Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement.
Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of "Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and "Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included "Nikolai Danilevsky and "Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of "eurasianism. The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy.
In its further development, Russian philosophy was also marked by deep connection to "literature and interest in "creativity, "society, "politics and "nationalism; "cosmos and "religion were other notable subjects.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include "Vladimir Solovyev, "Vasily Rozanov, "Leo Tolstoy, "Sergei Bulgakov, "Pavel Florensky, "Nikolai Berdyaev, "Pitirim Sorokin, and "Vladimir Vernadsky.
From the early 1920s to late 1980s, Russian philosophy was dominated by "Marxism presented as dogma and not grounds for discussion. Stalin's purges, culminating in 1937, delivered a deadly blow to the development of philosophy.["citation needed]
A handful of dissident philosophers survived through the Soviet period, among them "Aleksei Losev. Stalin's death in 1953 gave way for new schools of thought to spring up, among them Moscow Logic Circle, and "Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School.
Russian Philosophy. English-Russian Dictionary (ed. Vasily Vanchugov). Moscow, People's Friendship University of Russia, 2005.