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This is a list of "English language words borrowed from "indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as "Spanish or "French. † indicates a link to a definition of the word. It does not cover names of ethnic groups or place names derived from indigenous languages.

Most words of Native American/First Nations language origin are the "common names for indigenous flora and fauna, or describe items of "Native American or "First Nations life and culture. Some few are names applied in honor of Native Americans or First Nations peoples or due to a vague similarity to the original object of the word. For instance, "sequoias are named in honor of the Cherokee leader "Sequoyah, who lived 2,000 miles east of that tree's range while the "kinkajou of South America was given a name from an unrelated North American animal 2,000 miles to the north.


Words from Algonquian languages[edit]

Since Native Americans and First Nations peoples speaking a language of the "Algonquian group were generally the first to meet English explorers and settlers along the "Eastern Seaboard, many words from these languages made their way into English.

In addition, a great number of place names in "North America are of Algonquian origin, for example: Mississippi (cf. "Illinois mihsisiipiiwi and "Ojibwe misiziibi, "great river," referring to the "Mississippi River)[1][2] and Michigan (cf. Illinois meehcakamiwi, Ojibwe Mishigami, "great sea," referring to "Lake Michigan).[2][3] Even "Canadian provinces and "U.S. states, districts, counties and municipalities bear Algonquian names, such as "Québec, "Saskatchewan, "Nantucket, Massachusetts, "Naugatuck, Connecticut, "Wyoming, "District of Keewatin, "Outagamie County, Wisconsin and "Chicago, Illinois, or Algonquian-derived names, such as "Algoma.

In addition, a number of "Indigenous peoples of the Americas groups are known better by their Algonquian "exonyms, rather than by their "endonym, such as the "Eskimo (see below), "Winnebago (perhaps from "Potawatomi winpyéko, "(people of the) dirty water"),[4] "Sioux (ultimately from "Ottawa naadowesiwag),[4] "Assiniboine ("Ojibwe asiniibwaan, "stone Sioux")[2] and "Chipewyan ("Cree čīpwayān, "(those who have) pointed skins or hides").[5]

From a word in an Algonquian language meaning "something to lie down upon"[6] (c.f. "Ojibwe apishimon).[2]
"Atamasco lily
Earlier "attamusca", from "Powhatan.[7][8]
From "Míkmaq ápapíj (from ápapi, "cord, thread", "Proto-Algonquian *aʔrapa·pyi, from *aʔrapy-, "net" + *-a·by-, "string".[9]
From "Míkmaq qalipu, "snow-shoveler" (from qalipi, "shovel snow", "Proto-Algonquian *maka·ripi-).[10]
The etymology is disputed: two possible sources are an Algonquian word for "counsel", 'cau´-cau-as´u'; or the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker, or orator.[11]
From "Powhatan chechinquamins,[12] reconstituted as */t͡ʃiːht͡ʃiːnkweːmins/, the plural form.[13]
Originally "chitmunk," from "Odawa jidmoonh[14] /t͡ʃɪtmő/ (c.f. "Ojibwe ajidamoo(nh)),[2] ""American red squirrel".
Originally "siscowet," from "Ojibwe language bemidewiskaawed "greasy-bodied [fish]".[15]
From "Old Montagnais aiachkimeou ([aːjast͡ʃimeːw]; modern ayassimēw), meaning "snowshoe-netter" (often incorrectly claimed to be from an "Ojibwe word meaning "eaters of raw [meat]"), and originally used to refer to the "Mikmaq.[16][17]
From an Algonquian language akemantak (c.f. "Ojibwe aagimaandag), ""snowshoe boughs".["citation needed]
From "Powhatan <pocohiquara>, "milky drink made with hickory nuts".[18][19]
From Powhatan <uskatahomen>/<usketchaumun>, literally "that which is treated", in this case "that which is ground/beaten".[20]
Ultimately from a variant form of the word "Eskimo" (see above).[21]
From an Algonquian word meaning "wolverine" (c.f. "Algonquin kwingwaage, "Ojibwe gwiingwa'aage),[2] through French quincajou.[22]
From "Unami Delaware /kələkːəˈnikːan/, "mixture" (c.f. Ojibwe giniginige "to mix something animate with something inanimate"),[2] from "Proto-Algonquian *kereken-, "mix (it) with something different by hand".[23]
From michilmackinac, from "Menomini mishilimaqkināhkw, "be large like a snapping turtle",["citation needed] or from "Ojibwe mishi-makinaak, "large snapping turtle" with French -ile-, "island".["citation needed]
From an Algonquian language, perhaps "Powhatan <mockasin>,[24] reconstituted as */mahkesen/[25](c.f. "Ojibwe makizin,[2] "Míkmaq mɨkusun,[26] from "Proto-Algonquian *maxkeseni).[27]
From "Eastern Abenaki moz, reinforced by cognates from other Algonquian languages[28][29] (e.g. "Massachusett/Narragansett moos,[29] "Ojibwe moo(n)z,[2] "Lenape mus 'elk'[30]), from "Proto-Algonquian *mo·swa.[29]
From "mugquomp", a shortening of "Massachusett <muggumquomp>, "war chief" ("Proto-Algonquian *memekwa·pe·wa, from *memekw-, "swift" + *-a·pe·, "man").[31]
Ultimately from Ojibwe maashkinoozhe,[2] "ugly "pike" (c.f. ginoozhe, "pike").
From Cree maskēk, "swamp"[32] ("Proto-Algonquian *maškye·kwi).[33]
A "folk-etymologized reshaping of earlier "musquash", from "Massachusett (c.f. "Western Abenaki mòskwas), apparently from "Proto-Algonquian *mo·šk, "bob (at the surface of the water)" + *-exkwe·-, "head" + a derivational ending).[33]
From "Powhatan <apasum>/<opussum>/<aposoum>, "white dog-like animal",[34] reconstituted as */aːpassem/[35] (c.f. "Proto-Algonquian *waːp-aʔθemwa, "white dog").[36][37]
From "Narragansett <papoòs>[38] or "Massachusett <pappouse>, "baby".[39]
From "Illinois pakani (c.f. "Ojibwe bagaan),[2] ""nut", from "Proto-Algonquian *paka·ni.[40]
From "Cree pimihkān, from pimihkēw, "to make grease" ("Proto-Algonquian *pemihke·wa, from *pemy-, "grease" + -ehke·, "to make").[41]
From "Powhatan <pessemins>/<pushemins>, reconstituted as */pessiːmin/.[42] While the final element reflects "Proto-Algonquian *-min, "fruit, berry", the initial is unknown.[43]
From "Abenaki kpipskwáhsawe, "flower of the woods".[38][44]
Probably from "puccoon" (see below) + "weed".[38]
From "Powhatan <poan>/<appoans>, "something roasted" (reconstituted as */apoːn/)[45] (c.f. "Ojibwe abwaan),[2] from "Proto-Algonquian *apwa·n.[46]
From "Narragansett powwaw, ""shaman" ("Proto-Algonquian *pawe·wa, "to dream, to have a vision").[47]
From "Powhatan <poughkone>,[38] reconstituted as */pakkan/[48] (c.f. "Unami Delaware [pɛːkɔːn], 'red dye; the plant from which dye is made').[49][50]
A low box-like sleigh designed for one horse. Shortened form of "tom-pung" (from the same etymon as "toboggan") from an Algonquian language of Southern New England.[51]
Via "Dutch, from "Munsee [ponkwəs] ("Proto-Algonquian *penkwehsa, from *penkw-, "dust, ashes" + *-ehs, a "diminutive suffix).[52]
From "Narragansett <poquaûhock>.[53]
"Quonset hut
From an Algonquian language of southern New England, possibly meaning "small long place" (with <qunni->, "long" + <-s->, "diminutive + <-et>, "locative).[54]
From "Powhatan <arahkun>/<aroughcun>,[55] tentatively reconstituted as */aːreːhkan/.[56]
From an Algonquian language of southern New England,[57] c.f. "Narragansett <sâchim> ("Proto-Eastern Algonquian *sākimāw, "chief").[58]
From "Eastern Abenaki sakəma (c.f. Narragansett <sâchim>), "chief", from "Proto-Eastern Algonquian *sākimāw.[58]
From "Unami Delaware [t͡ʃipahkɔ] "shoes" (singular [t͡ʃiːpːakw]), altered on "analogy with English "shoe".[59]
From "Massachusett <squnck>["citation needed] ("Proto-Algonquian *šeka·kwa, from *šek-, "to urinate" + *-a·kw, "fox").[60]
"Squash (fruit)
From "Narragansett <askútasquash>.[61]
From "Massachusett <squa> (c.f. "Cree iskwē, "Ojibwe ikwe),[2] "woman", from "Proto-Algonquian *eθkwe·wa.[61]
From "Narragansett <msíckquatash>, "boiled whole kernels of corn" ("Proto-Algonquian *mesi·nkwete·wari, singular *mesi·nkwete·, from *mes-, "whole" + *-i·nkw-, "eye [=kernel]" + -ete·, "to cook").[62]
From Algonquin tabaguia.[63]
Originally "torope," from an "Eastern Algonquian language, perhaps "Powhatan (reconstituted as */toːrepeːw/)[64] (c.f. "Munsee Delaware /toːlpeːw/),[65] from "Proto-Eastern Algonquian *tōrəpēw.[66]
From "Míkmaq topaqan[67] or Maliseet-Passamaquoddy /tʰaˈpakən/[68] ("Proto-Algonquian *weta·pye·kani, from *wet-, "to drag" + *-a·pye·-, "cordlike object" + *-kan, "instrument for").[67]
From "Powhatan <tamahaac> ("Proto-Algonquian *temaha·kani, from *temah-, "to cut" + *-a·kan, "instrument for").[69]
From "Ojibwe nindoodem, "my totem" or odoodeman, "his totem," referring to a "kin group.[70]
From "Powhatan <tockawhoughe>/<tockwhough>/<taccaho>, "root used for bread", reconstituted as */takwahahk/[71] (perhaps from "Proto-Algonquian *takwah-, "pound (it)/reduce (it) to flour").[72]
From Old Ojibwe */otoːlipiː/[73] ("modern odoonibii).[2]
Earlier "wampumpeag", from "Massachusett, and meaning "white strings [of beads]" (c.f. "Maliseet: wapapiyik,[74] "Eastern Abenaki wápapəyak, "Ojibwe waabaabiinyag),[2] from "Proto-Algonquian *wa·p-, "white" + *-a·py-, "string-like object" + *-aki, plural.[75][76]
from Ojibwa waanikaan, "storage pit"[77]
"Wapiti (elk)
From "Shawnee waapiti, "white rump" (c.f. "Ojibwe waabidiy),[2] from "Proto-Algonquian *wa·petwiya, from *wa·p-, "white" + *-etwiy, "rump".[78]
From "Fox wiikiyaapi, from the same "Proto-Algonquian etymon as "wigwam" (see below).[79]
From "Eastern Abenaki wìkəwam (c.f. "Ojibwe wiigiwaam),[2] from "Proto-Algonquian *wi·kiwa·Hmi.[80]
Reshaped on "analogy with "wood" and "chuck", from an Algonquian language of southern New England (c.f. "Narragansett <ockqutchaun>, "woodchuck").[81]

Words from Nahuatl[edit]

Unless otherwise specified, Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl classique is among the sources used for each etymology

Words of "Nahuatl origin have entered many European languages. Mainly they have done so via "Spanish. Most words of Nahuatl origin end in a form of the Nahuatl ""absolutive suffix" (-tl, -tli, or -li, or the Spanish adaptation -te), which marked unpossessed nouns.

from āchiotl "[aːˈt͡ʃiot͡ɬ]
from ahtlatl "[ˈaʔt͡ɬat͡ɬ]
from āhuacatl, "avocado" or "testicle" "[aːˈwakat͡ɬ]
āxōlōtl, from ā-, "water" + xōlōtl, "male servant"[82] "[aːˈʃoːloːt͡ɬ]
"Cacao and cocoa
from cacahuatl "[kaˈkawat͡ɬ]
from chayohtli "[t͡ʃaˈjoʔt͡ɬi]
from chian
from tzictli "[ˈt͡sikt͡ɬi]
from chīlli "[ˈt͡ʃiːlːi]
from chilpoctli meaning "smoked chili"
Often said to be from Nahuatl xocolātl[38] or chocolātl,[83] which would be derived from xococ "bitter" and ātl "water" (with an irregular change of x to ch).[84] However, the form xocolātl is not directly attested, and chocolatl does not appear in Nahuatl until the mid-18th century. Some researchers have recently proposed that the chocol- element was originally chicol-, and referred to a special wooden stick used to prepare chocolate.[85]
from copalli[86]
from coyōtl
from epazōtl
from āhuacamōlli, from āhuaca-, "avocado", and mōlli, "sauce"
from huāctzin[87]
from xicamatl
from mizquitl "[ˈmiskit͡ɬ]
from mexcalli "[meʃˈkalːi] metl "[met͡ɬ] and ixcalli "[iʃˈkalːi] which mean 'oven cooked agave.'[88]
from mōlli "[ˈmoːlːi], "sauce"
from nohpalli "[noʔˈpalːi], "prickly pear cactus"
from ocēlōtl "[oːˈseːloːt͡ɬ]
from peyōtl "[ˈpejoːt͡ɬ]. Nahuatl probably borrowed the root peyō- from another language, but the source is not known.[89]
from Nahuatl pinolli, via Spanish
from quetzalli "[keˈt͡salːi], ""quetzal feather".[90]
from tzapocuahuitl
from tzapotl "[ˈt͡sapot͡ɬ]
possibly from xahcalli, "grass hut", by way of "Mexican Spanish.[38][91] "[ʃaʔˈkalːi]
from tzotolli[92]
from tlahco: half or in the middle
from tamalli "[taˈmalːi]
from téquitl: work; tlan: place
from tōllin "[ˈtoːlːin], "reed, bulrush"
from tomatl "[ˈtomat͡ɬ]

Words from Quechua[edit]

Unless otherwise specified, Words in English from Amerindian Languages is among the sources used for each etymology

A number of words from "Quechua have entered English, mostly via Spanish, adopting hispanicized spellings.

from aya "corpse" and waska "rope", via Spanish ayahuasca
from qhachwa
from ch'uñu
from kuka, via Spanish coca
from kuka (see above), probably via French cocaïne
from kuntur, via Spanish cóndor
"Gran Chaco
from chaku, "hunt"
from wanaku
from wanu via Spanish guano
from Inka "lord, king"
from ch'arki, via Spanish charquí
from yapay, "add, addition", via Spanish la yapa (with the "definite article la).
from rimay, "speak" (from the name of "the city, named for the Rimaq river ("speaking river"))
from llama, via Spanish
from maswa
from pampa, "a large plain", via Spanish
from pisqu, "bird"
from puma, via Spanish
from kinakina, via Spanish quina
from kinwa, via Spanish quinoa
from suruqchi or suruqch'i, ""Altitude sickness"[93][94]
from wik'uña, via Spanish vicuña

Words from "Eskimo–Aleut languages[edit]

from "Greenlandic Inuit annoraaq[95]
from the "Inuktitut word saimo ("ᓴᐃᒧ "[sa.i.ˈmo], a word of greeting, farewell, and "toast before drinking.[96] Used as a greeting and cheer "by the Canadian Military Engineers, and more widely in some parts of Southern Ontario and Western Canada, particularly in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan["citation needed]
from "Inuktitut iglu ("ᐃᒡᓗ "[iɣ.ˈlu])[97]
"Inuktitut ilanaaq ("ᐃᓚᓈᒃ "[i.la.naːk]), "friend". Name of the logo for the "2010 Winter Olympics
from "Inuktitut inuksuk ("ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ "[i.nuk.ˈsuk])[97]
from "Inuktitut qajaq ("ᖃᔭᖅ "[qa.ˈjaq])[97]
from "Inupiaq Malimiut, the name of an Inupiaq subgroup[98]
from "Yupik maklak ([makɬak]), ""bearded seal"[97]
from "Inuktitut word for polar bear Nanuq ("ᓇᓄᒃ "[na.ˈnuq]),[99] "polar bear", made famous in English due to a 1922 documentary "Nanook of the North, featuring a man with this name.
from "Greenlandic Inuit nunataq[100]

Words from "Arawakan languages[edit]

from an "Arawakan language, or possibly "Cariban, by way of "French anolis.[101][102][103]
from an "Arawakan language of "Haiti barbakoa, "framework of sticks",[104] via "Spanish barbacoa.[105]
from an "Arawakan language buccan, "a wooden frame on which Tainos and Caribs slowly roasted or smoked meat",via "French boucane.[106]
"Cacique or cassique
from Taino cacike or Arawak kassequa "chieftain"[107]
from a "Ta-Maipurean language, "water spirit" (c.f. "Garifuna [aɡaiumã]),[108][109] though possibly ultimately of African origin.[110]
from "Taino via "Spanish canoa.[111]
from "Taino caçabi, "manioc meal", via "Spanish or "Portuguese.[112]
from Taino, by way of Spanish cayo.[113]
from an Arawakan language, by way of Spanish guayaba.[114]
from "Taino, via Spanish hamaca.[115]
from "Taino hurakán, via "Spanish.[116]
from an "Arawakan language iwana.[117][118]
from "Taino macana via Spanish.
from "Taino mahís, by way of Spanish.[119][120]
from "Taino, via "Spanish mangle or "Portuguese mangue.[121]
from "Taino.[122]
from the "Taino word for "papa", via "Spanish patata.[123]
from "Taino zabana, via "Spanish.[124]
probably from an "Arawakan language, via "Spanish: tabaco.[67]
from "Taino, via "Spanish.[125]

Words from "Tupi-Guaraní[edit]

from "Tupi–Guaraní akutí, via "Portuguese aguti through "French.[126][127][128]
from "Tupí acaîu, via "Portuguese caju.[129]
from "Guaraní kapibári 'the grass eater ' via "Portuguese capivara through "French.
from "Guaraní katupyry via "Brazilian Portuguese.[130]
from "Tupí kyinha via "French.[131]
ultimately corrupted from "Guaraní guaçu ara.[132]
from "Tupinambá via "Portuguese jaguar through "French /jaˈwar-/,.[133][134]
from "Guaraní via "Portuguese.
from "Tupí maraka via "Portuguese.
via "Portuguese Macau from "Tupi macavuana, which may be the name of a type of palm tree the fruit of which the birds eat.[135]
from "Tupinambá via "Portuguese man(d)ioca through "French /maniˈʔok-/.[133]
from "Tupí petun 'smoke' via "Portuguese.
from "Tupí via "Portuguese.[136]
from "Tupinambá siriema 'the crested one' via "Portuguese
from "Tupinambá via "Portuguese /tɨpɨˈʔok-a/,[133] "juice squeezed out".[137]
from "Tupinambá via "Portuguese tapir through "French /tapiˈʔir-/.[133]
from "Tupinambá teiú-guaçú 'big lizard' via "Portuguese teiú
from "Tupinambá via "Portuguese tucano through "French /tuˈkan-/,[133] via "Portuguese and "French.[138]

Words from other indigenous languages of the Americas[edit]

from "Rumsen awlun and "Ohlone aluan, via "Spanish abulón.[139]
from "Aymara allpaka, via "Spanish.[140]
Either named for the "Palouse River, whose name comes from "Sahaptin palú:s, "what is standing up in the water"; or for "Opelousas, Louisiana, which may come from "Choctaw api losa, "black body".[141]
from early "Choctaw bayuk, "creek, river", via "French.[142]
from "Nez Perce qémʼes.[143]
via "Spanish Caníbalis, from a "Cariban language, meaning "person, Indian",[144] (Proto-Cariban *karípona),[145] based on the Spaniards' belief that the Caribs ate human flesh.[146]
from "Creek katałpa "head-wing", with (i)ká, "head" + (i)táłpa, "wing".[147]
from "Yucatec Maya dzonot or ts'onot[148] meaning "well"[149]
from Chinook Jargon chee + chako, "new come". Chee comes from "Lower Chinook čxi, "straightaway", and for chako c.f. "Nuuchahnulth čokwaa, "come!"[150]
via Spanish from "Kuna chichab, ""maize" or from Nahuatl chichiatl, "fermented water."
from "Lower Chehalis tsʼinúk, the name of a village,[151][152] via "Chinook Trade Jargon.
from "Cahuilla čáxwal.[153]
from "Halkomelem k̉ʷə́xʷəθ ([kʷʼəxʷəθ]).[38][154][155]
from "Creek conti hetaka.
from "Mapudungun kóypu.
from "Cumanagoto.
from "Miskito dóri, dúri.
from a "Cree adaptation of "Chinook Trade Jargon ulâkân,[156] itself a borrowing of "Clatsap u-tlalxwə(n), "brook trout".[157]
from "Lushootseed (Nisqually) gʷídəq.[158][159]
from "Kuna.
High muckamuck
from "Chinook Jargon [ˈmʌkəmʌk], "eat, food, drink", of unknown origin.[160]
from "Navajo hooghan.[161]
a shortening of "Hoochinoo", the name of a Tlingit village, from "Tlingit xutsnuuwú, "brown bear fort".[162][163]
from "Hopi katsína, "spirit being".[164]
from "Hopi kíva (containing ki-, "house").[165]
perhaps from "Twana kəknǽxw.[166]
via "Spanish manatí, from a word in a "Cariban language meaning "(woman's) breast".[167][168][169]
from "Lakota "false", "untrue".[170]
from "Hopi.
from "Shoshone /pakɨnappɨ/ ([paˈɣɨnappɨ̥]), "fog".[171]
via Spanish from "Mapudungun pontho,[172] "woolen fabric".[173]
via Spanish patata from Haitian Carib batata="sweet potato"[174]
from "Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) p̉aƛp̉ač ([pʼatɬpʼat͡ʃ], "reduplication of p̉a, "to make ceremonial gifts in potlatch", with the "iterative suffix ) via "Chinook Jargon.[175]
from "Chinook Trade Jargon [səˈlæl], from "Lower Chinook salál.[176]
via "Spanish, from some indigenous language, possibly "Opata.[177]
From "Halkomelem [ˈsæsqʼəts].[178]
from "Ute-Southern Paiute /siˈkuʔa/ ([siˈɣuʔa]).[179]
from a "Cherokee personal name, <Sikwayi>, with no further known etymology.[180]
from "Halkomelem /ˈsθəqəʔj/.[181]
from "Chinook Jargon [ˈskukəm], "powerful, supernaturally dangerous", from "Lower Chehalis skʷəkʷə́m, "devil, anything evil, spirit monster".[182][183]
from a "Cariban language, via "French.[184]
from "Lakota thípi, "house".[65]
Perhaps from "Creek ’topilwa, "swamp-tree", from íto, "tree" + opílwa, "swamp".[185]
from "Chinook Jargon [ˈwapato], "arrowroot, wild potato", from "Upper Chinook [wa]-, a noun prefix + [pato], which comes from "Kalapuyan [pdóʔ], "wild potato".[186]
from "Lakota wa, "people/things" + kiŋyaŋ, "to fly".[187]
from "Catawba yąpą, from , "wood/tree" + , "leaf".[188]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Klak, Thomas. "Historical Landscapes of the Miami". Myaamia Project. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Nichols, John, and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
  3. ^ Some Illinois Words: Places
  4. ^ a b Campbell (1997:399)
  5. ^ Campbell (1997:395)
  6. ^ Chamberlain, Alexander F. (1902). "Algonkian Words in American English: A Study in the Contact of the White Man and the Indian". The Journal of American Folklore. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 15, No. 59. 15 (59): 240–267. "doi:10.2307/533199. "JSTOR 533199. 
  7. ^ RHD (1987:129)
  8. ^ "Atamasco lily". "American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-03-30. 
  9. ^ "Babiche". "Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  10. ^ RHD (1987:315-16)
  11. ^ Wilson, James (1999). The Earth Shall Weep. New York City, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press. pp. 104–105. "ISBN "0-87113-730-5.
  12. ^ RHD (1987:361)
  13. ^ Siebert (1975:323)
  14. ^ Rhodes, Richard A. 1985. Eastern Ojibwa–Chippewa–Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
  15. ^ "Cisco". "American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  16. ^ Campbell (1997:394)
  17. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy". In "Arctic", ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 5:5–6
  18. ^ RHD (1987:900)
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