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The following is a list of "gods, "goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient "Greek mythology and "Ancient Greek religion. (The list does not include creatures; for these, see "List of Greek mythological creatures.)

Contents

Immortals[edit]

The Greeks created images of their deities for many purposes. A temple would house the statue of a god or goddess, or multiple deities, and might be decorated with "relief scenes depicting myths. Divine images were common on coins. Drinking cups and other "vessels were painted with scenes from Greek myths.

Major gods and goddesses[edit]

Deity Description
""NAMA Aphrodite Syracuse.jpg "Aphrodite (Ἀφροδίτη, Aphroditē)

Goddess of beauty, love, desire, and pleasure. In "Hesiod's Theogony (188–206), she was born from sea-foam and "Uranus's severed genitals; in "Homer's Illiad (5.370–417), she is daughter of "Zeus and "Dione. She was married to "Hephaestus, but bore him no children. She had many lovers, most notably "Ares, to whom she bore "Harmonia, "Phobos, and "Deimos. She was also a lover to "Adonis and "Anchises, to whom she bore "Aeneas. She is usually depicted as a naked or semi-nude beautiful woman. Her symbols include "myrtle, roses, and the "scallop shell. Her sacred animals include doves and sparrows. Her Roman counterpart is "Venus.[1]

""Apollo, lira, dan angsa.jpg "Apollo (Ἀπόλλων, Apóllōn)

God of music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague, prophecy, poetry, manly beauty, and archery. He is the son of "Zeus and "Leto, and the twin brother of "Artemis. Both Apollo and Artemis use a bow and arrow. Apollo is depicted as young, beardless, handsome and athletic. In myth, he can be cruel and destructive, and his love affairs are rarely happy. He is often accompanied by the Muses. His most famous temple is in "Delphi, where he established his oracular shrine. His signs and symbols include the "laurel wreath, bow and arrow, and "lyre. His sacred animals include "roe deer, swans, and pythons. Some late Roman and Greek poetry and mythography identifies him as a sun-god, equivalent to Roman "Sol and Greek "Helios.[2]

""Ares Canope Villa Adriana b.jpg "Ares (Ἄρης, Árēs)

God of war, bloodshed, and violence. The son of "Zeus and "Hera, he was depicted as a beardless youth, either nude with a helmet and spear or sword, or as an armed warrior. "Homer portrays him as moody and unreliable, and as being the most unpopular god on earth and Olympus (Iliad 5.890–1). He generally represents the chaos of war in contrast to "Athena, a goddess of military strategy and skill. Ares is known for cuckolding his brother "Hephaestus, conducting an affair with his wife "Aphrodite. His sacred animals include vultures, venomous snakes, dogs, and boars. His Roman counterpart "Mars by contrast was regarded as the dignified ancestor of the Roman people.[3]

""Diane de Versailles Leochares.jpg "Artemis (Ἄρτεμις, Ártemis)

Virgin goddess of the hunt, wilderness, animals, young girls, childbirth, and plague. In later times, Artemis became associated with bows and arrows. She is the daughter of "Zeus and "Leto, and twin sister of "Apollo. In art she is often depicted as a young woman dressed in a short knee-length "chiton and equipped with a hunting bow and a quiver of arrows. Her attributes include hunting spears, animal pelts, "deer and other wild animals. Her sacred animals include deer, bears, and wild boars. Her Roman counterpart is "Diana.[4]

""Mattei Athena Louvre Ma530 n2.jpg "Athena (Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnâ)

Goddess of reason, wisdom, intelligence, skill, peace, warfare, battle strategy, and handicrafts. According to most traditions, she was born from Zeus's forehead, fully formed and armored. She is depicted as being crowned with a crested helm, armed with shield and spear, and wearing the "aegis over a long dress. Poets describe her as "grey-eyed" or having especially bright, keen eyes. She is a special patron of "heroes such as "Odysseus. She is the patron of the city Athens (which was named after her) and is attributed to various inventions in arts and literature. Her symbol is the "olive tree. She is commonly shown as being accompanied by her sacred animal, the owl. Her Roman counterpart is "Minerva.[5]

""Demeter Altemps Inv8546.jpg "Demeter (Δημήτηρ, Dēmētēr)

Goddess of grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment. Demeter is a daughter of "Cronus and "Rhea, and a sister of "Zeus, by whom she bore "Persephone. Demeter is one of the main deities of the "Eleusinian Mysteries, in which her power over the life cycle of plants symbolizes the passage of the human soul through life and into the afterlife. She is depicted as a mature woman, often crowned and holding sheafs of "wheat and a torch. Her symbols are the "cornucopia, wheat-ears, the winged serpent, and the lotus staff. Her sacred animals include pigs and snakes. Her Roman counterpart is "Ceres.

""Dionysos Louvre Ma87 n2.jpg "Dionysus (Διόνυσος, Diónysos)/Bacchus (Βάκχος, Bákkhos)

God of wine, fruitfulness, parties, festivals, madness, chaos, drunkenness, vegetation, and ecstasy. In art he is depicted as either an older bearded god or an "effeminate, long-haired youth. His attributes include the "thyrsus, a drinking cup, the grape vine, and a crown of "ivy. He is often in the company of his "thiasos, a group of attendants including "satyrs, "maenads, and his old tutor "Silenus. The consort of Dionysus was "Ariadne. His sacred animals include dolphins, serpents, tigers, and donkeys. A later addition to the Olympians, in some accounts he replaced Hestia. Bacchus was another name for him in Greek, and came into common usage among the Romans.

""Hades-et-Cerberus-III.jpg "Hades (ᾍδης, Hádēs)/"Pluto (Πλούτων, Ploutōn)

God of the underworld and the dead. His consort is "Persephone. His attributes are the "drinking horn or "cornucopia, key, sceptre, and the three-headed dog "Cerberus. His sacred animals include the screech owl. He was one of three sons of "Cronus and "Rhea, and thus sovereign over one of the three realms of the universe, the underworld. As a "chthonic god, however, his place among the Olympians is ambiguous. In the "mystery religions and Athenian literature, Pluto ("the Rich") was his preferred name, with Hades referring to the underworld itself. The Romans translated Plouton as "Dis Pater ("the Rich Father") or Pluto.

""Vulcan Coustou Louvre MR1814.jpg "Hephaestus (Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos)

God of fire, metalworking, and crafts. Either the son of "Zeus and "Hera or Hera alone, he is the smith of the gods and the husband of the adulterous "Aphrodite. He was usually depicted as a bearded, crippled man with hammer, tongs, and anvil, and sometimes riding a donkey. His sacred animals include the donkey, the guard dog, and the crane. Among his creations was the armor of "Achilles. Hephaestus used the fire of the forge as a creative force, but his Roman counterpart "Vulcan was feared for his destructive potential and associated with the "volcanic power of the earth.

""Hera Campana Louvre Ma2283.jpg "Hera (Ἥρα, Hḗra)

Queen of the gods, and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, and empires. She is the wife and sister of "Zeus, and the daughter of "Cronus and "Rhea. She was usually depicted as a regal woman in the prime of her life, wearing a diadem and veil and holding a lotus-tipped staff. Although she is the goddess of marriage, Zeus's many infidelities drive her to jealousy and vengefulness. Her sacred animals include the heifer, the peacock, and the cuckoo. Her Roman counterpart is "Juno.

""Hermes Ingenui Pio-Clementino Inv544.jpg "Hermes (Ἑρμῆς, Hērmēs)

God of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, language, and writing. The son of "Zeus and "Maia, Hermes is the messenger of the gods, and a "psychopomp who leads the souls of the dead into the afterlife. He was depicted either as a handsome and athletic beardless youth, or as an older bearded man. His attributes include the herald's wand or "caduceus, winged sandals, and a traveler's cap. His sacred animals include the tortoise. His Roman counterpart is "Mercury.

""Hestia - Wellesley College - DSC09634.JPG "Hestia (Ἑστία, Hestía)

Virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and chastity. She is a daughter of "Rhea and "Cronus, and a sister of "Zeus. Not often identifiable in Greek art, she appeared as a modestly veiled woman. Her symbols are the hearth and kettle. In some accounts, she gave up her seat as one of the "Twelve Olympians in favor of "Dionysus, and she plays little role in Greek myths. Her Roman counterpart "Vesta, however, was a major deity of the Roman state.

""0036MAN Poseidon.jpg "Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν, Poseidōn)

God of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, and earthquakes. He is a son of "Cronus and "Rhea, and the brother of "Zeus and "Hades. He rules one of the three realms of the universe, as king of the sea and the waters. In art he is depicted as a mature man of sturdy build, often with a luxuriant beard, and holding a "trident. His sacred animals include the horse and the dolphin. His wedding with "Amphitrite is often presented as a "triumphal procession. In some stories he rapes Medusa, leading to her transformation into a hideous Gorgon and also to the birth of their two children, Pegasus and Chrysaor. His Roman counterpart is "Neptune.

""Jupiter Smyrna Louvre Ma13.jpg "Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeus)

King of the gods, ruler of Mount Olympus, and god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and justice. He is the youngest son of "Cronus and "Rhea. He overthrew Cronus and gained the sovereignty of heaven for himself. In art he is depicted as a regal, mature man with a sturdy figure and dark beard. His usual attributes are the royal scepter and the lightning bolt. His sacred animals include the eagle and the bull. His Roman counterpart is "Jupiter, also known as Jove.

"Primordial deities[edit]

Ancient Greek name English name Description
Ἀχλύς (Akhlýs) "Achlys The goddess of poisons and the "Death-Mist", and personification of misery and sadness. Said to have existed before Chaos itself.
Αἰών (Aiôn) "Aion The god of eternity, personifying cyclical and unbounded time. Sometimes equated with Chronos.
Αἰθήρ (Aithḗr) "Aether The god of light and the upper atmosphere.
Ἀνάγκη (Anánkē) "Ananke The goddess of inevitability, compulsion, and necessity.
Χάος (Cháos) "Chaos The personification of nothingness from which all of existence sprang. Depicted as a void. Initially genderless, later on described as female.
Χρόνος (Chrónos) "Chronos The god of empirical time, sometimes equated with Aion. Not to be confused with the "Titan "Cronus (Kronos), the father of "Zeus.
Ἔρεβος (Érebos) "Erebus The god of darkness and shadow.
Ἔρως (Eros) "Eros The god of love and attraction.
Ἡμέρα (Hēméra) "Hemera The goddess of day.
Ὕπνος (Hypnos) "Hypnos The personification of sleep.
Γαῖα (Gaîa) "Gaia (Gaea) Personification of the Earth (Mother Earth); mother of the "Titans.
Νέμεσις (Némesis) "Nemesis The goddess of retribution.
Nῆσοι (Nē̂soi) The "Nesoi The goddesses of the islands and sea.
Νύξ (Nýx) "Nyx The goddess of night.
Οὐρανός (Ouranós) "Uranus The god of the heavens (Father Sky); father of the Titans.
Οὔρεα (Oúrea) The "Ourea The gods of mountains.
Φάνης (Phánēs) "Phanes The god of procreation in the "Orphic tradition.
Πόντος (Póntos) "Pontus The god of the sea, father of the fish and other sea creatures.
Τάρταρος (Tártaros) "Tartarus The god of the deepest, darkest part of the underworld, the Tartarean pit (which is also referred to as Tartarus itself).
Θάλασσα (Thálassa) "Thalassa Personification of the sea and consort of Pontus.
Θάνατος (Thánatos) "Thanatos God of Death. Brother to Hypnos (Sleep) and in some cases Moros (Doom)

"Titans and Titanesses[edit]

The Titans and Titanesses are depicted in Greek art less commonly than the Olympians.

Greek name English name Description
The Twelve Titans
Κοῖος (Koîos) "Coeus Titan of intellect and the axis of heaven around which the constellations revolved.
Κρεῖος (Kreîos) "Crius The least individualized of the Twelve Titans, he is the father of "Astraeus, "Pallas, and "Perses. Implied to be the Titan of constellations.
Κρόνος (Kronos) "Cronus Titan of harvests and personification of destructive time. The leader of the Titans, who overthrew his father "Uranus only to be overthrown in turn by his son, "Zeus. Not to be confused with "Chronos.
Ὑπερίων (Hyperíōn) "Hyperion Titan of light. With "Theia, he is the father of "Helios (the sun), "Selene (the moon), and "Eos (the dawn).
Ἰαπετός (Iapetós) "Iapetus Titan of mortality and father of "Prometheus, "Epimetheus, "Menoetius, and "Atlas.
Mνημοσύνη (Mnēmosýnē) "Mnemosyne Titaness of memory and remembrance, and mother of the "Nine Muses.
Ὠκεανός (Ōceanós) "Oceanus Titan of the all-encircling river Oceans around the earth, the fount of all the Earth's fresh-water.
Φοίβη (Phoíbē) "Phoebe Titaness of the "bright" intellect and prophecy, and consort of Koios.
Ῥέα (Rhéa) "Rhea Titaness of fertility, motherhood and the mountain wilds. She is the sister and consort of "Cronus, and mother of "Zeus, "Hades, "Poseidon, "Hera, "Demeter, and "Hestia.
Τηθύς (Tēthýs) "Tethys Titaness of fresh-water, and the mother of the rivers, springs, streams, fountains, and clouds.
Θεία (Theía) "Theia Titaness of sight and the shining light of the clear blue sky. She is the consort of Hyperion, and mother of Helios, Selene, and Eos.
Θέμις (Thémis) "Themis Titaness of divine law and order.
Other Titans
Ἀστερία (Astería) "Asteria Titaness of nocturnal oracles and falling stars.
Ἀστραῖος (Astraîos) "Astraeus Titan of dusk, stars, and planets, and the art of astrology.
Ἄτλας (Átlas) "Atlas Titan forced to carry the heavens upon his shoulders by Zeus. Also Son of Iapetus.
Αὔρα (Aúra) "Aura Titaness of the breeze and the fresh, cool air of early morning.
Κλυμένη (Clyménē) "Clymene Titaness of renown, fame, and infamy, and wife of Iapetus.
Διώνη (Diṓnē) "Dione Titaness of the oracle of Dodona.
Ἥλιος (Hḗlios) "Helios Titan of the sun and guardian of oaths.
Σελήνη (Selḗnē) "Selene Titaness of the moon.
Ἠώς (Ēṓs) "Eos Titaness of the dawn.
Ἐπιμηθεύς (Epimētheús) "Epimetheus Titan of afterthought and the father of excuses.
Εὐρυβία (Eurybía) "Eurybia Titaness of the mastery of the seas and consort of Krios.
Εὐρυνόμη (Eurynómē) "Eurynome Titaness of water-meadows and pasturelands, and mother of the three "Charites by Zeus.
Λήλαντος (Lēlantos) "Lelantos Titan of air and the hunter's skill of stalking prey. He is the male counterpart of Leto.
Λητώ (Lētṓ) "Leto Titaness of motherhood and mother of the twin Olympians, Artemis and Apollo.
Μενοίτιος (Menoítios) "Menoetius Titan of violent anger, rash action, and human mortality. Killed by Zeus.
Μῆτις (Mē̂tis) "Metis Titaness of good counsel, advice, planning, cunning, craftiness, and wisdom. Mother of Athena.
Ὀφίων (Ophíōn) "Ophion An elder Titan, in some versions of the myth he ruled the Earth with his consort Eurynome before Cronus overthrew him. Another account describes him as a snake, born from the "World Egg"
Πάλλας (Pállas) "Pallas Titan of warcraft. He was killed by Athena during the Titanomachy.
Πέρσης (Pérsēs) "Perses Titan of destruction.
Προμηθεύς (Promētheús) "Prometheus Titan of forethought and crafty counsel, and creator of mankind.
Στύξ (Stýx) "Styx Titaness of the Underworld river Styx and personification of hatred.

Gigantes and other "giants"[edit]

Gigantes[edit]

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"Athena (left) fighting Enceladus (inscribed retrograde) on an "Attic "red-figure dish, c. 550–500 BC ("Louvre CA3662).[6]

The "Gigantes were the offspring of "Gaia (Earth), born from the blood that fell when "Uranus (Sky) was castrated by their "Titan son "Cronus, who fought the Gigantomachy, their war with the "Olympian gods for supremecy of the cosmos, they include:

Other "giants"[edit]

Personified concepts[edit]

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Eros
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Hermes watches Hypnos and Thanatos carry the dead "Sarpedon from the "battlefield at Troy ("Euphronios krater)

"Chthonic deities[edit]

Sea deities[edit]

Some notable Oceanides include:
  • "Idyia (Ίδυια), wife of the Colchian king "Aeetes, mother of "Medea
  • "Metis, "Zeus' first wife, whom Zeus impregnated with "Athena and then swallowed.
  • "Styx, goddess of the river Styx
For a more complete list, see "List of Oceanids
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Poseidon and Amphitrite framed by "erotes and riding in a "chariot drawn by "hippocamps; below them are fishermen at work, with nymphs and creatures of the sea in the waters (color-enhanced "Roman-era mosaic)

Sky deities[edit]

Rustic deities[edit]

Agricultural deities[edit]

Health deities[edit]

Other deities[edit]

Mortals[edit]

Deified mortals[edit]

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Athena pouring a drink for Heracles, who wears the skin of the "Nemean Lion

Heroes[edit]

Notable women[edit]

Kings[edit]

Seers/oracles[edit]

Amazons[edit]

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Achilles and Penthesileia ("Lucanian red-figure "bell-krater, late 5th century BC)

Inmates of Tartarus[edit]

Minor figures[edit]

See "List of minor Greek mythological figures

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ March, Jennifer (2014). Dictionary of classical mythology. Aphrodite. "ISBN "9781782976356. 
  2. ^ March, Jennifer (2014). Dictionary of classical mythology. Apollo. "ISBN "9781782976356. 
  3. ^ March, Jennifer (2014). Dictionary of classical mythology. Ares. "ISBN "9781782976356. 
  4. ^ March, Jennifer (2014). Dictionary of classical mythology. Artemis. "ISBN "9781782976356. 
  5. ^ March, Jennifer (2014). Dictionary of classical mythology. Athena. "ISBN "9781782976356. 
  6. ^ Beazley Archive 200059, LIMC Gigantes 342.
  7. ^ Guirand, Felix, ed. (16 December 1987). New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Crescent Books. "ISBN "978-0-517-00404-3. 

External links[edit]

"" Media related to Mythology of Greece at Wikimedia Commons
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