Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => List of African-American United States Senators [pageid] => 21254073 ) =>
""An African-American man in a black suit, a grey tie, and the U.S. Capitol dome behind the subject in the distance.
""
The official senate portrait of "Barack Obama, the fifth "African-American "United States Senator, who later became the first African-American "President
""
""
  States currently represented by a black Senator
  States formerly represented by a black Senator

The "United States Senate has had ten "African-American elected or appointed office holders.[1] The United States Senate is the "upper house of the "bicameral "United States Congress, which is the "legislative branch of the "federal government of the "United States. The "US Census Bureau defines African Americans as citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the "black populations of Africa.[2] The term is generally used for Americans with at least partial ancestry in any of the original peoples of "sub-Saharan Africa. During the "founding of the federal government, African Americans were consigned to a status of "second-class citizenship or "enslaved.[3] No African American served in federal elective office before the ratification in 1870 of the "Fifteenth Amendment to the "United States Constitution. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Of the ten senators, six were popularly elected (including one that previously had been appointed by his state's governor), two were elected by the state legislature prior to the ratification of the "Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913 (which provides for the direct election of U.S. Senators by the people of each state), and two were appointed by a state "Governor. The "113th United States Congress (2013–15) marked the first time that two African Americans served concurrently in the Senate.[4]

The first two African-American senators represented the state of "Mississippi during the "Reconstruction Era, following the "American Civil War. "Hiram Rhodes Revels, the first African American to serve, was elected by the "Mississippi State Legislature to succeed "Albert G. Brown, who resigned during the Civil War. Some members of the United States Senate "opposed his being seated based on the court case "Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) by the "Supreme Court of the United States, claiming that Revels did not meet the citizenship requirement, but the majority of Senators voted to seat him.[1] The Mississippi state legislature elected "Blanche Bruce in 1875, but Republicans lost power of the Mississippi state legislature in 1876. Bruce was not elected to a second term in 1881.[1] In 1890 the Democratic-dominated state legislature passed a "new constitution "disfranchising most black voters. Every other Southern state also passed disfranchising constitutions by 1908, excluding African Americans from the political system in the entire former Confederacy. This situation persisted into the 1960s until after federal enforcement of constitutional rights under the "Voting Rights Act of 1965.

The next black United States Senator, "Edward Brooke of "Massachusetts, took office in 1967. He was the first African American to be elected by popular vote after the ratification in 1913 of the "Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, rather than to be elected by a state legislature.[1] The Seventeenth Amendment established "direct election of United States Senators by popular vote.

"Carol Moseley Braun and "Barack Obama were both elected by the voters of "Illinois, entering the Senate in 1993 and 2005, respectively.[1] Carol Moseley Braun is the first African-American woman to be elected - or appointed - to the Senate after the ratification in 1920 of the "Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Nineteenth Amendment prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the "right to vote on the basis of sex. While serving in the Senate, Obama became the first African American to be elected to the office of "President of the United States.[5] "Roland Burris, also an African American, was appointed to fill the remainder of the Senate term of President-elect Obama.[6]

The next two black Senators, "Tim Scott of "South Carolina and "Mo Cowan of Massachusetts, were both appointed by governors to fill the terms of "Jim DeMint and "John Kerry, respectively, who had resigned their positions.[1] On October 16, 2013, citizens of "New Jersey elected "Cory Booker in a "special election to fill the seat of the late Senator "Frank R. Lautenberg.[7] Sworn into office on October 31, 2013, he is the first African-American Senator to be elected since Barack Obama in 2004 and the first to represent the state of New Jersey, later securing a full 6-year term in the 2014 mid-term elections. Senator Tim Scott retained his seat in a special election in 2014, also securing a full 6-year term in 2016. On January 3, 2017, Senators Scott and Booker were joined in the Senate by "Kamala Harris of "California, who was elected on November 8, 2016.[8] Senator Harris is the second African-American woman to serve in the U.S. Senate.

As of 3 January 2017, there have been 1,970 members of the United States Senate,[9] but only ten have been African American.[10][11] While 58 nationwide organizations exist to elect women to the United States Congress, including "EMILY's List and the "Susan B. Anthony List, no organization has been formed to elect African Americans to the United States Congress.[12]

Contents

List of African-American Senators of the United States[edit]

Political Parties

  "Democratic   "Republican

"Senator Took office "State Left office "Party "Congress Ref. Note
""Hiram Rhodes Revels - Brady-Handy-(restored).png
"Hiram Rhodes Revels
(1827–1901)
February 25, 1870 "Mississippi March 3, 1871 "Republican "41st
(1869–1871)
[13][14] [note 1]
""Blanche Bruce - Brady-Handy.jpg
"Blanche Bruce
(1841–1898)
March 4, 1875 "Mississippi March 3, 1881 "Republican "44th
(1875–1877)
[15][16] [note 2]
"45th
(1877–1879)
"46th
(1879–1881)
""Edward brooke senator.jpg
"Edward Brooke
(1919–2015)
January 3, 1967 "Massachusetts January 3, 1979 "Republican "90th
(1967–1969)
[17] [note 3]
"91st
(1969–1971)
"92nd
(1971–1973)
"93rd
(1973–1975)
"94th
(1975–1977)
"95th
(1977–1979)
""Carol Moseley Braun NZ.jpg
"Carol Moseley Braun
(born 1947)
January 3, 1993 "Illinois January 3, 1999 "Democratic "103rd
(1993–1995)
[18][19] [note 4]
"104th
(1995–1997)
"105th
(1997–1999)
""BarackObamaportrait.jpg
"Barack Obama
(born 1961)
January 3, 2005 "Illinois November 16, 2008 "Democratic "109th
(2005–2007)
[5][20] [note 5]
"110th
(2007–2009)
""Sen Roland Burris.jpg
"Roland Burris
(born 1937)
January 15, 2009 "Illinois November 29, 2010 "Democratic "111th
(2009–2011)
[6] [note 6]
""Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
"Tim Scott
(born 1965)
January 2, 2013 "South Carolina "Incumbent "Republican "112th
(2011–2013)
[21][22] [note 7]
"113th
(2013–2015)
"114th
(2015–2017)
"115th
(2017–2019)
""Mo Cowan, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
"Mo Cowan
(born 1969)
February 1, 2013 "Massachusetts July 16, 2013 "Democratic "113th
(2013–2015)
[23][24] [note 8]
""Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
"Cory Booker
(born 1969)
October 31, 2013 "New Jersey "Incumbent "Democratic "113th
(2013–2015)
[7][25][26] [note 9]
"114th
(2015–2017)
"115th
(2017–2019)
""Kamala Harris Official Attorney General Photo.jpg
"Kamala Harris
(born 1964)
January 3, 2017 "California "Incumbent "Democratic "115th
(2017–2019)
[8] [note 10]

African Americans elected to the United States Senate, but not seated[edit]

Political Party

  "Republican

"Senator "State "Party "Congress Ref. Note
""P. B. S. Pinchback - Brady-Handy.jpg
"P. B. S. Pinchback
(1837–1921)
"Louisiana "Republican "44th
(1875–1877)
[27] [note 11]

See also[edit]

Federal government
State and local government

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Retired from office. Elected to complete an unfinished term after Mississippi was readmitted into the Union on February 23, 1870. First African American to serve in the "United States Senate and "Congress. First African American to serve in Congress from "Mississippi.[13]
  2. ^ Retired from office. First African American to serve a full six-year term as a "United States Senator. The only Senator to be a former slave.[16]
  3. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African American elected to the Senate by "direct election. First African American to serve in Congress from "Massachusetts.[17]
  4. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African-American female and African-American Democrat to serve in the "United States Senate.[18]
  5. ^ Resigned from office following election to the presidency of the United States. First African-American "President of the United States.[5]
  6. ^ Appointed by Illinois Governor "Rod Blagojevich to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of "President-elect "Barack Obama. Not a candidate during "special election following his appointment. First African American to succeed another African American in the Senate.[6]
  7. ^ Appointed by South Carolina Governor "Nikki Haley to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of "Jim DeMint. First African American to serve in both chambers of the "United States Congress.
  8. ^ Appointed by Massachusetts Governor "Deval Patrick to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of "John Kerry. Not a candidate during "special election following his appointment. First African-American Senator appointed by an African-American Governor. The first African American to serve alongside another African-American Senator - "Tim Scott.
  9. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of "Frank Lautenberg. First African American to be elected to the Senate by "special election.
  10. ^ First African American to serve in the Senate from "California.
  11. ^ Denied seat due to a contested election that involved "William L. McMillen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF). "United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  2. ^ "Time Line of African American History, 1881-1900". "Library of Congress. Retrieved October 22, 2007. 
  3. ^ Weigel, David (January 30, 2013). "For the First Time Ever, We'll Have Two Black Senators Serving at the Same Time". Slate Magazine. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Obama, Barack, (1961–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c "Burris, Roland, (1937–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Walshe, Shushannah (January 30, 2013). "Cory Booker Wins Race for US Senate Seat in New Jersey". "ABC News. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Willon, Phil (November 9, 2016). "Kamala Harris is Elected California's New U.S. Senator". LA Times. Retrieved November 18, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Senators of the United States: 1789-present" (PDF). Senate Historical Office. April 17, 2015. p. 90. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  9. ^ "Ethnic Diversity in the Senate". Senate Historical Office. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  10. ^ Desjardins, Lisa (April 4, 2012). "No African-American senators likely in near future". CNN.com. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  11. ^ Terkel, Amanda (27 September 2012). "Senate Likely To Remain Without Black Members For Years". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "Revels, Hiram Rhodes, (1827–1901)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  13. ^ "First African American Senator". Historical Minutes Essays, 1878–1920. "Senate Historical Office. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Bruce, Blanche Kelso, (1841 - 1898)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "Former Slave Presides over Senate". Historical Minutes Essays, 1878–1920. "Senate Historical Office. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "Brooke, Edward William, III, (1919–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "Moseley Braun, Carol, (1947–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Carol Moseley Braun". "Senate Historical Office. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Barack Obama". "Senate Historical Office. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Scott, Tim, (1965–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  21. ^ Blake, Aaron; Cillizza, Chris (December 17, 2012). "Nikki Haley appoints Rep. Tim Scott to Senate". "The Washington Post. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Cowan, William (Mo), (1969–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  23. ^ Phillips, Frank (January 30, 2013). "William 'Mo' Cowan is Governor Deval Patrick's pick to serve as interim US senator". "Boston Globe. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Booker, Cory Anthony, (1969–)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "United States Congress. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  25. ^ Giambusso, David (October 23, 2013). "Cory Booker planning to be sworn in to Senate on Halloween". "The Star-Ledger. "NJ.com. Retrieved October 26, 2013. 
  26. ^ Office of the Historian. "'Crafting an Identity,' Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood". Office of the Clerk, House of Representatives of the United States. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

) )