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Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2012) 8 million "SEK (roughly US$1.2 million, €0.93 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 "Alvin E. Roth, "Brian Kobilka, "Robert J. Lefkowitz, "David J. Wineland, and "Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The "Nobel Prizes ("Swedish: Nobelpriset, "Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the "Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the "Swedish Academy, the "Karolinska Institutet, and the "Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of "chemistry, "physics, "literature, "peace, and "physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of "Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the "Nobel Foundation. The "Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the "Sveriges Riksbank, the "central bank of "Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a "diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.[2]



Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 "SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in "Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of "World War II.[7]


Between 1901 and 2017, the "Nobel Prizes and the "Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations.[8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. "Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, "Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), "Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and "Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the "Soviet Union pressured "Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, "Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and "Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the "International Committee of the Red Cross has received the "Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[9] "UNHCR has been awarded the "Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the "Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to "John Bardeen twice, and the "Nobel Prize in Chemistry to "Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: "Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and "Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was "Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[9]

List of laureates[edit]

Year "Physics "Chemistry "Physiology
or Medicine
"Literature "Peace "Economics
1901 Röntgen, Wilhelm"Wilhelm Röntgen Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 't"Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff von Behring, Emil Adolf"Emil Adolf von Behring Prudhomme, Sully"Sully Prudhomme Dunant, Henry"Henry Dunant;
Passy, Frédéric"Frédéric Passy
1902 Lorentz, Hendrik"Hendrik Lorentz;
Zeeman, Pieter"Pieter Zeeman
Fischer, Hermann Emil"Hermann Emil Fischer Ross, Ronald"Ronald Ross Mommsen, Theodor"Theodor Mommsen Ducommun, Élie"Élie Ducommun;
Gobat, Charles Albert"Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Becquerel, Henri"Henri Becquerel;
Curie, Pierre"Pierre Curie;
Curie, Marie"Marie Curie
Arrhenius, Svante"Svante Arrhenius Finsen, Niels Ryberg"Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne"Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Cremer, Randal"Randal Cremer
1904 Rayleigh, Lord"Lord Rayleigh Ramsay, William"William Ramsay Pavlov, Ivan"Ivan Pavlov Mistral, Frédéric"Frédéric Mistral;
Echegaray, José"José Echegaray
"Institut de Droit International
1905 Lenard, Philipp"Philipp Lenard Baeyer, Adolf von"Adolf von Baeyer Koch, Robert"Robert Koch Sienkiewicz, Henryk"Henryk Sienkiewicz Suttner, Bertha von"Bertha von Suttner
1906 Thomson, J. J."J. J. Thomson Moissan, Henri"Henri Moissan Golgi, Camillo"Camillo Golgi;
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago"Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Carducci, Giosuè"Giosuè Carducci Roosevelt, Theodore"Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Michelson, Albert Abraham"Albert Abraham Michelson Buchner, Eduard"Eduard Buchner Laveran, Charles Louis Alphonse"Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Kipling, Rudyard"Rudyard Kipling Moneta, Ernesto Teodoro"Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Renault, Louis"Louis Renault
1908 Lippmann, Gabriel"Gabriel Lippmann Rutherford, Ernest"Ernest Rutherford Metchnikoff, Élie"Élie Metchnikoff;
Ehrlich, Paul"Paul Ehrlich
Eucken, Rudolf Christoph"Rudolf Christoph Eucken Arnoldson, Klas Pontus"Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Bajer, Fredrik"Fredrik Bajer
1909 Braun, Karl Ferdinand"Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Marconi, Guglielmo"Guglielmo Marconi
Ostwald, Wilhelm"Wilhelm Ostwald Kocher, Emil Theodor"Emil Theodor Kocher Lagerlöf, Selma"Selma Lagerlöf Beernaert, Auguste Marie François"Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-Benjamin"Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Waals, Johannes Diderik van der"Johannes Diderik van der Waals Wallach, Otto"Otto Wallach Kossel, Albrecht"Albrecht Kossel Heyse, Paul"Paul Heyse "International Peace Bureau
1911 Wien, Wilhelm"Wilhelm Wien Skłodowska-Curie, Marie"Marie Skłodowska-Curie Gullstrand, Allvar"Allvar Gullstrand Maeterlinck, Maurice"Maurice Maeterlinck Asser, Tobias"Tobias Asser;
Fried, Alfred Hermann"Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Dalén, Gustaf"Gustaf Dalén Grignard, Victor"Victor Grignard;
Sabatier, Paul"Paul Sabatier
Carrel, Alexis"Alexis Carrel Hauptmann, Gerhart"Gerhart Hauptmann Root, Elihu"Elihu Root
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike"Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Werner, Alfred"Alfred Werner Richet, Charles"Charles Richet Tagore, Rabindranath"Rabindranath Tagore La Fontaine, Henri"Henri La Fontaine
1914 von Laue, Max"Max von Laue Richards, Theodore William"Theodore William Richards Bárány, Robert"Robert Bárány None None
1915 Bragg, William Henry"William Henry Bragg;
Bragg, William Lawrence"William Lawrence Bragg
Willstätter, Richard"Richard Willstätter None Rolland, Romain"Romain Rolland None
1916 None None None Heidenstam, Verner von"Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Barkla, Charles Glover"Charles Glover Barkla None None Gjellerup, Karl Adolph"Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Pontoppidan, Henrik"Henrik Pontoppidan
"International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Planck, Max"Max Planck Haber, Fritz"Fritz Haber None None None
1919 Stark, Johannes"Johannes Stark None Bordet, Jules"Jules Bordet Spitteler, Carl"Carl Spitteler Wilson, Woodrow"Woodrow Wilson
1920 Guillaume, Charles Édouard"Charles Édouard Guillaume Nernst, Walther"Walther Nernst Krogh, August"August Krogh Hamsun, Knut"Knut Hamsun Bourgeois, Léon"Léon Bourgeois
1921 Einstein, Albert"Albert Einstein Soddy, Frederick"Frederick Soddy None France, Anatole"Anatole France Branting, Hjalmar"Hjalmar Branting;
Lange, Christian Lous"Christian Lous Lange
1922 Bohr, Niels"Niels Bohr Aston, Francis William"Francis William Aston Hill, Archibald"Archibald Hill;
Meyerhof, Otto Fritz"Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Benavente, Jacinto"Jacinto Benavente Nansen, Fridtjof"Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Millikan, Robert Andrews"Robert Andrews Millikan Pregl, Fritz"Fritz Pregl Banting, Frederick"Frederick Banting;
Macleod, John James Rickard"John James Rickard Macleod
Yeats, W. B."W. B. Yeats None
1924 Siegbahn, Manne"Manne Siegbahn None Einthoven, Willem"Willem Einthoven Reymont, Władysław"Władysław Reymont None
1925 Franck, James"James Franck;
Hertz, Gustav Ludwig"Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Zsigmondy, Richard Adolf"Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None Shaw, George Bernard"George Bernard Shaw Chamberlain, Austen"Austen Chamberlain;
Dawes, Charles G."Charles G. Dawes
1926 Perrin, Jean Baptiste"Jean Baptiste Perrin Svedberg, Theodor"Theodor Svedberg Fibiger, Johannes"Johannes Fibiger Deledda, Grazia"Grazia Deledda Briand, Aristide"Aristide Briand;
Stresemann, Gustav"Gustav Stresemann
1927 Compton, Arthur"Arthur Compton;
Wilson, Charles Thomson Rees"Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Wieland, Heinrich Otto"Heinrich Otto Wieland Wagner-Jauregg, Julius"Julius Wagner-Jauregg Bergson, Henri"Henri Bergson Buisson, Ferdinand"Ferdinand Buisson;
Quidde, Ludwig"Ludwig Quidde
1928 Richardson, Owen Willans"Owen Willans Richardson Windaus, Adolf Otto Reinhold"Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Nicolle, Charles"Charles Nicolle Undset, Sigrid"Sigrid Undset None
1929 Broglie, Louis de"Louis de Broglie Harden, Arthur"Arthur Harden;
von Euler-Chelpin, Hans"Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Eijkman, Christiaan"Christiaan Eijkman;
Hopkins, Frederick Gowland"Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Mann, Thomas"Thomas Mann Kellogg, Frank B."Frank B. Kellogg
1930 Raman, C. V."C. V. Raman Fischer, Hans"Hans Fischer Landsteiner, Karl"Karl Landsteiner Lewis, Sinclair"Sinclair Lewis Söderblom, Nathan"Nathan Söderblom
1931 None Bosch, Carl"Carl Bosch;
Bergius, Friedrich"Friedrich Bergius
Warburg, Otto Heinrich"Otto Heinrich Warburg Karlfeldt, Erik Axel"Erik Axel Karlfeldt Addams, Jane"Jane Addams;
Butler, Nicholas Murray"Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Heisenberg, Werner"Werner Heisenberg Langmuir, Irving"Irving Langmuir Sherrington, Charles Scott"Charles Scott Sherrington;
Adrian, Edgar"Edgar Adrian
Galsworthy, John"John Galsworthy None
1933 Schrödinger, Erwin"Erwin Schrödinger;
Dirac, Paul"Paul Dirac
None Morgan, Thomas Hunt"Thomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, Ivan"Ivan Bunin Angell, Norman"Norman Angell
1934 None Urey, Harold"Harold Urey Whipple, George"George Whipple;
Minot, George"George Minot;
Murphy, William P."William P. Murphy
Pirandello, Luigi"Luigi Pirandello Henderson, Arthur"Arthur Henderson
1935 Chadwick, James"James Chadwick Joliot-Curie, Frédéric"Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Joliot-Curie, Irène"Irène Joliot-Curie
Spemann, Hans"Hans Spemann None von Ossietzky, Carl"Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Hess, Victor Francis"Victor Francis Hess;
Anderson, Carl David"Carl David Anderson
Debye, Peter"Peter Debye Dale, Henry Hallett"Henry Hallett Dale;
Loewi, Otto"Otto Loewi
O'Neill, Eugene"Eugene O'Neill Lamas, Carlos Saavedra"Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Davisson, Clinton"Clinton Davisson;
Thomson, George Paget"George Paget Thomson
Haworth, Norman"Norman Haworth;
Karrer, Paul"Paul Karrer
Szent-Györgyi, Albert"Albert Szent-Györgyi du Gard, Roger Martin"Roger Martin du Gard Cecil of Chelwood, The Viscount"The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Fermi, Enrico"Enrico Fermi Kuhn, Richard"Richard Kuhn[A] Heymans, Corneille"Corneille Heymans Buck, Pearl S."Pearl S. Buck "Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Lawrence, Ernest"Ernest Lawrence Butenandt, Adolf"Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Ružička, Leopold"Leopold Ružička
Domagk, Gerhard"Gerhard Domagk[A] Sillanpää, Frans Eemil"Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Stern, Otto"Otto Stern Hevesy, George de"George de Hevesy Dam, Henrik"Henrik Dam;
Doisy, Edward Adelbert"Edward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Rabi, Isidor Isaac"Isidor Isaac Rabi Hahn, Otto"Otto Hahn Erlanger, Joseph"Joseph Erlanger;
Gasser, Herbert Spencer"Herbert Spencer Gasser
Jensen, Johannes Vilhelm"Johannes Vilhelm Jensen "International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Pauli, Wolfgang"Wolfgang Pauli Virtanen, Artturi Ilmari"Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Fleming, Alexander"Alexander Fleming;
Chain, Ernst Boris"Ernst Boris Chain;
Florey, Howard"Howard Florey
Mistral, Gabriela"Gabriela Mistral Hull, Cordell"Cordell Hull
1946 Bridgman, Percy Williams"Percy Williams Bridgman Sumner, James B."James B. Sumner;
Northrop, John Howard"John Howard Northrop;
Stanley, Wendell Meredith"Wendell Meredith Stanley
Muller, Hermann Joseph"Hermann Joseph Muller Hesse, Hermann"Hermann Hesse Balch, Emily Greene"Emily Greene Balch;
Mott, John"John Mott
1947 Appleton, Edward Victor"Edward Victor Appleton Robinson, Robert"Robert Robinson Cori, Carl Ferdinand"Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Cori, Gerty"Gerty Cori;
Houssay, Bernardo"Bernardo Houssay
Gide, André"André Gide "Friends Service Council;
"American Friends Service Committee
1948 Blackett, Patrick"Patrick Blackett Tiselius, Arne"Arne Tiselius Müller, Paul Hermann"Paul Hermann Müller Eliot, T. S."T. S. Eliot None[B]
1949 Yukawa, Hideki"Hideki Yukawa Giauque, William"William Giauque Hess, Walter Rudolf"Walter Rudolf Hess;
Moniz, António Egas"António Egas Moniz
Faulkner, William"William Faulkner Boyd Orr, John"John Boyd Orr
1950 Powell, C. F."C. F. Powell Diels, Otto"Otto Diels;
Alder, Kurt"Kurt Alder
Hench, Philip Showalter"Philip Showalter Hench;
Kendall, Edward Calvin"Edward Calvin Kendall;
Reichstein, Tadeus"Tadeus Reichstein
Russell, Bertrand"Bertrand Russell Bunche, Ralph"Ralph Bunche
1951 Cockcroft, John"John Cockcroft;
Walton, Ernest"Ernest Walton
McMillan, Edwin"Edwin McMillan;
Seaborg, Glenn T."Glenn T. Seaborg
Theiler, Max"Max Theiler Lagerkvist, Pär"Pär Lagerkvist Jouhaux, Léon"Léon Jouhaux
1952 Bloch, Felix"Felix Bloch;
Purcell, Edward Mills"Edward Mills Purcell
Martin, Archer John Porter"Archer John Porter Martin;
Synge, Richard Laurence Millington"Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Waksman, Selman"Selman Waksman Mauriac, François"François Mauriac Schweitzer, Albert"Albert Schweitzer
1953 Zernike, Frits"Frits Zernike Staudinger, Hermann"Hermann Staudinger Krebs, Hans Adolf"Hans Adolf Krebs;
Lipmann, Fritz Albert"Fritz Albert Lipmann
Churchill, Winston"Winston Churchill Marshall, George"George Marshall
1954 Born, Max"Max Born;
Bothe, Walther"Walther Bothe
Pauling, Linus"Linus Pauling Enders, John Franklin"John Franklin Enders;
Robbins, Frederick Chapman"Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Weller, Thomas Huckle"Thomas Huckle Weller
Hemingway, Ernest"Ernest Hemingway "United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Lamb, Willis"Willis Lamb;
Kusch, Polykarp"Polykarp Kusch
du Vigneaud, Vincent"Vincent du Vigneaud Theorell, Hugo"Hugo Theorell Laxness, Halldór"Halldór Laxness None
1956 Bardeen, John"John Bardeen;
Brattain, Walter Houser"Walter Houser Brattain;
Shockley, William"William Shockley
Hinshelwood, Cyril Norman"Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Semyonov, Nikolay"Nikolay Semyonov
Cournand, André Frédéric"André Frédéric Cournand;
Forssmann, Werner"Werner Forssmann;
Richards, Dickinson W."Dickinson W. Richards
Jiménez, Juan Ramón"Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Yang, Chen Ning"Chen Ning Yang;
Lee, Tsung-Dao"Tsung-Dao Lee
Todd, The Lord"The Lord Todd Bovet, Daniel"Daniel Bovet Camus, Albert"Albert Camus Pearson, Lester B."Lester B. Pearson
1958 Cherenkov, Pavel"Pavel Cherenkov;
Frank, Ilya"Ilya Frank;
Tamm, Igor"Igor Tamm
Sanger, Frederick"Frederick Sanger Beadle, George Wells"George Wells Beadle;
Tatum, Edward Lawrie"Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Lederberg, Joshua"Joshua Lederberg
Pasternak, Boris"Boris Pasternak[C] Pire, Dominique"Dominique Pire
1959 Segrè, Emilio G."Emilio G. Segrè;
Chamberlain, Owen"Owen Chamberlain
Heyrovský, Jaroslav"Jaroslav Heyrovský Kornberg, Arthur"Arthur Kornberg;
Ochoa, Severo"Severo Ochoa
Quasimodo, Salvatore"Salvatore Quasimodo Noel-Baker, Philip"Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Glaser, Donald A."Donald A. Glaser Libby, Willard"Willard Libby Burnet, Frank Macfarlane"Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Medawar, Peter"Peter Medawar
Perse, Saint-John"Saint-John Perse Lutuli, Albert"Albert Lutuli
1961 Hofstadter, Robert"Robert Hofstadter;
Mössbauer, Rudolf"Rudolf Mössbauer
Calvin, Melvin"Melvin Calvin von Békésy, Georg"Georg von Békésy Andrić, Ivo"Ivo Andrić Hammarskjöld, Dag"Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Landau, Lev"Lev Landau Perutz, Max"Max Perutz;
Kendrew, John"John Kendrew
Crick, Francis"Francis Crick;
Watson, James D."James D. Watson;
Wilkins, Maurice"Maurice Wilkins
Steinbeck, John"John Steinbeck Pauling, Linus"Linus Pauling
1963 Wigner, Eugene"Eugene Wigner;
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria"Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
Jensen, J. Hans D."J. Hans D. Jensen
Ziegler, Karl"Karl Ziegler;
Natta, Giulio"Giulio Natta
Eccles, John"John Eccles;
Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd"Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Huxley, Andrew"Andrew Huxley
Seferis, Giorgos"Giorgos Seferis "International Committee of the Red Cross;
"League of Red Cross societies
1964 Townes, Charles Hard"Charles Hard Townes;
Basov, Nikolay"Nikolay Basov;
Prokhorov, Alexander"Alexander Prokhorov
Hodgkin, Dorothy"Dorothy Hodgkin Bloch, Konrad Emil"Konrad Emil Bloch;
Lynen, Feodor Felix Konrad"Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Sartre, Jean-Paul"Jean-Paul Sartre[D] King, Jr., Martin Luther"Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Tomonaga, Sin-Itiro"Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Schwinger, Julian"Julian Schwinger;
Feynman, Richard"Richard Feynman
Woodward, Robert Burns"Robert Burns Woodward Jacob, François"François Jacob;
Lwoff, André Michel"André Michel Lwoff;
Monod, Jacques"Jacques Monod
Sholokhov, Mikhail"Mikhail Sholokhov "United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Kastler, Alfred"Alfred Kastler Mulliken, Robert S."Robert S. Mulliken Rous, Francis Peyton"Francis Peyton Rous;
Huggins, Charles Brenton"Charles Brenton Huggins
Agnon, Shmuel Yosef"Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Sachs, Nelly"Nelly Sachs
1967 Bethe, Hans"Hans Bethe Eigen, Manfred"Manfred Eigen;
Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford"Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
Porter, George"George Porter
Granit, Ragnar"Ragnar Granit;
Hartline, Haldan Keffer"Haldan Keffer Hartline;
Wald, George"George Wald
Asturias, Miguel Ángel"Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Alvarez, Luis Walter"Luis Walter Alvarez Onsager, Lars"Lars Onsager Holley, Robert W."Robert W. Holley;
Khorana, Har Gobind"Har Gobind Khorana;
Nirenberg, Marshall Warren"Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Kawabata, Yasunari"Yasunari Kawabata Cassin, René"René Cassin
1969 Gell-Mann, Murray"Murray Gell-Mann Barton, Derek"Derek Barton;
Hassel, Odd"Odd Hassel
Delbrück, Max"Max Delbrück;
Hershey, Alfred"Alfred Hershey;
Luria, Salvador"Salvador Luria
Beckett, Samuel"Samuel Beckett "International Labour Organization Frisch, Ragnar"Ragnar Frisch;
Tinbergen, Jan"Jan Tinbergen
1970 Alfvén, Hannes"Hannes Alfvén;
Néel, Louis"Louis Néel
Leloir, Luis Federico"Luis Federico Leloir Axelrod, Julius"Julius Axelrod;
von Euler, Ulf"Ulf von Euler;
Katz, Bernard"Bernard Katz
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr"Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Borlaug, Norman"Norman Borlaug Samuelson, Paul"Paul Samuelson
1971 Gabor, Dennis"Dennis Gabor Herzberg, Gerhard"Gerhard Herzberg Sutherland, Jr., Earl Wilbur"Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Neruda, Pablo"Pablo Neruda Brandt, Willy"Willy Brandt Kuznets, Simon"Simon Kuznets
1972 Bardeen, John"John Bardeen;
Cooper, Leon"Leon Cooper;
Schrieffer, John Robert"John Robert Schrieffer
Anfinsen, Christian B."Christian B. Anfinsen;
Moore, Stanford"Stanford Moore;
Stein, William Howard"William Howard Stein
Edelman, Gerald"Gerald Edelman;
Porter, Rodney Robert"Rodney Robert Porter
Böll, Heinrich"Heinrich Böll None Hicks, John"John Hicks;
Arrow, Kenneth"Kenneth Arrow
1973 Esaki, Leo"Leo Esaki;
Giaever, Ivar"Ivar Giaever;
Josephson, Brian David"Brian David Josephson
Fischer, Ernst Otto"Ernst Otto Fischer;
Wilkinson, Geoffrey"Geoffrey Wilkinson
von Frisch, Karl"Karl von Frisch;
Lorenz, Konrad"Konrad Lorenz;
Tinbergen, Nikolaas"Nikolaas Tinbergen
White, Patrick"Patrick White Kissinger, Henry"Henry Kissinger;
Duc Tho, Le"Le Duc Tho[E]
Leontief, Wassily"Wassily Leontief
1974 Ryle, Martin"Martin Ryle;
Hewish, Antony"Antony Hewish
Flory, Paul"Paul Flory Claude, Albert"Albert Claude;
de Duve, Christian"Christian de Duve;
Palade, George Emil"George Emil Palade
Johnson, Eyvind"Eyvind Johnson;
Martinson, Harry"Harry Martinson
MacBride, Seán"Seán MacBride;
Satō, Eisaku"Eisaku Satō
Myrdal, Gunnar"Gunnar Myrdal;
Hayek, Friedrich"Friedrich Hayek
1975 Bohr, Aage"Aage Bohr;
Mottelson, Ben Roy"Ben Roy Mottelson;
Rainwater, James"James Rainwater
Cornforth, John"John Cornforth;
Prelog, Vladimir"Vladimir Prelog
Baltimore, David"David Baltimore;
Dulbecco, Renato"Renato Dulbecco;
Temin, Howard Martin"Howard Martin Temin
Montale, Eugenio"Eugenio Montale Sakharov, Andrei"Andrei Sakharov Kantorovich, Leonid"Leonid Kantorovich;
Koopmans, Tjalling"Tjalling Koopmans
1976 Richter, Burton"Burton Richter;
Ting, Samuel C. C."Samuel C. C. Ting
Lipscomb, William"William Lipscomb Blumberg, Baruch Samuel"Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Gajdusek, Daniel Carleton"Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Bellow, Saul"Saul Bellow Williams, Betty"Betty Williams;
Maguire, Mairead"Mairead Maguire
Friedman, Milton"Milton Friedman
1977 Anderson, Philip Warren"Philip Warren Anderson;
Mott, Nevill Francis"Nevill Francis Mott;
Van Vleck, John Hasbrouck"John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Prigogine, Ilya"Ilya Prigogine Guillemin, Roger"Roger Guillemin;
Schally, Andrew"Andrew Schally;
Yalow, Rosalyn Sussman"Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Aleixandre, Vicente"Vicente Aleixandre "Amnesty International Ohlin, Bertil"Bertil Ohlin;
Meade, James"James Meade
1978 Kapitsa, Pyotr"Pyotr Kapitsa;
Penzias, Arno Allan"Arno Allan Penzias;
Wilson, Robert Woodrow"Robert Woodrow Wilson
Mitchell, Peter D."Peter D. Mitchell Arber, Werner"Werner Arber;
Nathans, Daniel"Daniel Nathans;
Smith, Hamilton O."Hamilton O. Smith
Singer, Isaac Bashevis"Isaac Bashevis Singer Sadat, Anwar"Anwar Sadat;
Begin, Menachem"Menachem Begin
Simon, Herbert A."Herbert A. Simon
1979 Glashow, Sheldon Lee"Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Salam, Abdus"Abdus Salam;
Weinberg, Steven"Steven Weinberg
Brown, Herbert C."Herbert C. Brown;
Wittig, Georg"Georg Wittig
Cormack, Allan McLeod"Allan McLeod Cormack;
Hounsfield, Godfrey"Godfrey Hounsfield
Elytis, Odysseas"Odysseas Elytis Teresa, Mother"Mother Teresa Schultz, Theodore"Theodore Schultz;
Lewis, Arthur"Arthur Lewis
1980 Cronin, James"James Cronin;
Fitch, Val Logsdon"Val Logsdon Fitch
Berg, Paul"Paul Berg;
Gilbert, Walter"Walter Gilbert;
Sanger, Frederick"Frederick Sanger
Benacerraf, Baruj"Baruj Benacerraf;
Dausset, Jean"Jean Dausset;
Snell, George Davis"George Davis Snell
Miłosz, Czesław"Czesław Miłosz Esquivel, Adolfo Pérez"Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Klein, Lawrence"Lawrence Klein
1981 Bloembergen, Nicolaas"Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Schawlow, Arthur Leonard"Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Siegbahn, Kai"Kai Siegbahn
Fukui, Kenichi"Kenichi Fukui;
Hoffmann, Roald"Roald Hoffmann
Sperry, Roger Wolcott"Roger Wolcott Sperry;
Hubel, David H."David H. Hubel;
Wiesel, Torsten"Torsten Wiesel
Canetti, Elias"Elias Canetti "United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Tobin, James"James Tobin
1982 Wilson, Kenneth G."Kenneth G. Wilson Klug, Aaron"Aaron Klug Bergström, Sune"Sune Bergström;
Samuelsson, Bengt I."Bengt I. Samuelsson;
Vane, John"John Vane
Márquez, Gabriel García"Gabriel García Márquez Myrdal, Alva"Alva Myrdal;
Robles, Alfonso García"Alfonso García Robles
Stigler, George"George Stigler
1983 Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan"Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
Fowler, William Alfred"William Alfred Fowler
Taube, Henry"Henry Taube McClintock, Barbara"Barbara McClintock Golding, William"William Golding Wałęsa, Lech"Lech Wałęsa Debreu, Gérard"Gérard Debreu
1984 Rubbia, Carlo"Carlo Rubbia;
van der Meer, Simon"Simon van der Meer
Merrifield, Robert Bruce"Robert Bruce Merrifield Jerne, Niels Kaj"Niels Kaj Jerne;
Köhler, Georges J. F."Georges J. F. Köhler;
Milstein, César"César Milstein
Seifert, Jaroslav"Jaroslav Seifert Tutu, Desmond"Desmond Tutu Stone, Richard"Richard Stone
1985 von Klitzing, Klaus"Klaus von Klitzing Hauptman, Herbert A."Herbert A. Hauptman;
Karle, Jerome"Jerome Karle
Brown, Michael Stuart"Michael Stuart Brown;
Goldstein, Joseph L."Joseph L. Goldstein
Simon, Claude"Claude Simon "International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Modigliani, Franco"Franco Modigliani
1986 Ruska, Ernst"Ernst Ruska;
Binnig, Gerd"Gerd Binnig;
Rohrer, Heinrich"Heinrich Rohrer
Herschbach, Dudley R."Dudley R. Herschbach;
Lee, Yuan T."Yuan T. Lee;
Polanyi, John"John Polanyi
Cohen, Stanley"Stanley Cohen;
Levi-Montalcini, Rita"Rita Levi-Montalcini
Soyinka, Wole"Wole Soyinka Wiesel, Elie"Elie Wiesel Buchanan, James M."James M. Buchanan
1987 Bednorz, Johannes Georg"Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Müller, Karl Alexander"Karl Alexander Müller
Cram, Donald J."Donald J. Cram;
Lehn, Jean-Marie"Jean-Marie Lehn;
Pedersen, Charles J."Charles J. Pedersen
Tonegawa, Susumu"Susumu Tonegawa Brodsky, Joseph"Joseph Brodsky Arias, Óscar"Óscar Arias Solow, Robert"Robert Solow
1988 Lederman, Leon M."Leon M. Lederman;
Schwartz, Melvin"Melvin Schwartz;
Steinberger, Jack"Jack Steinberger
Deisenhofer, Johann"Johann Deisenhofer;
Huber, Robert"Robert Huber;
Michel, Hartmut"Hartmut Michel
Black, James W."James W. Black;
Elion, Gertrude B."Gertrude B. Elion;
Hitchings, George H."George H. Hitchings
Mahfouz, Naguib"Naguib Mahfouz "United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Allais, Maurice"Maurice Allais
1989 Ramsey, Jr., Norman Foster"Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Dehmelt, Hans Georg"Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Paul, Wolfgang"Wolfgang Paul
Altman, Sidney"Sidney Altman;
Cech, Thomas"Thomas Cech
Bishop, J. Michael"J. Michael Bishop;
Varmus, Harold E."Harold E. Varmus
Cela, Camilo José"Camilo José Cela Gyatso (The Dalai Lama), Tenzin"Tenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Haavelmo, Trygve"Trygve Haavelmo
1990 Friedman, Jerome Isaac"Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Kendall, Henry Way"Henry Way Kendall;
Taylor, Richard E."Richard E. Taylor
Corey, Elias James"Elias James Corey Murray, Joseph"Joseph Murray;
Thomas, E. Donnall"E. Donnall Thomas
Paz, Octavio"Octavio Paz Gorbachev, Mikhail"Mikhail Gorbachev Markowitz, Harry"Harry Markowitz;
Miller, Merton"Merton Miller;
Sharpe, William F."William F. Sharpe
1991 Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de"Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Ernst, Richard R."Richard R. Ernst Neher, Erwin"Erwin Neher;
Sakmann, Bert"Bert Sakmann
Gordimer, Nadine"Nadine Gordimer Suu Kyi, Aung San"Aung San Suu Kyi Coase, Ronald"Ronald Coase
1992 Charpak, Georges"Georges Charpak Marcus, Rudolph A."Rudolph A. Marcus Fischer, Edmond H."Edmond H. Fischer;
Krebs, Edwin G."Edwin G. Krebs
Walcott, Derek"Derek Walcott Menchú, Rigoberta"Rigoberta Menchú Becker, Gary"Gary Becker
1993 Hulse, Russell Alan"Russell Alan Hulse;
Taylor, Jr., Joseph Hooton"Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Mullis, Kary"Kary Mullis;
Smith, Michael"Michael Smith
Roberts, Richard J."Richard J. Roberts;
Sharp, Phillip Allen"Phillip Allen Sharp
Morrison, Toni"Toni Morrison Mandela, Nelson"Nelson Mandela;
de Klerk, F. W."F. W. de Klerk
Fogel, Robert"Robert Fogel;
North, Douglass"Douglass North
1994 Brockhouse, Bertram"Bertram Brockhouse;
Shull, Clifford"Clifford Shull
Olah, George Andrew"George Andrew Olah Gilman, Alfred G."Alfred G. Gilman;
Rodbell, Martin"Martin Rodbell
Ōe, Kenzaburō"Kenzaburō Ōe Arafat, Yasser"Yasser Arafat;
Peres, Shimon"Shimon Peres;
Rabin, Yitzhak"Yitzhak Rabin
Harsanyi, John"John Harsanyi;
Nash, Jr., John Forbes"John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Selten, Reinhard"Reinhard Selten
1995 Perl, Martin Lewis"Martin Lewis Perl;
Reines, Frederick"Frederick Reines
Crutzen, Paul J."Paul J. Crutzen;
Molina, Mario J."Mario J. Molina;
Rowland, Frank Sherwood"Frank Sherwood Rowland
Lewis, Edward B."Edward B. Lewis;
Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane"Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Wieschaus, Eric F."Eric F. Wieschaus
Heaney, Seamus"Seamus Heaney Rotblat, Joseph"Joseph Rotblat;
"Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Lucas, Jr., Robert"Robert Lucas, Jr.
1996 Lee, David"David Lee;
Osheroff, Douglas"Douglas Osheroff;
Richardson, Robert Coleman"Robert Coleman Richardson
Curl Jr., Robert F."Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Kroto, Harry"Harry Kroto;
Smalley, Richard"Richard Smalley
Doherty, Peter C."Peter C. Doherty;
Zinkernagel, Rolf M."Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Szymborska, Wisława"Wisława Szymborska Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes"Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
Ramos-Horta, José"José Ramos-Horta
Mirrlees, James"James Mirrlees;
Vickrey, William"William Vickrey
1997 Chu, Steven"Steven Chu;
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude"Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
Phillips, William Daniel"William Daniel Phillips
Boyer, Paul D."Paul D. Boyer;
Walker, John E."John E. Walker;
Skou, Jens Christian"Jens Christian Skou
Prusiner, Stanley B."Stanley B. Prusiner Fo, Dario"Dario Fo "International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Williams, Jody"Jody Williams
Merton, Robert C."Robert C. Merton;
Scholes, Myron"Myron Scholes
1998 Laughlin, Robert B."Robert B. Laughlin;
Störmer, Horst Ludwig"Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Tsui, Daniel C."Daniel C. Tsui
Kohn, Walter"Walter Kohn;
Pople, John"John Pople
Furchgott, Robert F."Robert F. Furchgott;
Ignarro, Louis"Louis Ignarro;
Murad, Ferid"Ferid Murad
Saramago, José"José Saramago Hume, John"John Hume;
Trimble, David"David Trimble
Sen, Amartya"Amartya Sen
1999 Hooft, Gerard 't"Gerard 't Hooft;
Veltman, Martinus J. G."Martinus J. G. Veltman
Zewail, Ahmed"Ahmed Zewail Blobel, Günter"Günter Blobel Grass, Günter"Günter Grass "Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, Robert"Robert Mundell
2000 Alferov, Zhores"Zhores Alferov;
Kroemer, Herbert"Herbert Kroemer;
Kilby, Jack"Jack Kilby
Heeger, Alan J."Alan J. Heeger;
MacDiarmid, Alan"Alan MacDiarmid;
Shirakawa, Hideki"Hideki Shirakawa
Carlsson, Arvid"Arvid Carlsson;
Greengard, Paul"Paul Greengard;
Kandel, Eric"Eric Kandel
Xingjian, Gao"Gao Xingjian Dae-jung, Kim"Kim Dae-jung Heckman, James"James Heckman;
McFadden, Daniel"Daniel McFadden
2001 Cornell, Eric Allin"Eric Allin Cornell;
Ketterle, Wolfgang"Wolfgang Ketterle;
Wieman, Carl"Carl Wieman
Knowles, William Standish"William Standish Knowles;
Noyori, Ryōji"Ryōji Noyori;
Sharpless, Karl Barry"Karl Barry Sharpless
Hartwell, Leland H."Leland H. Hartwell;
Hunt, Tim"Tim Hunt;
Nurse, Paul"Paul Nurse
Naipaul, V. S."V. S. Naipaul "United Nations;
Annan, Kofi"Kofi Annan
Akerlof, George"George Akerlof;
Spence, Michael"Michael Spence;
Stiglitz, Joseph"Joseph Stiglitz
2002 Davis, Jr., Raymond"Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Koshiba, Masatoshi"Masatoshi Koshiba;
Giacconi, Riccardo"Riccardo Giacconi
Fenn, John"John Fenn;
Tanaka, Koichi"Koichi Tanaka;
Wüthrich, Kurt"Kurt Wüthrich
Brenner, Sydney"Sydney Brenner;
Horvitz, H. Robert"H. Robert Horvitz;
Sulston, John"John Sulston
Kertész, Imre"Imre Kertész Carter, Jimmy"Jimmy Carter Kahneman, Daniel"Daniel Kahneman;
Smith, Vernon L."Vernon L. Smith
2003 Abrikosov, Alexei Alexeyevich"Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Ginzburg, Vitaly"Vitaly Ginzburg;
Leggett, Anthony James"Anthony James Leggett
Agre, Peter"Peter Agre;
MacKinnon, Roderick"Roderick MacKinnon
Lauterbur, Paul"Paul Lauterbur;
Mansfield, Peter"Peter Mansfield
Coetzee, J. M."J. M. Coetzee Ebadi, Shirin"Shirin Ebadi Engle, Robert F."Robert F. Engle;
Granger, Clive"Clive Granger
2004 Gross, David"David Gross;
Politzer, Hugh David"Hugh David Politzer;
Wilczek, Frank"Frank Wilczek
Ciechanover, Aaron"Aaron Ciechanover;
Hershko, Avram"Avram Hershko;
Rose, Irwin"Irwin Rose
Axel, Richard"Richard Axel;
Buck, Linda B."Linda B. Buck
Jelinek, Elfriede"Elfriede Jelinek Maathai, Wangari"Wangari Maathai Kydland, Finn E."Finn E. Kydland;
Prescott, Edward C."Edward C. Prescott
2005 Glauber, Roy J."Roy J. Glauber;
Hall, John L."John L. Hall;
Hänsch, Theodor W."Theodor W. Hänsch
Chauvin, Yves"Yves Chauvin;
Grubbs, Robert H."Robert H. Grubbs;
Schrock, Richard R."Richard R. Schrock
Marshall, Barry"Barry Marshall;
Warren, Robin"Robin Warren
Pinter, Harold"Harold Pinter "International Atomic Energy Agency;
ElBaradei, Mohamed"Mohamed ElBaradei
Aumann, Robert"Robert Aumann;
Schelling, Thomas"Thomas Schelling
2006 Mather, John C."John C. Mather;
Smoot, George"George Smoot
Kornberg, Roger D."Roger D. Kornberg Fire, Andrew"Andrew Fire;
Mello, Craig"Craig Mello
Pamuk, Orhan"Orhan Pamuk Yunus, Muhammad"Muhammad Yunus;
"Grameen Bank
Phelps, Edmund"Edmund Phelps
2007 Fert, Albert"Albert Fert;
Grünberg, Peter"Peter Grünberg
Ertl, Gerhard"Gerhard Ertl Capecchi, Mario"Mario Capecchi;
Evans, Martin"Martin Evans;
Smithies, Oliver"Oliver Smithies
Lessing, Doris"Doris Lessing "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Gore, Al"Al Gore
Hurwicz, Leonid"Leonid Hurwicz;
Maskin, Eric"Eric Maskin;
Myerson, Roger"Roger Myerson
2008 Nambu, Yoichiro"Yoichiro Nambu;
Kobayashi, Makoto"Makoto Kobayashi;
Maskawa, Toshihide"Toshihide Maskawa
Shimomura, Osamu"Osamu Shimomura;
Chalfie, Martin"Martin Chalfie;
Tsien, Roger Y."Roger Y. Tsien
zur Hausen, Harald"Harald zur Hausen;
Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise"Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Montagnier, Luc"Luc Montagnier
Le Clézio, J. M. G."J. M. G. Le Clézio Ahtisaari, Martti"Martti Ahtisaari Krugman, Paul"Paul Krugman
2009 Kao, Charles K."Charles K. Kao;
Boyle, Willard S."Willard S. Boyle;
Smith, George E."George E. Smith
Ramakrishnan, Venkatraman"Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Steitz, Thomas A."Thomas A. Steitz;
Yonath, Ada"Ada Yonath
Blackburn, Elizabeth"Elizabeth Blackburn;
Greider, Carol W."Carol W. Greider;
Szostak, Jack W."Jack W. Szostak
Müller, Herta"Herta Müller Obama, Barack"Barack Obama Ostrom, Elinor"Elinor Ostrom;
Williamson, Oliver E."Oliver E. Williamson
2010 Geim, Andre"Andre Geim;
Novoselov, Konstantin"Konstantin Novoselov
Heck, Richard F."Richard F. Heck;
Negishi, Ei-ichi"Ei-ichi Negishi;
Suzuki, Akira"Akira Suzuki
Edwards, Robert G."Robert G. Edwards Vargas Llosa, Mario"Mario Vargas Llosa Xiaobo, Liu"Liu Xiaobo[F] Diamond, Peter A."Peter A. Diamond;
Mortensen, Dale T."Dale T. Mortensen;
Pissarides, Christopher A."Christopher A. Pissarides
2011 Perlmutter, Saul"Saul Perlmutter;
Riess, Adam G."Adam G. Riess;
Schmidt, Brian"Brian Schmidt
Shechtman, Dan"Dan Shechtman Beutler, Bruce"Bruce Beutler;
Hoffmann, Jules A."Jules A. Hoffmann;
Steinman, Ralph M."Ralph M. Steinman
Tranströmer, Tomas"Tomas Tranströmer Sirleaf, Ellen Johnson"Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Gbowee, Leymah"Leymah Gbowee;
Karman, Tawakel"Tawakel Karman
Sargent, Thomas J."Thomas J. Sargent;
Sims, Christopher A."Christopher A. Sims
2012 Haroche, Serge"Serge Haroche;
J. Wineland, David"David J. Wineland
Kobilka, Brian K."Brian K. Kobilka;
Lefkowitz, Robert J."Robert J. Lefkowitz
Gurdon, John B."John B. Gurdon;
Yamanaka, Shinya "Shinya Yamanaka
Yan, Mo"Mo Yan Union, European"European Union Roth, Alvin E."Alvin E. Roth;
Shapley, Lloyd S."Lloyd S. Shapley
2013 Englert, François"François Englert;
Higgs, Peter W."Peter W. Higgs
Karplus, Martin"Martin Karplus;
Levitt, Michael"Michael Levitt;
Warshel, Arieh"Arieh Warshel
Rothman, James E."James E. Rothman;
Schekman, Randy W."Randy W. Schekman;
Südhof, Thomas C."Thomas C. Südhof
Munro, Alice"Alice Munro for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Organisation"Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Fama, Eugene F."Eugene F. Fama;
Hansen, Lars Peter"Lars Peter Hansen;
Shiller, Robert J."Robert J. Shiller
2014 Akasaki, Isamu"Isamu Akasaki;
Amano, Hiroshi"Hiroshi Amano;
Nakamura, Shuji"Shuji Nakamura
Betzig, Eric"Eric Betzig;
Hell, Stefan"Stefan Hell;
Moerner, William"William Moerner
O'Keefe, John"John O'Keefe;
Moser, May-Britt"May-Britt Moser;
Moser, Edvard"Edvard Moser
Modiano, Patrick"Patrick Modiano Satyarthi, Kailash"Kailash Satyarthi;
Yousafzai, Malala"Malala Yousafzai
Tirole, Jean"Jean Tirole
2015 Kajita, Takaaki"Takaaki Kajita;
McDonald, Arthur B."Arthur B. McDonald
Lindahl, Tomas"Tomas Lindahl;
Modrich, Paul L."Paul L. Modrich;
Sancar, Aziz"Aziz Sancar
Campbell, William C."William C. Campbell;
Ōmura, Satoshi"Satoshi Ōmura;
Youyou, Tu"Tu Youyou
Alexievich, Svetlana"Svetlana Alexievich National Dialogue Quartet, Tunisian"Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet Deaton, Angus"Angus Deaton
2016[11] J. Thouless, David"David J. Thouless;
Haldane, Duncan"Duncan Haldane;
Kosterlitz, John M."John M. Kosterlitz
Sauvage, Jean-Pierre"Jean-Pierre Sauvage;
Stoddart, Fraser"Fraser Stoddart;
Feringa, Ben"Ben Feringa
Ohsumi, Yoshinori"Yoshinori Ohsumi Dylan, Bob"Bob Dylan Santos, Juan Manuel"Juan Manuel Santos Hart, Oliver"Oliver Hart;
Holmström, Bengt R."Bengt R. Holmström
2017 Weiss, Rainer"Rainer Weiss;
Barish, Barry"Barry Barish;
Thorne, Kip"Kip Thorne
Dubochet, Jacques"Jacques Dubochet;
Frank, Joachim"Joachim Frank;
Henderson, Richard"Richard Henderson
Hall, Jeffrey C."Jeffrey C. Hall;
Rosbash, Michael"Michael Rosbash;
Young, Michael W."Michael W. Young
Ishiguro, Kazuo"Kazuo Ishiguro Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, International"International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Thaler, Richard"Richard Thaler
Year "Physics "Chemistry "Physiology
or Medicine
"Literature "Peace "Economics


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". "Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  6. ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  7. ^ a b Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  8. ^ "All Nobel Prizes". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 
  10. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  11. ^ "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016. 
  12. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 

External links[edit]

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