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In "computing, linked data (often capitalized as Linked Data) is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful through "semantic queries. It builds upon standard "Web technologies such as "HTTP, "RDF and "URIs, but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers.
"Tim Berners-Lee, director of the "World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), coined the term in a 2006 design note about the "Semantic Web project.
Linked data may also be "open data, in which case it is usually described as linked open data (LOD).
Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data in his "Linked Data" note of 2006, paraphrased along the following lines:
- Use "URIs to name (identify) things.
- Use "HTTP URIs so that these things can be looked up (interpreted, "dereferenced").
- Provide useful information about what a name identifies when it's looked up, using open standards such as "RDF, "SPARQL, etc.
- Refer to other things using their HTTP URI-based names when publishing data on the Web.
Tim Berners-Lee gave a presentation on linked data at the "TED 2009 conference. In it, he restated the linked data principles as three "extremely simple" rules:
- All kinds of conceptual things, they have names now that start with HTTP.
- If I take one of these HTTP names and I look it up...I will get back some data in a standard format which is kind of useful data that somebody might like to know about that thing, about that event.
- When I get back that information it's not just got somebody's height and weight and when they were born, it's got relationships. And when it has relationships, whenever it expresses a relationship then the other thing that it's related to is given one of those names that starts with HTTP.
Linked open data
Linked open data is linked data that is "open data. Tim Berners-Lee gives the clearest definition of linked open data in differentiation with linked data.
Linked Open Data (LOD) is Linked Data which is released under an open license, which does not impede its reuse for free.
— Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data
Large linked open data sets include "DBpedia and "Wikidata.
The term "linked open data" has been in use since at least February 2007, when the "Linking Open Data" mailing list was created. The mailing list was initially hosted by the "SIMILE project at the "Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The above diagram shows which Linking Open Data datasets are connected, as of August 2014. This was produced by the Linked Open Data Cloud project, which was started in 2007. Some sets may include copyrighted data which is freely available.
The same diagram as above, but for February 2017, showing the growth in just two and a half years.
The goal of the W3C Semantic Web Education and Outreach group's Linking Open Data community project is to extend the Web with a "data commons by publishing various "open "datasets as RDF on the Web and by setting "RDF links between data items from different data sources. In October 2007, datasets consisted of over two billion RDF triples, which were interlinked by over two million RDF links. By September 2011 this had grown to 31 billion RDF triples, interlinked by around 504 million RDF links. A detailed statistical breakdown was published in 2014.
European Union projects
There are a number of European Union projects the PlanetData project, the DaPaaS (Data-and-Platform-as-a-Service) project, and the Linked Open Data 2 (LOD2) project. Data linking is one of the main goals of the "EU Open Data Portal, which makes available thousands of datasets for anyone to reuse and link.
involving linked data. These include the linked open data around the clock (LATC) project,
- "DBpedia – a dataset containing extracted data from Wikipedia; it contains about 3.4 million concepts described by 1 billion "triples, including abstracts in 11 different languages
- "FOAF – a dataset describing persons, their properties and relationships
- "GeoNames provides RDF descriptions of more than 7,500,000 geographical features worldwide.
- "UMBEL – a lightweight reference structure of 20,000 subject concept classes and their relationships derived from "OpenCyc, which can act as binding classes to external data; also has links to 1.5 million named entities from DBpedia and "YAGO
- "Wikidata – a collaboratively-created linked dataset that acts as central storage for the structured data of its "Wikimedia Foundation sister projects
Dataset instance and class relationships
Clickable diagrams that show the individual datasets and their relationships within the DBpedia-spawned LOD cloud (as shown by the figures to the right) are available.
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