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The "President of the United States is the elected "head of state and "head of government of the United States. The president leads the "executive branch of the "federal government and is the "commander-in-chief of the "United States Armed Forces. The president is "indirectly elected to a four-year "term by the people through an "Electoral College (or by the "House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person).

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 people have served as president. The first, "George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. "Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office, and is counted as the nation's 22nd and 24th president. Thus the incumbent, "Donald Trump, is the nation's 45th president. There are currently five "living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was on "December 26, 2006 with the death of "Gerald Ford; the most recently serving president to die was "Ronald Reagan on "June 5, 2004.

"William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, dying 31 days after taking office in 1841. "Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the "Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[2] "Zachary Taylor,[3] "Warren G. Harding,[4] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were "assassinated ("Abraham Lincoln,[5] "James A. Garfield,[5][6] "William McKinley,[7] and "John F. Kennedy), and one resigned ("Richard Nixon).[8] "John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency intra-term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The "Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed "Gerald Ford to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed "Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, an intra-term vacancy was left unfilled.

Throughout most of its history, "politics of the United States have been dominated by "political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it "came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the "1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant "Washington Administration officials, such as "Alexander Hamilton and "Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.[9] Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

Contents

Presidents[edit]

  "Unaffiliated (2)       "Federalist (1)       "Democratic-Republican (4)       "Democratic (15)       "Whig (4)       "Republican (19)       "National Union (2)
Presidency[a] President Prior office[b] Party[c] Term[d] Vice President
"1 April 30, 1789
[e]

March 4, 1797
""Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg "George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[10][11][12]
"Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

("1775–1783)
  Unaffiliated
[9]
("1788–89)
1
("1789)
"John Adams
[f][g]
("1792)
2
("1793)
"2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
""Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg "John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[13][14][15]
"1st
Vice President of the United States
"Federalist ("1796)
3
("1797)
"Thomas Jefferson
[h]
"3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
""Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg "Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[16][17][18]
"2nd
Vice President of the United States
"Democratic-
Republican
("1800)
4
("1801)
"Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
("1804)
5
("1805)
"George Clinton
March 4, 1805March 4, 1809
"4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
""James Madison.jpg "James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[19][20][21]
"5th
United States Secretary of State

(1801–1809)
"Democratic-
Republican
("1808)
6
("1809)
"George Clinton
March 4, 1809April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's term)
("1812)
7
("1813)
"Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
"5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
""James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif "James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[22][23][24]
"7th
United States Secretary of State

(1811–1817)
"Democratic-
Republican
("1816)
8
("1817)
"Daniel D. Tompkins
("1820)
9
("1821)
"6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
""JQA Photo.tif "John Q. Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[25][26][27]
"8th
United States Secretary of State

(1817–1825)
"Democratic-
Republican
("1824)
10
("1825)
"John C. Calhoun
"7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
""Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg "Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[28][29][30]
"U.S. Senator from "Tennessee
(1797–1798 & 1823–1825)
"Democratic ("1828)
11
("1829)
"John C. Calhoun
[i]
March 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
("1832)
12
("1833)
"Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
"8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
""Martin Van Buren edit.jpg "Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[31][32][33]
"8th
Vice President of the United States
"Democratic ("1836)
13
("1837)
"Richard M. Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)
""William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg "William H. Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[34][35][36]
"United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
"Whig ("1840)
14
("1841)
("1841)

[j]
"John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
"10 April 4, 1841
[k]


March 4, 1845
""Tyler Daguerreotype crop (restoration).jpg "John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[37][38][39]
"10th
Vice President of the United States
"Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
[l]
"11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
""JKP.tif "James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[40][41][42]
"9th
Governor of Tennessee

(1839–1841)
"Democratic ("1844)
15
("1845)
"George M. Dallas
12
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)
""Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png "Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[43][44][45]
"Major General of the "1st Infantry Regiment
"United States Army
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office)
"Whig ("1848)
16
("1849)
("1850)

[j]
"Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
"13 July 9, 1850
[m]


March 4, 1853
""Millard Fillmore by Brady Studio 1855-65-crop.jpg "Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[46][47][48]
"12th
Vice President of the United States
"Whig Office vacant
"14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
""Franklin Pierce - 1.jpg "Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[49][50][51]
"Brigadier General of the "9th Infantry
"United States Army
(1847–1848)
"Democratic ("1852)
17
("1853)
"William R. King
March 4April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
"15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
""James Buchanan.jpg "James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[52][53][54]
"United States Minister to the
"Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
"Democratic ("1856)
18
("1857)
"John C. Breckinridge
"16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
("Died in office)
""Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg "Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[55][56][57]
"U.S. Representative for "Illinois' 7th District
(1847–1849)
"Republican
("National Union)
[n]
("1860)
19
("1861)
"Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
("1864)
20
("1865)
("1865)

[j]
"Andrew Johnson
March 4April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
"17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
""Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg "Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[58][59][60]
"16th
Vice President of the United States
"National Union
April 15, 1865c. 1868
Office vacant
"Democratic
c. 1868March 4, 1869
[o]
"18
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
""Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg "Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[61][62][63]
"Commanding General of the U.S. Army
("1864–1869)
(No prior elected office)
"Republican ("1868)
21
("1869)
"Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
("1872)
22
("1873)
"Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
"19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
""President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg "Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[64][65][66]
"29th & 32nd
Governor of Ohio

(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)
"Republican ("1876)
23
("1877)
"William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
("Died in office)
""James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg "James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[67][68][69]
"U.S. Representative for "Ohio's 19th District
(1863–1881)
"Republican ("1880)
24
("1881)
("1881)

[j]
"Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
"21 September 19, 1881
[p]


March 4, 1885
""Chester Alan Arthur.jpg "Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[70][71][72]
"20th
Vice President of the United States
"Republican Office vacant
"22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
""Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg "Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]
"28th
Governor of New York

(1883–1885)
"Democratic ("1884)
25
("1885)
"Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks' term)
"23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
""Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg "Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[75][76][77]
"U.S. Senator from "Indiana
(1881–1887)
"Republican ("1888)
26
("1889)
"Levi P. Morton
"24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
""Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg "Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[73][74]
"22nd
President of the United States

(1885–1889)
"Democratic ("1892)
27
("1893)
"Adlai Stevenson
"25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
("Died in office)
""Mckinley.jpg "William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[78][79][80]
"39th
Governor of Ohio

(1892–1896)
"Republican ("1896)
28
("1897)
"Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
("1900)
29
("1901)
("1901)

[j]
"Theodore Roosevelt
March 4September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
"26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
""President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif "Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[81][82][83]
"25th
Vice President of the United States
"Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
("1904)
30
("1905)
"Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
"27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
""William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.tif "William H. Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[84][85][86]
"42nd
United States Secretary of War

(1904–1908)
"Republican ("1908)
31
("1909)
"James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
"28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
""Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpg "Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[87][88][89]
"34th
Governor of New Jersey

(1911–1913)
"Democratic ("1912)
32
("1913)
"Thomas R. Marshall
("1916)
33
("1917)
"29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
""Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg "Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[90][91][92]
"U.S. Senator from "Ohio
(1915–1921)
"Republican ("1920)
34
("1921)
("1923)

[j]
"Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
"30 August 2, 1923
[q]


March 4, 1929
""Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919.jpg "Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[93][94][95]
"29th
Vice President of the United States
"Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
("1924)
35
("1925)
"Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
"31
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
""President Hoover portrait.tif "Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[96][97][98]
"3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office)
"Republican ("1928)
36
("1929)
"Charles Curtis
"32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)
""FDR 1944 Color Portrait.tif "Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[99][100][101]
"44th
Governor of New York

("1929–1932)
"Democratic ("1932)
37
("1933)
"John N. Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
[r]
("1936)
38
("1937)
("1940)
39
("1941)
"Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
("1944)
40
("1945)
("1945)

[j]
"Harry S. Truman
January 20April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
"33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
""Truman 58-766-09.jpg "Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[102][103][104]
"34th
Vice President of the United States
"Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
("1948)
41
("1949)
"Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
"34
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
""President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif "Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[105][106][107]
"Supreme Allied Commander Europe
("1949–1952)
(No prior elected office)
"Republican ("1952)
42
("1953)
"Richard Nixon
("1956)
43
("1957)
"35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
("Died in office)
""John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg "John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[108][109][110]
"U.S. Senator from "Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
"Democratic ("1960)
44
("1961)
("1963)

[j]
"Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
"36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
""37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg "Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[111][112]
"37th
Vice President of the United States
"Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
("1964)
45
("1965)
"Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
"37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
("Resigned from office)
""Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif "Richard Nixon
1913–"1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[113][114][115]
"36th
Vice President of the United States

(1953–1961)
"Republican ("1968)
46
("1969)
"Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
("1972)
47
("1973)
("1974)

[j]
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
"Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
"38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
""Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif "Gerald Ford
1913–"2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[116][117][118]
"40th
Vice President of the United States
"Republican Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
"Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
"39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
""JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg "Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[119][120][121]
"76th
Governor of Georgia

(1971–1975)
"Democratic ("1976)
48
("1977)
"Walter Mondale
"40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
""Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg "Ronald Reagan
1911–"2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[122][123][124]
"33rd
Governor of California

("1967–1975)
"Republican ("1980)
49
("1981)
"George H. W. Bush
("1984)
50
("1985)
"41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
""George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait cropped.jpg "George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(93 years old)
[125][126][127]
"43rd
Vice President of the United States
"Republican ("1988)
51
("1989)
"Dan Quayle
"42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
""Bill Clinton.jpg "Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(71 years old)
[128][129][130]
"40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas

(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)
"Democratic ("1992)
52
("1993)
"Al Gore
("1996)
53
("1997)
"43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
""George-W-Bush.jpeg "George W. Bush
Born 1946
(71 years old)
[131][132]
"46th
Governor of Texas

("1995–2000)
"Republican ("2000)
54
("2001)
"Dick Cheney
("2004)
55
("2005)
"44 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
""Obama portrait crop.jpg "Barack Obama
Born 1961
(56 years old)
[133][134]
"U.S. Senator from "Illinois
("2005–2008)
"Democratic ("2008)
56
("2009)
"Joe Biden
("2012)
57
("2013)
"45 January 20, 2017

"Incumbent
""Donald Trump Pentagon 2017.jpg "Donald Trump
Born 1946
(71 years old)
[135][136]
Chairman of
"The Trump Organization
("1971–2017)
(No prior elected office)
"Republican ("2016)
58
("2017)
"Mike Pence

Subsequent public service[edit]

Four presidents held other high U.S. federal offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service
"John Q. Adams 6 1825–1829 "U.S. Representative from "Massachusetts (1831–1848)
"Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 "U.S. Senator from "Tennessee (1875)
"Grover Cleveland 22 1885–1889 "24th President of the United States (1893–1897)
"William H. Taft 27 1909–1913 "10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930)

Several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
"John Q. Adams 6 1825–1829 "Governor of Massachusetts ("1833)
"Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States ("1844)
President of the United States ("1848)
"Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States ("1856)
"Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 "U.S. Senator from "Tennessee ("1870)
"U.S. Representative from "Tennessee ("1872)
"Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States ("1880)
"Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States ("1912)
"Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States ("1940)

Additionally, one former president, "John Tyler, served in the government of the "Confederate States during the "American Civil War. Tyler served in the "Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the "Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state, the federal government, or a private corporation) held by the individual prior to becoming President.
  3. ^ Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler (Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson (National Union, Democratic).
  4. ^ Listed and numbered here are the elections and inaugurations that constitute a presidential term.
  5. ^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  6. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction which became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  7. ^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  8. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  9. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the "Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the "Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of "states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Intra-term extraordinary inauguration.
  11. ^ John Tyler was sworn in as President on April 6, 1841.
  12. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  13. ^ Millard Fillmore was sworn in as President on July 10, 1850.
  14. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan "electoral alliance with "War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  15. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  16. ^ Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as President on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  17. ^ Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as President on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21.
  18. ^ The "Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved "Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". "U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
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External links[edit]

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