During the "Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, "megaliths, "dolmens and "menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon. The "Indo-European "Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the "Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's "Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that "iron age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the "Castle of São Jorge (Castelo de São Jorge) and "Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, and it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill. The sheltered harbour in the "Tagus River "estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals, salt and salted-fish they collected, and for the sale of the "Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
According to legend, the location was named for the mythical "Ulysses, who founded the settlement after he left "Troy to escape the Greek coalition. Later, the Greek name appeared in "Vulgar Latin in the form Olissipona.
Following the defeat of "Hannibal during the "Punic wars, the Romans determined to deprive "Carthage of its most valuable possession: "Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginian forces by "Scipio Africanus in Eastern Hispania allowed the pacification of the west, led by Consul "Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the empire, as the Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31 miles); exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was then integrated with the Roman province of "Lusitania (whose capital was "Emerita Augusta).
"Lusitanian raids and rebellions during Roman occupation required the construction of a wall around the settlement. During "Augustus' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre; the Cassian Baths (underneath Rua da Prata); temples to "Jupiter, "Diana, "Cybele, "Tethys and Idea Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from "Asia Minor), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large "necropolis under "Praça da Figueira; a large forum and other buildings such as "insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the Castle Hill and the historic city core. Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the mid-18th century (when the recent discovery of "Pompeii made Roman archaeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes).
The city prospered as "piracy was eliminated and technological advances were introduced, consequently Felicitas Julia became a centre of trade with the Roman provinces of "Britannia (particularly "Cornwall) and the "Rhine. Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its "garum (a fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the empire and exported in "amphorae to Rome), wine, salt and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated the hinterland. The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, "Bracara Augusta in the province of "Tarraconensis (Portuguese "Braga), and "Emerita Augusta, the capital of "Lusitania ("Mérida, Spain). The city was ruled by an "oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae, although regional authority was administered by the Roman Governor of Emerita or directly by Emperor "Tiberius. Among the majority of "Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves.
Around 80 BC, the Roman "Quintus Sertorius led a rebellion against the dictator "Sulla. During this period, he organised the tribes of Lusitania and Hispania and was on the verge of forming an independent province in the "Sertorian War when he was assassinated.
Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of "Christianity. Its first attested "Bishop was Potamius (c. 356), and there were several "martyrs during the period of persecution of the Christians: "Maxima, Verissimus and "Eulalia of Mérida are the most significant examples. By the time of the "Fall of Rome, Olissipo had become a notable Christian centre.
Following the disintegration of the Roman Empire there were "barbarian invasions; between 409 and 429 the city was occupied successively by "Sarmatians, "Alans and "Vandals. The Germanic "Suebi, who established a kingdom in "Gallaecia (modern "Galicia and northern Portugal), with its capital in Bracara Augusta, also controlled the region of Lisbon until 585. In 585, the Suebi Kingdom was integrated into the Germanic "Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, which comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.
On 6 August 711, Lisbon was taken by "Muslim forces. These conquerors, who were mostly "Berbers and "Arabs from "North Africa and the "Middle East, built many mosques and houses, rebuilt the city wall (known as the Cerca Moura) and established administrative control, while permitting the diverse population ("Muladi, "Mozarabs, "Berbers, "Arabs, "Jews, "Zanj and "Saqaliba) to maintain their socio-cultural lifestyles. "Mozarabic was the native language spoken by most of the Christian population although Arabic was widely known as spoken by all religious communities. Islam was the official religion practised by the Arabs, Berbers, Zanj, Saqaliba and "Muladi ("muwalladun).
The Muslim influence is still visible present in the "Alfama district, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the "1755 Lisbon earthquake: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama (the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma".
For a brief time, Lisbon was an independent Muslim kingdom known as the "Taifa of Lisbon, before being conquered by the larger "Taifa of Badajoz in 1094.
In 1108 Lisbon was raided and occupied by "Norwegian crusaders led by "Sigurd I on their way to the "Holy Land as part of the "Norwegian Crusade. It was taken by the Moorish "Almoravids in 1111.
In 1147, as part of the "Reconquista, crusader knights led by "Afonso I of Portugal "besieged and conquered Lisbon. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, was returned to "Christian rule. The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of "Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history, described in the chronicle "Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, which describes, among other incidents, how the local bishop was killed by the crusaders and the city's residents prayed to the "Virgin Mary as it happened. Some of the Muslim residents converted to Roman Catholicism, and many of those who did not convert fled to other parts of the Islamic world, primarily "Muslim Spain and "North Africa. All mosques were either destroyed or converted into churches. As a result of the end of Muslim rule, spoken Arabic gradually lost its place in the everyday life of the city and disappeared altogether.
With its central location, Lisbon became the capital city of the new Portuguese territory in 1255. The first Portuguese university was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by King "Denis I; for many years the "Studium Generale (General Study) was transferred intermittently to "Coimbra, where it was installed permanently in the 16th century as the "University of Coimbra.
In 1384, the city was besieged by King "Juan I of Castille, as a part of the ongoing "1383–1385 Crisis. The result of the siege was a victory for the Portuguese led by "Nuno Álvares Pereira.
During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both "Northern European and Mediterranean cities.
Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the "Age of Discovery left Lisbon during the period from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, including "Vasco da Gama's expedition to "India in 1498. In 1506, 3,000 "Jews were "massacred in Lisbon. The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city was the European hub of commerce between "Africa, "India, the "Far East and later, "Brazil, and acquired great riches by exploiting the trade in spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This period saw the rise of the exuberant "Manueline style in architecture, which left its mark in many 16th century monuments (including Lisbon's "Belém Tower and "Jerónimos Monastery, which were declared "UNESCO World Heritage Sites). A description of Lisbon in the 16th century was written by "Damião de Góis and published in 1554.
Portugal lost its independence to Spain after the "succession crisis of 1580, initiating a sixty-year period of dual monarchy in Portugal and Spain under the "Spanish Habsburgs. This is referred to as the "Philippine Dominion" (Domínio Filipino), since all "three Spanish kings during that period were called Philip (Filipe). The "Portuguese Restoration War, which began with a "coup d'état organised by the nobility and "bourgeoisie in Lisbon and executed on 1 December 1640, restored Portuguese independence. The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare, until the "Treaty of Lisbon was signed in 1668.
In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed "King John V to sponsor the building of several "Baroque churches and theatres in the city.
Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several significant earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the "1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses and the 1597 earthquake in which three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755, the city was destroyed by another "devastating earthquake, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents of a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000, and destroyed 85 percent of the city's structures. Among several important buildings of the city, the "Ribeira Palace and the "Hospital Real de Todos os Santos were lost. In coastal areas, such as "Peniche, situated about 80 km (50 mi) north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the following "tsunami.
By 1755, Lisbon was one of the largest cities in Europe; the catastrophic event shocked the whole of Europe and left a deep impression on its collective psyche. "Voltaire wrote a long poem, Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne, shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel "Candide (indeed, many argue that this critique of "optimism was inspired by that earthquake). "Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay.
After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister "Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the "1st Marquess of Pombal; the lower town began to be known as the Baixa Pombalina ("Pombaline central district). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish what remained after the earthquake and rebuild the city centre in accordance with principles of modern urban design. It was reconstructed in an open rectangular plan with two great squares: the Praça do Rossio and the Praça do Comércio. The first, the central commercial district, is the traditional gathering place of the city and the location of the older cafés, theatres and restaurants; the second became the city's main access to the River Tagus and point of departure and arrival for seagoing vessels, adorned by a triumphal arch (1873) and monument to King "Joseph I.
Late modern and contemporary
In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of "Napoléon Bonaparte, forcing Queen "Maria I and Prince-Regent "John (future John VI) to flee temporarily to Brazil. By the time the new King returned to Lisbon, many of the buildings and properties were pillaged, sacked or destroyed by the invaders.
During the 19th century, the Liberal movement introduced new changes into the urban landscape. The principal areas were in the Baixa and along the Chiado district, where shops, tobacconists shops, cafés, bookstores, clubs and theatres proliferated. The development of industry and commerce determined the growth of the city, seeing the transformation of the "Passeio Público, a Pombaline era park, into the "Avenida da Liberdade, as the city grew farther from the Tagus.
Lisbon was the site of the "regicide of "Carlos I of Portugal in 1908, an event which culminated two years later in the First Republic.
The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências). Today there are two public universities in the city ("University of Lisbon and "New University of Lisbon), a public university institute ("ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute) and a "polytechnic institute (IPL – "Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa).
During "World War II, Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a haven for spies. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee "Nazi Germany via Lisbon.
During the "Estado Novo regime (1926–1974), Lisbon was expanded at the cost of other districts within the country, resulting in nationalist and monumental projects. New residential and public developments were constructed; the zone of "Belém was modified for the 1940 Portuguese Exhibition, while along the periphery new districts appeared to house the growing population. The inauguration of the bridge over the Tagus allowed rapid connection between both sides of the river.
Lisbon was the site of three revolutions in the 20th century. The first, the "5 October 1910 revolution, brought an end to the "Portuguese monarchy and established the highly unstable and corrupt "Portuguese First Republic. The "6 June 1926 revolution would see the end of that first republic and firmly establish the "Estado Novo, or the "Portuguese Second Republic, as the ruling regime. The final revolution, the "Carnation Revolution, would take place on 25 April 1974 and would end the right-wing Estado Novo and reform the country as the current "Portuguese Third Republic.
In the 1990s, many of the districts were renovated and projects in the historic quarters were established to modernise those areas; architectural and patrimonial buildings were renovated; the northern margin of the Tagus was re-purposed for leisure and residential use; the "Vasco da Gama Bridge was constructed; and the eastern part of the municipality was re-purposed for "Expo '98, to commemorate the 500th anniversary of "Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India, a voyage that would bring immense riches to Lisbon and cause many of Lisbon's landmarks to be built.
In 1988, a fire in the historical district of "Chiado saw the destruction of many 18th century "Pombaline style buildings. A series of restoration works has brought the area back to its former self and made it a high-scale shopping district.
The "Lisbon Agenda was a European Union agreement on measures to revitalise the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000. In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the "2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting "Treaty of Lisbon was signed on 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009.
Lisbon has been the site for many international events and programmes. In 1994, Lisbon was the "European Capital of Culture. On 3 November 2005, Lisbon hosted the "MTV European Music Awards. On 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World" election, in the "Luz Stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world. Every two years, Lisbon hosts the "Rock in Rio Lisboa Music Festival, one of the largest in the world. Lisbon hosted the NATO summit (19–20 November 2010), a "summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and "Heads of Government of "NATO member states to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.
Lisbon is located at, situated at the mouth of the "Tagus River and is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country.
The westernmost part of Lisbon is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (English: "Monsanto Forest Park), a 10 km2 (4 sq mi) urban park, one of the largest in Europe, and occupying ten percent of the municipality.
The city occupies an area of 100.05 km2 (39 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, coincide with those of the municipality. The rest of the urbanised area of the "Lisbon Metropolitan Area, known generically as "Greater Lisbon ("Portuguese: Grande Lisboa), is actually several administratively defined cities and municipalities, such as "Amadora, "Queluz, "Agualva-Cacém, "Odivelas, "Loures, "Sacavém, "Almada, "Barreiro, "Seixal and "Oeiras
Lisbon has a hot-summer "Mediterranean climate ("Köppen climate classification: Csa) with mild winters and hot summers. The average annual temperature is 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) during the day and 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) at night. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (63.5 °F).
In the coldest month – January – the high temperature during the day typically ranges from 11 to 18 °C (52 to 64 °F), the low temperature at night ranges from 3 to 13 °C (37 to 55 °F) and the average sea temperature is 15 °C (59 °F). In the warmest month – August – the high temperature during the day typically ranges from 26 to 33 °C (79 to 91 °F), the low temperature at night ranges from 17 to 21 °C (63 to 70 °F) and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F).
Generally, a summer season lasts about 6 months, from May to October. Three months – March, April and November – are transitional, often the temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature in these three months of 18.9 °C (66 °F) during the day and 12.0 °C (53.6 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with an average temperature of 15.5 °C (59.9 °F) during the day and 8.9 °C (48.0 °F) at night.
Among metropolises in Europe (less than "Valencia or "Málaga), Lisbon has one of the warmest winters, and one of the mildest night time temperatures, from an average of 8.3 °C (46.9 °F) in the coldest month, and 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in the warmest month. The minimum temperature recorded in Lisboa was -1.2 ºC in 1956. The maximum temperature recorded in Lisboa was 41.8 ºC in 2003.
Rain occurs mainly in winter, the summers being generally dry. Sunshine hours are about 2,800 per year, from an average of 4.6 hours of sunshine duration per day in December to an average of 11.4 hours of sunshine duration per day in July.
|Climate data for Lisbon|
|Record high °C (°F)||24.1
|Average high °C (°F)||14.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.6
|Average low °C (°F)||8.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||96.8
|Source: "Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera|
The municipality of Lisbon included 53 "freguesias ("civil parishes) until November 2012. A new law ("Lei n.º 56/2012") reduced the number of freguesias to the following 24:
Locally, Lisbon's inhabitants may more commonly refer to the spaces of Lisbon in terms of historic "bairros (neighbourhoods). These communities have no clearly defined boundaries and represent distinctive quarters of the city that have in common a historical culture, similar living standards, and identifiable architectural landmarks, as exemplified by the Bairro Alto, Alfama, Chiado, and so forth.
Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising mostly farms and country estates of the nobility with their palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles used to promenade in their boats. During the late 19th century, Alcântara became a popular industrial area, with lots of small factories and warehouses.
In the early 1990s, Alcântara began to attract youth because of the number of pubs and discothèques. This was mainly due to its outer area of mostly commercial buildings, which acted as barriers to the noise-generating nightlife (which acted as a buffer to the residential communities surrounding it). In the meantime, some of these areas began to become gentrified, attracting loft developments and new flats, which have profited from its river views and central location.
The riverfront of Alcântara is known for its clubs and bars. The area is commonly known as docas (docks), since most of the clubs and bars are housed in converted dock warehouses.
The oldest district of Lisbon, it spreads down the southern slope from the "Castle of São Jorge to the "River Tagus. Its name, derived from the "Arabic Al-hamma, means fountains or baths. During the "Islamic invasion of Iberia, the Alfama constituted the largest part of the city, extending west to the "Baixa neighbourhood. Increasingly, the Alfama became inhabited by fishermen and the poor: its fame as a poor neighbourhood continues to this day. While the "1755 Lisbon earthquake caused considerable damage throughout the capital, the Alfama survived with little damage, thanks to its compact labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. It is an historical quarter of mixed-use buildings occupied by "Fado bars, restaurants, and homes with small shops downstairs. Modernising trends have invigorated the district: old houses have been re-purposed or remodelled, while new buildings have been constructed. Fado, the typically Portuguese style of melancholy music, is common (but not obligatory) in the restaurants of the district.
The Mouraria, or Moorish quarter, is one of the most traditional neighborhoods of Lisbon, although most of its old buildings were demolished by the "Estado Novo between the 1930s and the 1970s. It takes its name from the fact that after the reconquest of Lisbon, the Muslims who remained were confined to this part of the city. In turn, the Jews were confined to three neighbourhoods called "Judiarias"
Bairro Alto (literally the upper quarter in "Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon that functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district; it is the centre of the Portuguese capital's nightlife, attracting hipster youth and members of various music subcultures. Lisbon's "Punk, "Gay, Metal, "Goth, "Hip Hop and "Reggae scenes all find a home in the Bairro with its many clubs and bars that cater to them. The crowds in the Bairro Alto are a multicultural mix of people representing a broad cross-section of modern Portuguese society, many of them being entertainment seekers and devotees of various music genres outside the mainstream, yet "Fado, Portugal's national music, still survives in the midst of the new nightlife.
The heart of the city is the "Baixa or city centre; the Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the "1755 Lisbon earthquake, taking its name from its benefactor, "1st Marquess of Pombal, "Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, who was the minister of "Joseph I of Portugal (1750–1777) and a key figure during the Portuguese "Enlightenment. Following the 1755 disaster, Pombal took the lead in rebuilding Lisbon, imposing strict conditions and guidelines on the construction of the city, and transforming the organic street plan that characterised the district before the earthquake into its current grid pattern. As a result, the Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of "earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the Pombaline cage, a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake forces, and inter-terrace walls that were built higher than roof timbers to inhibit the spread of fires.
Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great "Portuguese explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which "Vasco da Gama departed for "India in 1497 and Pedro Álvares Cabral departed for Brazil in 1499. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th–18th century "Belém Palace, a former royal residence now occupied by the "President of Portugal, and the "Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed.
Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, "Torre de Belém, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of "Dom Manuel l (1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port. It stood on a little island in right side of the "Tagus, surrounded by water. Belém's other major historical building is the "Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery), which the "Torre de Belém was built partly to defend. Belém's most notable modern feature is the "Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries) built for the Portuguese World Fair in 1940. In the heart of Belém is the Praça do Império: gardens centred upon a large fountain, laid out during "World War II. To the west of the gardens lies the "Centro Cultural de Belém. Belém is one of the most visited Lisbon districts. Here is located the "Estádio do Restelo, house of "Belenenses.
The Chiado is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial establishments, concentrated specially in the Rua do Carmo and the Rua Garrett. Locals as well as tourists visit the Chiado to buy books, clothing and pottery as well as to have a cup of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado is "A Brasileira, famous for having had poet "Fernando Pessoa among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres, including the opera. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect "Siza Vieira, the affected area has now virtually recovered.
The ornate, late 18th-century "Estrela Basilica is the main attraction of this district. The church with its large dome is located on a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon and can be seen from great distances. The style is similar to that of the "Mafra National Palace, late baroque and neoclassical. The façade has twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegorical figures. "São Bento Palace, the seat of the Portuguese parliament and the official residences of the "Prime Minister of Portugal and the President of the "Assembly of the Republic of Portugal, are in this district. Also in this district is Estrela Park, a favorite with families. There are exotic plants and trees, a duck pond, various sculptures, a children's playground, and many cultural events going on through the year, including outdoor cinema, markets, and music festivals.
Parque das Nações
Parque das Nações (Park of Nations) is the newest district in Lisbon, having emerged from an urban renewal programme leading to the World Exhibition of Lisbon 1998, also known as Expo'98. The area suffered massive changes giving Parque das Nações a futuristic look. A long lasting legacy of the same, the area has become another commercial and higher end residential area for the city. Central to this is the "Gare do Oriente (Orient railway station), one of the main transport hubs of Lisbon for trains, buses, taxis and the metro. Its glass and steel columns are inspired by Gothic architecture, lending the whole structure a visual fascination (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect "Santiago Calatrava from "Valencia, Spain. Across the street, through Vasco da Gama Mall, is Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo.
The area is pedestrian-friendly with new buildings, restaurants, gardens, the "Casino Lisbon, the FIL building (International Exhibition and Fair), the Camões Theatre, as well as the Oceanário de Lisboa ("Lisbon Oceanarium), the second largest in the world. The district's "MEO Arena has become Lisbon's "jack-of-all-trades" performance arena. Seating 20,000, it has staged events from concerts to basketball tournaments.
The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; "Romanesque, "Gothic, "Manueline, "Baroque, "Modern and "Postmodern constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the "Avenida da Liberdade (Avenue of Liberty), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Avenue of the Republic).
There are several substantial museums in the city. The most famous ones are the "Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the "National Azulejo Museum, the "Museu Calouste Gulbenkian (Calouste Gulbenkian Museum), containing varied collections of ancient and modern art, the "Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the "Berardo Collection Museum (Modern Art) at the "Belém Cultural Center, the Museu da Electricidade ("Electricity Museum), the "Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world), the "National Museum of Natural History and Science, "Museum of the Orient, and the "Lisbon City Museum.
Lisbon's Opera House, the "Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the "Centro Cultural de Belém, the "Teatro Nacional D. Maria II, the "Gulbenkian Foundation, and the Teatro Camões.
The monument to Christ the King ("Cristo-Rei) stands on the southern bank of the Tagus River, in "Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in "Rio de Janeiro, and was built after "World War II, as a memorial of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.
13 June is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city's saint, "Anthony of Lisbon ("Portuguese: Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was "canonised and made "Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint "Vincent of Saragossa, whose remains are housed in the "Sé Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with this saint.
"Eduardo VII Park, the second largest park in the city following the Parque Florestal de Monsanto ("Monsanto Forest Park), extends down the main avenue ("Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and greenspaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden ("Portuguese: Estufa Fria). Originally named Parque da Liberdade, it was renamed in honour of "Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903.
Lisbon is home every year to the "Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival, the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival, the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the "Lisbon Book Fair, the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours, and many others.
Lisbon has two sites listed by "UNESCO as a "World Heritage Site: "Belém Tower and "Jerónimos Monastery. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the "European Capital of Culture and in 1998 organised the "Expo '98 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition).
Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial, the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon), ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.
In addition, the mosaic "Portuguese pavement (Calçada Portuguesa) was born in Lisbon, in the mid-1800s. The art has since spread to the rest of the Portuguese Speaking world. The city remains one of the most expansive examples of the technique, nearly all walkways and even many streets being created and maintained in this style.
In terms of Portuguese cities, Lisbon was considered the most livable in a survey of "living conditions published yearly by "Expresso.
The historical population of the city was around 35,000 in 1300 AD. Up to 60,000 in 1400 AD, and rising to 70,000 in 1500 AD. Between 1528–1590 the population went from 70,000 to 120,000. 140,000 in 1600 AD, and almost 200,000 in 1700 AD.
The Lisbon Metropolitan Area incorporates two "NUTS III (European statistical subdivisions): "Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon), along the northern bank of the "Tagus River, and "Península de Setúbal (Setúbal Peninsula), along the southern bank (these two subdivisions make for the "Região de Lisboa (Lisbon Region). The population density of the city itself is 6,458 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,730/sq mi).
Lisbon has 552,700 inhabitants within the administrative center on the area of only 100.05 km². Administratively defined cities that exist in the vicinity of the capital are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon. The urban area has a population of 2,666,000 inhabitants, being the eleventh largest urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Ruhr area, Madrid, Milan, Barcelona, Berlin, Rome, Naples and Athens. The whole metropolis of Lisbon (metropolitan area) has about 2.8 million inhabitants. According to official government data, the "Lisbon Metropolitan Area has 2,821,876 inhabitants. Other sources also show a similar number, according to the "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – 2,797,612 inhabitants; according to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the "United Nations – 2,890,000; according to the European Statistical Office "Eurostat – 2,839,908; according to the "Brookings Institution has 2,968,600 inhabitants.
|Demographic evolution of Lisbon administrative center|
The "Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the "European Union's "GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the "tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the "Grande Lisboa Subregion, specially in the "Oeiras municipality. The "Lisbon Metropolitan Area is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the "Tagus river (Rio Tejo).
The Lisbon region is rapidly growing, with GDP (PPP) per capita calculated for each year as follows: €22,745 (2004) – €23,816 (2005) – €25,200 (2006) – €26,100 (2007). The Lisbon metropolitan area had a "GDP amounting to $96.3 billion, and $32,434 per capita.
The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub. Automobile manufacturers have erected factories in the suburbs, for example, "AutoEuropa.
Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to "major newspapers.
The "Euronext Lisbon "stock exchange, part of the pan-European "Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of "Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the "New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational "NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges.
Lisbonite industry has very large sectors in oil, as refineries are found just across the Tagus, textile mills, shipyards and fishing.
Before Portugal's sovereign debt crisis and an "EU-IMF rescue plan, for the decade of 2010 Lisbon was expecting to receive many state funded investments, including building a new airport, a new bridge, an expansion of 30 km (18.64 mi) underground, the construction of a mega-hospital (or central hospital), the creation of two lines of a "TGV to join "Madrid, "Porto, "Vigo and the rest of Europe, the restoration of the main part of the town (between the Marquês de Pombal roundabout and Terreiro do Paço), the creation of a large number of bike lanes, as well as modernization and renovation of various facilities.
The "Lisbon Metro is its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts and now reaching the suburbs. Several expansion projects have been proposed. Bus, funicular and tram services have been supplied by "Carris for over a century in the city and some places in Suburbs.
A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the "tram. Introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the USA, and called the americanos. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum). Other than on the modern Line 15, the "Lisbon tramway system still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.
There are four "commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines (operated by CP – "Comboios de Portugal), as well as a fourth line to "Setúbal (operated by "Fertagus) crossing the "Tagus river, over the "25 de Abril Bridge. The major railway stations are "Santa Apolónia, "Rossio, "Gare do Oriente, "Entrecampos, and "Cais do Sodré.
There are other commuter bus services from the city (connecting cities outside Lisbon, and connecting these cities to Lisbon): Vimeca, Rodoviária de Lisboa, Transportes Sul do Tejo, Boa Viagem, Barraqueiro are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.
Lisbon is connected to its suburbs as well as throughout Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the IC17 (CRIL), and the A9 (CREL).
Bridges and ferries
The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:
- The "25 de Abril Bridge, inaugurated (as Ponte "Salazar) on 6 August 1966, and later renamed after the date of the "Carnation Revolution, was the longest "suspension bridge in Europe.["citation needed]
- The "Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated in May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.["citation needed]
The foundations for a third bridge across the Tagus have already been laid, but the overall project has been postponed due to the economic crisis in Portugal and all of Europe.
Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is "Transtejo & Soflusa, which operates from different points in the city to "Cacilhas, "Seixal, "Montijo, "Porto Brandão and "Trafaria under the brand Transtejo and to "Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.
"Humberto Delgado Airport is located within the city limits. It is the headquarters and hub for "TAP Portugal as well as a hub for "Easyjet, "Azores Airlines, "Ryanair, "EuroAtlantic Airways, "White Airways, and "Hi Fly. A second airport has been proposed, but the project has been put on hold because of the Portuguese and European economic crisis, and also because of the long discussion on whether a new airport is needed. However, the last proposal is military air base in "Montijo that would be replaced by a civil airport. So, Lisbon would have two airports, the current airport in north and a new in the south of the city.
"Cascais Aerodrome, 20 km West of the city centre, in "Cascais, offers commercial domestic flights.
The city has several private and public secondary schools, primary schools as well as Kindergartens. In "Greater Lisbon area there are also international schools such as "Saint Julian's School, the "Carlucci American International School of Lisbon, "Saint Dominic's International School, "Deutsche Schule Lissabon, Instituto Español de Lisboa, and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre.
There are two "public universities and a "university institute in Lisbon: the "University of Lisbon (the largest university in Portugal), "New University of Lisbon (founded in 1973) and "ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute (founded in 1973), providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is also a public "polytechnic institute – the "Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon.
Major private institutions of higher education include the "Portuguese Catholic University, as well as the "Lusíada University, the "Universidade Lusófona, and the "Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, among others.
The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007–2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.
Lisbon has a long tradition in sports. It hosted several matches, including the final, of the "UEFA Euro 2004 championship. The city also played host to the final of the "2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships and the "European Fencing Championships in 1983 and 1992, as well as the "2003 World Men's Handball Championship, and the "2008 European Judo Championships. From 2006 to 2008, Lisbon was the starting point for the "Dakar Rally. The city hosted the "2014 UEFA Champions League Final. In 2008 and 2016, the city hosted the "European Triathlon Championships.
The city hosts three "association football clubs in Portugal's highest league, the "Primeira Liga. "Sport Lisboa e Benfica, commonly known as just Benfica, has won 35 league titles in addition to two "European Cups. Lisbon's second-most successful club is "Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly known as Sporting or in the English-speaking world as Sporting Lisbon), winner of 18 league titles and the "UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. A third club, "C.F. Os Belenenses (commonly Belenenses or Belenenses Lisbon), based in the "Belém quarter, has solely won one league title. Other major clubs in Lisbon include "Atlético, "Casa Pia, and "Oriental.
Lisbon has two "UEFA category four stadiums; Benfica's "Estádio da Luz (Stadium of Light), with a capacity of over 65,000 and Sporting's "Estádio José Alvalade, with a capacity of over 50,000. There is also Belenenses' "Estádio do Restelo, with a capacity of over 30,000. The "Estádio Nacional, in nearby "Oeiras, has a capacity of 37,000 and was used exclusively for "Portuguese international football matches and cup finals until the construction of larger stadia in the city. It held the "1967 European Cup Final.
Other sports, such as "indoor football, "handball, "basketball, "roller hockey and "rugby football are also popular; the latter's national stadium is in Lisbon. There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing to golf to "mountain-biking. Lisboa and Troia golf course are two of many stunning "golf courses located in Lisbon. Every March the city hosts the "Lisbon Half Marathon, while in September the "Portugal Half Marathon.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Lisbon is "twinned with the following cities:
- " "Água Grande, São Tomé and Príncipe, since 1993
- " "Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, since 1985
- " "Brasília, Brazil, since 1985
- " "Budapest, Hungary, since 1992
- " "Cacheu, Guinea-Bissau, since 1988
- " "Guimarães, Portugal, since 1993
- " "Luanda, Angola, since 1988
- " "Macau, Macau, since 1982
- " "Madrid, Spain, since 1979 
- " "Malacca, Malaysia, since 1984 
- " "Maputo, Mozambique, since 1982 
- " "Praia, Cape Verde, since 1983
- " "Rabat, Morocco, since 1988
- " "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1980
- " "Salvador, Brazil, since 1995
- " "São Tomé, São Tomé and Príncipe, since 1985
- " "Zagreb, Croatia, since 1977 
Lisbon has additional cooperation agreements with the following cities:
- " "Algiers, Algeria, since 1988
- " "Asunción, Paraguay, since 2014 
- " "Bethlehem, Palestine, since 1995 
- " "Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 1992
- " "Curitiba, Brazil, since 2005
- " "Haimen, China, since 2011
- " "Kiev, Ukraine, since 2000
- " "Miami, United States, since 1987
- " "Montevideo, Uruguay, since 1993
- " "Moscow, Russia, since 1997
- " "Panaji, India, since 1989
- " "Paris, France, since 1998
- " "Peking, China, since 2010
- " "Qingdao, China, since 2010
- " "Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, since 1997
- " "Sofia, Bulgaria, since 2001
- " "Toronto, Canada, since 1987
- " "Tunis, Tunisia, since 1993
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
Lisbon is part of the "Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:
- " "Andorra la Vella, Andorra
- " "Asunción, Paraguay
- " "Bogotá, Colombia
- " "Buenos Aires, Argentina
- " "Caracas, Venezuela
- " "Guatemala City, Guatemala
- " "Havana, Cuba
- " "Quito, Ecuador
- " "La Paz, Bolivia
- " "Lima, "Peru
- " Lisbon, Portugal
- " "Madrid, Spain
- " "Managua, Nicaragua
- " "Mexico City, Mexico
- " "Montevideo, Uruguay
- " "Panama City, Panama
- " "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- " "San Jose, Costa Rica
- " "San Juan, Puerto Rico
- " "San Salvador, El Salvador
- " "Santiago, Chile
- " "Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
- " "Tegucigalpa, Honduras
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"Gothenburg, "Sweden (1999)
|"World Gymnaestrada host city
"Dornbirn, "Austria (2007)