Latin and "Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the "Roman Empire and the "Hellenistic culture. "Akkadian and then "Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. Examples of lingua francas remain numerous and exist on every continent. The most obvious example as of the early 21st century is "English, which could be defined as the main lingua franca in many parts of the world but there are many other lingua francas, such as "French, "Spanish, "Urdu, "Hindi, "Portuguese, "Russian, "Arabic, "Mandarin, and "Swahili.
In certain countries, the lingua franca is also the national language. Urdu is the lingua franca of "Pakistan as well as the national language.
"Indonesian has the same function in "Indonesia, but "Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is the sole official language and is spoken, often as a second language, throughout the country.
Finally, the only documented widespread lingua franca to be a "sign language is "Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of "North America. It was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was "Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. "Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the "Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research exists.
- "Global language system
- "International auxiliary language
- "Koiné language
- "Language contact
- "List of languages by number of native speakers
- "List of languages by total number of speakers
- "Mixed language
- "Mutual intelligibility
- "Universal language
- "Working language
- "World language
- "lingua franca – definition of lingua franca in English from the Oxford dictionary". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- Viacheslav A. Chirikba, "The problem of the Caucasian Sprachbund" in Pieter Muysken, ed., From Linguistic Areas to Areal Linguistics, 2008, p. 31. "ISBN 90-272-3100-1
- Nye, Mary Jo (2016). "Speaking in Tongues: Science's centuries-long hunt for a common language". Distillations. 2 (1): 40–43. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Gordin, Michael D. (2015). Scientific Babel: How Science Was Done Before and After Global English. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. "ISBN "9780226000299.
- Intro Sociolinguistics – Pidgin and Creole Languages: Origins and Relationships – Notes for LG102, – University of Essex, Prof. Peter L. Patrick – Week 11, Autumn term.
- Lexico Triantaphyllide online dictionary , Greek Language Center (Kentro Hellenikes Glossas), lemma Franc ( Φράγκος Phrankos) , Lexico tes Neas Hellenikes Glossas, G.Babiniotes, Kentro Lexikologias(Legicology Center) LTD Publications. Komvos.edu.gr. "ISBN "960-86190-1-7. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
Franc and (prefix) franco- (Φράγκος Phrankos and φράγκο- phranko-
- "An etymological dictionary of modern English : Weekley, Ernest, 1865–1954 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
-  Archived October 12, 2014, at the "Wayback Machine.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- Morgan, J. (1632). A Compleat History of the Present Seat of War in Africa, Between the Spaniards and Algerines. p. 98. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Simon and Schuster, 1980
- Ostler, 2005 pp. 38–40
- Ostler, 2010 pp. 163–167
- Hall, R.A. Jr. (1966). Pidgin and Creole Languages, Cornell University Press. "ISBN 0-8014-0173-9.
- Heine, Bernd (1970). Status and Use of African Lingua Francas. "ISBN 3-8039-0033-6
- Kahane, Henry Romanos (1958). The Lingua Franca in the Levant.
- Melatti, Julio Cezar (1983). Índios do Brasil. São Paulo: Hucitec Press, 48th edition
- Ostler, Nicholas (2005). Empires of the Word. London: Harper "ISBN 978-0-00-711871-7
- Ostler, Nicholas (2010). The Last Lingua Franca. New York: Walker "ISBN 978-0-8027-1771-9
|""||Look up lingua franca in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- English – the universal language on the Internet?
- Lingua franca del Mediterraneo o Sabir of professor Francesco Bruni (in Italian).
- Sample texts from "Juan del Encina, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, "Carlo Goldoni's L'Impresario da Smyrna, Diego de Haedo and other sources.
- An introduction to the original Mediterranean Lingua Franca.