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For countries by purchasing power parity GDP, see "List of countries by GDP (PPP).
Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2017.
according to "International Monetary Fund estimates.[1][2]
""A pie chart displaying the world's seven largest economies—the United States, the European Union, China, Japan, India, Brazil, and Canada.
""
The United States, the world's largest economy, accounts for approximately 25 percent of Nominal "world GDP, and the seven largest economies (amalgamating the European Union economies as one) account for 75 percent of the total.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the "market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[3] Countries are sorted by nominal "GDP partial forecasted estimations from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official "exchange rates in the limited period January-April 2017. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the "cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the "exchange rates of the country's "currency.[4] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[5]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of "purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in "international trade, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[6] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[7]

The "United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $18.56 trillion, notably due to "high average incomes, "a large population,[8] capital investment, moderate "unemployment,[9] high consumer spending,[10] a relatively young population,[11] and technological innovation.[12] "Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy with a GDP of about $32 million because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible "capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[13]

Although the "rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the "Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the "British Empire and "Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[14][15] Since China's "transition to a market-based economy through privatisation and deregulation,[16][17] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[15][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of "neoliberal reforms in the early 1990s.[18] When "supranational entities are included, the "European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, "when ten countries joined the union,[19] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[2]

The first list largely includes data compiled by the "International Monetary Fund's "World Economic Outlook "estimation for 2017, the second list shows the "World Bank's 2015 estimates, the third list includes data compiled by the "United Nations Statistics Division for 2013, and the fourth list includes mostly 2015 estimates from "The World Factbook by the "Central Intelligence Agency. Several economies which are not considered to be countries (the world, the European Union, and some "dependent territories) are included in the lists because they appear in the sources as distinct economies. These economies are italicized and not ranked in the charts, but are listed where applicable.

Contents

Lists[edit]

"International Monetary Fund (Partial forecasted estimates 2017)[1] "World Bank (2015)[20] "United Nations (2015)[21]
Rank Country GDP
(millions of US$)
 "World[2] 77,988,026
1  "United States 19,417,144
 "European Union[n 1][2] 16,139,054
2  "China[n 2] 11,795,297
3  "Japan 4,841,221
4  "Germany 3,423,287
5  "United Kingdom 2,496,757
6  "India 2,454,458
7  "France 2,420,440
8  "Brazil 2,140,940
9  "Italy 1,807,425
10  "Canada 1,600,265
11  "Russia[n 3] 1,560,706
12  "South Korea 1,498,074
13  "Australia 1,359,723
14  "Spain 1,232,440
15  "Indonesia 1,020,515
16  "Mexico 987,303
17  "Turkey 793,698
18  "Netherlands 762,694
19  "Saudi Arabia 707,379
20   "Switzerland 659,368
21  "Argentina 628,935
22  "Taiwan 566,757
23  "Sweden 507,046
24  "Poland 482,920
25  "Belgium 462,715
26  "Thailand 432,898
27  "United Arab Emirates 407,210
28  "Nigeria 400,621
29  "Norway 391,959
30  "Austria 383,509
31  "Iran 368,488
32  "Israel 339,990
33  "Egypt[n 4] 332,349
34  "Hong Kong 332,266
35  "Philippines 329,716
36  "South Africa 317,568
37  "Malaysia 309,860
38  "Colombia 306,439
39  "Denmark 304,216
40  "Ireland 294,193
41  "Singapore 291,860
42  "Pakistan[n 5] 284,185
43  "Venezuela 251,589
44  "Chile 251,220
45  "Bangladesh 248,853
46  "Finland 234,524
47  "Vietnam 215,829
48  "Peru 207,072
49  "Portugal 202,770
50  "New Zealand 198,043
51  "Czech Republic 196,068
52  "Greece 193,100
53  "Romania 189,790
54  "Iraq 189,432
55  "Algeria 173,947
56  "Qatar 173,649
57  "Kazakhstan 157,878
58  "Kuwait 126,971
59  "Hungary 125,297
60  "Angola 122,365
61  "Sudan 115,874
62  "Morocco 105,623
63  "Puerto Rico 99,727
64  "Ecuador 97,362
65  "Ukraine 95,934
66  "Slovakia 89,134
67  "Sri Lanka 84,023
68  "Ethiopia 78,384
69  "Syria[n 6] 77,460
70  "Dominican Republic 76,850
71  "Kenya 75,099
72  "Myanmar 72,368
73  "Oman 71,325
74  "Guatemala 70,943
75  "Uzbekistan 68,324
76  "Luxembourg 59,997
77  "Costa Rica 59,796
78  "Panama 59,486
79  "Uruguay 58,123
80  "Belarus 54,689
81  "Libya 54,411
82  "Lebanon 53,915
83  "Bulgaria 52,291
84  "Tanzania 51,194
85  "Croatia 50,084
86  "Macau 45,728
87  "Slovenia 43,503
88  "Lithuania 42,826
89  "Ghana 42,753
90  "Turkmenistan 42,355
91  "Democratic Republic of the Congo 41,098
92  "Jordan 40,506
93  "Tunisia 40,289
94  "Bolivia 39,267
95  "Azerbaijan 38,583
96  "Serbia 37,739
97  "Côte d'Ivoire 36,873
98  "Bahrain 34,310
99  "Cameroon 29,547
100  "Paraguay 28,743
101  "Latvia 27,795
102  "El Salvador 27,548
103  "Yemen 27,189
104  "Uganda 27,174
105  "Estonia 23,422
106    "Nepal 23,316
107  "Zambia 23,137
108  "Iceland 22,970
109  "Honduras 21,790
110  "Trinidad and Tobago 21,748
111  "Papua New Guinea 21,189
112  "Cambodia 20,953
113  "Afghanistan 20,570
114  "Cyprus 19,648
115  "Bosnia and Herzegovina 16,780
116  "Botswana 15,564
117  "Senegal 15,431
118  "Zimbabwe 15,285
119  "Laos 14,971
120  "Mali 14,344
121  "Jamaica 14,272
122  "Gabon 14,208
123  "Nicaragua 13,748
124  "Georgia 13,723
125  "Brunei 12,326
126  "Albania 12,294
127  "Burkina Faso 12,258
128  "Mauritius 12,245
129  "Namibia 11,765
130  "Equatorial Guinea 11,686
131  "Mozambique 11,170
132  "Malta 11,164
133  "Macedonia 10,951
134  "Armenia 10,741
135  "Madagascar 10,372
136  "Mongolia 10,271
137  "Chad 9,636
138  "Bahamas 9,172
139  "Rwanda 8,918
140  "Benin 8,792
141  "Republic of Congo 8,341
142  "Haiti 7,897
143  "Niger 7,674
144  "Moldova 7,409
145  "Tajikistan 7,242
146  "Guinea 6,936
147  "Kyrgyzstan 6,854
148  "Kosovo 6,809
149  "Malawi 6,182
150  "Eritrea 6,051
151  "Mauritania 5,063
152  "Fiji 4,869
153  "South Sudan 4,812
154  "Barbados 4,759
155  "Togo 4,554
156  "Montenegro 4,185
157  "Sierra Leone 4,088
158  "Swaziland 3,938
159  "Suriname 3,641
160  "Guyana 3,591
161  "Maldives 3,578
162  "Burundi 3,384
163  "Timor-Leste 2,727
164  "Lesotho 2,439
165  "Bhutan 2,308
166  "Liberia 2,215
167  "Djibouti 2,088
168  "Central African Republic 1,992
169  "Belize 1,829
170  "Cabo Verde 1,637
171  "San Marino 1,551
172  "Seychelles 1,475
173  "Antigua and Barbuda 1,454
174  "St. Lucia 1,428
175  "Solomon Islands 1,245
176  "Guinea-Bissau 1,166
177  "Grenada 1,089
178  "The Gambia 1,041
179  "St. Kitts and Nevis 951
180  "Samoa 843
181  "Vanuatu 829
182  "St. Vincent and the Grenadines 809
183  "Comoros 654
184  "Dominica 539
185  "Tonga 422
186  "São Tomé and Príncipe 355
187  "Federated States of Micronesia 334
188  "Palau 315
189  "Marshall Islands 188
190  "Kiribati 173
191  "Nauru 114
192  "Tuvalu 36
Rank Country GDP
(millions of US$)
 "World 74,188,701
1  "United States 18,036,648
 "European Union[n 1][22] 16,229,464
2  "China[n 7] 11,064,665
3  "Japan 4,383,076
4  "Germany 3,363,447
5  "United Kingdom 2,861,091
6  "France 2,418,836
7  "India 2,088,841
8  "Italy 1,821,497
9  "Brazil 1,803,653
10  "Canada 1,552,808
11  "South Korea 1,377,873
12  "Australia 1,339,539
13  "Russia[n 3] 1,331,208
14  "Spain 1,192,901
15  "Mexico 1,143,793
16  "Indonesia 861,934
17  "Netherlands 750,284
18  "Turkey 717,880
19   "Switzerland 670,790
20  "Saudi Arabia 646,002
21  "Argentina 548,055
22  "Sweden 492,618
23  "Nigeria 481,066
24  "Poland 474,783
25  "Belgium 454,039
26  "Iran 425,326
27  "Thailand 395,282
28  "Norway 388,315
29  "Austria 374,056
30  "Venezuela 371,337
31  "United Arab Emirates 370,293
32  "Egypt 330,779
33  "South Africa 312,798
34  "Hong Kong 309,929
35  "Malaysia 296,218
36  "Israel 296,075
37  "Denmark 295,164
38  "Singapore 292,739
39  "Colombia 292,080
40  "Philippines 291,965
41  "Pakistan 269,971
42  "Chile 240,216
43  "Ireland 238,020
44  "Finland 229,810
45  "Portugal 198,931
46  "Greece 195,212
47  "Bangladesh 195,079
48  "Vietnam 193,599
49  "Peru 192,084
50  "Kazakhstan 184,361
51  "Czech Republic 181,811
52  "Romania 177,954
53  "New Zealand 173,754
54  "Iraq 168,607
55  "Qatar 166,908
56  "Algeria 166,839
57  "Hungary 120,687
58  "Kuwait 112,812
59  "Puerto Rico 103,135
60  "Angola 102,643
61  "Ecuador 100,872
62  "Morocco[n 8] 100,360
63  "Ukraine 90,615
64  "Slovakia 86,582
65  "Sudan 84,067
66  "Sri Lanka 82,316
67  "Cuba (2013) 77,150
68  "Oman 70,255
69  "Dominican Republic 67,103
70  "Uzbekistan 66,733
71  "Myanmar 64,866
72  "Guatemala 63,794
73  "Kenya 63,398
74  "Ethiopia 61,537
75  "Luxembourg 57,794
76  "Belarus 54,609
77  "Uruguay 53,443
78  "Azerbaijan 53,047
79  "Panama 52,132
80  "Costa Rica 51,107
81  "Bulgaria 48,953
82  "Croatia 48,732
83  "Lebanon 47,103
84  "Macau 46,178
85  "Tanzania[n 9] 44,895
86  "Tunisia 43,015
87  "Slovenia 42,747
88  "Lithuania 41,244
89  "Ghana 37,864
90  "Jordan 37,517
91  "Turkmenistan 37,334
92  "Serbia 36,513
93  "Yemen 35,955
94  "Democratic Republic of the Congo 35,238
95  "Bolivia 33,197
96  "Bahrain 32,221
97 Cote d'Ivoire "Côte d'Ivoire 31,753
98  "Cameroon 29,198
99  "Libya 29,153
100  "Trinidad and Tobago 27,806
101  "Paraguay 27,623
102  "Latvia 27,035
103  "Uganda 26,369
104  "El Salvador 25,850
105  "Estonia 22,691
106  "Zambia 21,202
107    "Nepal 20,881
108  "Honduras 20,152
109  "Cyprus[n 10] 19,320
110  "Afghanistan 19,199
111  "Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,521
112  "Gabon 18,180
113  "Brunei 17,105
114  "Iceland 17,036
115  "Papua New Guinea 16,929
116  "Cambodia 16,778
117  "Georgia[n 11] 16,530
118  "Mozambique 15,938
119  "Botswana 15,813
120  "Senegal 15,658
121  "Equatorial Guinea 15,530
122  "Zimbabwe 14,197
123  "Republic of the Congo 14,177
124  "Chad 13,922
125  "Jamaica 13,891
126  "South Sudan 13,282
127  "Albania 13,212
128  "Namibia 12,995
129  "Mauritius 12,630
130  "Burkina Faso 12,542
131  "Mali 12,037
132  "Mongolia 12,016
133  "Laos 11,997
134  "Nicaragua 11,806
135  "Armenia 11,644
136  "Macedonia 11,324
137  "Madagascar 10,593
138  "Malta 9,643
139  "Benin 9,575
140  "Tajikistan 9,242
141  "Haiti 8,713
142  "The Bahamas 8,511
143  "Niger 8,169
144  "Moldova[n 12] 7,962
145  "Rwanda 7,890
146  "Kyrgyzstan 7,404
147  "Kosovo 7,387
148  "Guinea 6,624
149  "Somalia 5,707
150  "Bermuda 5,574
151  "Liechtenstein 5,488
152  "Suriname 5,210
153  "Mauritania 5,061
154  "Sierra Leone 4,838
155  "Montenegro 4,588
156  "Fiji 4,532
157  "Togo 4,518
158  "Swaziland 4,413
159  "Barbados 4,355
160  "Malawi 4,258
161  "Andorra 3,249
162  "Guyana 3,097
163  "Burundi 3,094
164  "Maldives 3,062
165  "Faroe Islands 2,613
166  "Greenland 2,441
167  "Lesotho 2,181
168  "Liberia 2,013
169  "Bhutan 1,959
170  "Cape Verde 1,871
171  "Central African Republic 1,723
172  "Belize 1,699
173  "Djibouti 1,589
174  "Seychelles 1,423
175  "Timor-Leste 1,417
176  "Saint Lucia 1,404
177  "Antigua and Barbuda 1,221
178  "Solomon Islands 1,158
179  "Guinea-Bissau 1,209
180  "The Gambia 851
181  "Grenada 884
182  "Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
183  "Vanuatu 815
184  "Samoa 800
185  "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
186  "Comoros 624
187  "Dominica 524
188  "Tonga 434
189 Sao Tome and Principe "São Tomé and Príncipe 337
190  "Federated States of Micronesia 318
191  "Palau 251
192  "Marshall Islands 187
193  "Kiribati 167
194  "Tuvalu 38
Rank Country GDP
(millions of US$)
 "World[23] 74,196,404
 "European Union[n 1][24] 18,518,430
1  "United States 18,036,648
2  "China[n 7] 11,158,457
3  "Japan 4,383,076
4  "Germany 3,363,600
5  "United Kingdom 2,858,003
6  "France 2,418,945
7  "India 2,116,239
8  "Italy 1,821,580
9  "Brazil 1,772,591
10  "Canada 1,552,807
11  "South Korea 1,377,873
12  "Russia[n 3] 1,326,016
13  "Australia 1,230,859
14  "Spain 1,192,955
15  "Mexico 1,140,724
16  "Indonesia 861,933
17  "Netherlands 750,318
18  "Turkey 717,887
19   "Switzerland 670,789
20  "Saudi Arabia 653,219
21  "Sweden 571,090
22  "Nigeria 568,499
23  "Poland 544,959
24  "Argentina 543,490
25  "Belgium 531,547
26  "Venezuela 509,968
27  "Norway 500,519
28  "Austria 436,888
29  "Iran 425,326
30  "Thailand 404,824
31  "United Arab Emirates 399,451
32  "Colombia 377,740
33  "South Africa 349,819
34  "Denmark 346,119
35  "Malaysia 326,933
36  "Singapore 307,872
37  "Israel 305,673
38  "Philippines 290,896
39  "Egypt 282,242
40  "Hong Kong 274,027
41  "Finland 272,217
42  "Chile 258,062
43  "Pakistan 251,255
44  "Ireland 250,814
45  "Greece 235,574
46  "Portugal 230,117
47  "Iraq 225,422
48  "Kazakhstan 216,036
49  "Algeria 213,518
50  "Qatar 211,817
51  "Czech Republic 205,270
52  "Peru 201,809
53  "Romania 199,045
54  "New Zealand 198,652
55  "Vietnam 186,205
56  "Bangladesh 173,062
57  "Kuwait 163,637
58  "Angola 146,676
59  "Hungary 138,347
60  "Ukraine 131,806
61  "Morocco 110,009
62  "Puerto Rico 103,676
63  "Ecuador 100,917
64  "Slovakia 100,249
65  "Cuba 87,205
66  "Sudan 81,894
67  "Oman 81,797
68  "Belarus 76,139
69  "Azerbaijan 75,193
70  "Sri Lanka 74,941
71  "Myanmar 66,478
72  "Luxembourg 64,874
73  "Dominican Republic 63,969
74  "Uzbekistan 63,030
75  "Kenya 60,936
76  "Guatemala 58,827
77  "Uruguay 57,471
78  "Croatia 57,137
79  "Bulgaria 56,718
80  "Macau 55,502
81  "Ethiopia 53,638
82  "Lebanon 49,631
83  "Costa Rica 49,553
84  "Slovenia 49,491
85  "Panama 49,166
86  "Lithuania 48,392
87  "Tanzania 48,030
88  "Turkmenistan 47,932
89  "Tunisia 47,423
90  "Serbia 43,866
91  "Libya 41,319
92  "Ghana 37,177
93  "Yemen 37,131
94  "Democratic Republic of the Congo 35,909
95  "Jordan 35,827
96 Cote d'Ivoire "Côte d'Ivoire 34,254
97  "Bahrain 33,850
98  "Bolivia 32,996
99  "Cameroon 32,051
100  "Latvia 31,286
101  "Paraguay 30,985
102  "Trinidad and Tobago 28,069
103  "Uganda 27,465
104  "Zambia 26,963
105  "Estonia 26,485
106  "El Salvador 25,164
107  "Cyprus 23,077
108  "Afghanistan 21,122
109  "Honduras 19,497
110    "Nepal 19,489
111  "Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,491
112  "Gabon 17,412
113  "North Korea 17,396
114  "Brunei 17,104
115  "Mozambique 17,081
116  "Iceland 17,036
117  "Cambodia 16,778
118  "Equatorial Guinea 16,731
119  "Papua New Guinea 16,576
120  "Georgia 16,530
121  "Botswana 15,813
122  "Senegal 15,658
123  "Zimbabwe 14,719
124  "Congo, Republic of the 14,077
125  "Jamaica 13,927
126  "Namibia 13,429
127  "Albania 13,413
128  "Chad 12,791
129  "Arab Palestinian areas 12,766
130  "Burkina Faso 12,756
131  "Mauritius 12,616
132  "Mongolia 12,067
133  "Mali 11,979
134  "Nicaragua 11,806
135  "Laos 11,749
136  "Macedonia 11,319
137  "South Sudan 11,007
138  "Armenia 10,889
139  "Madagascar 10,674
140  "Malta 10,536
141  "New Caledonia 10,234
142  "Benin 9,575
143  "Tajikistan 9,242
144  "Haiti 8,599
145  "The Bahamas 8,510
146  "Niger 8,169
147  "Moldova 7,944
148  "Rwanda 7,903
149  "Kyrgyzstan 7,404
150  "Kosovo 7,387
151  "Monaco 7,060
152  "Guinea 6,579
153  "Liechtenstein 5,855
154  "Malawi 5,720
155  "French Polynesia 5,623
156  "Bermuda 5,601
157  "Suriname 5,210
158  "Mauritania 5,092
159  "Timor-Leste 4,970
160  "Sierra Leone 4,893
161  "Montenegro 4,588
162  "Togo 4,576
163  "Fiji 4,532
164  "Swaziland 4,482
165  "Barbados 4,353
166  "Eritrea 3,858
167  "Cayman Islands 3,480
168  "Andorra 3,278
169  "Curaçao 3,159
170  "Guyana 3,086
171  "Maldives 3,032
172  "Burundi 2,869
173  "Aruba 2,664
174  "Greenland 2,441
175  "Liberia 2,122
176  "Lesotho 2,081
177  "Bhutan 1,965
178  "Cape Verde 1,855
179  "San Marino 1,845
180  "Central African Republic 1,838
181  "Belize 1,699
182  "Djibouti 1,589
183  "Seychelles 1,511
184  "Saint Lucia 1,406
185  "Somalia 1,375
186  "Zanzibar 1,289
187  "Antigua and Barbuda 1,248
188  "Guinea-Bissau 1,209
189  "Solomon Islands 1,103
190  "Sint Maarten 1,059
191  "British Virgin Islands 902
192  "Grenada 884
193  "Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
194  "The Gambia 851
195  "Samoa 824
196  "Vanuatu 812
197  "Turks and Caicos Islands 797
198  "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
199  "Comoros 648
200  "Dominica 533
201  "Tonga 435
202 Sao Tome and Principe "São Tomé and Príncipe 337
203  "Federated States of Micronesia 308
204  "Cook Islands 311
205  "Anguilla 311
206  "Palau 234
207  "Marshall Islands 209
208  "Nauru 182
209  "Kiribati 180
210  "Montserrat 63
211  "Tuvalu 38

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an "economic and "political union of 28 "member states that are located "primarily in "Europe.
  2. ^ Figures exclude "Taiwan, and "special administrative regions of "Hong Kong and "Macau.
  3. ^ a b c Figures exclude "Republic of Crimea and "Sevastopol.
  4. ^ Data is for Egypt's 2016 GDP, the latest available from the IMF.
  5. ^ Data is for Pakistan's 2016 GDP, the latest available from the IMF.
  6. ^ Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
  7. ^ a b Figures exclude "special administrative regions of "Hong Kong and "Macau.
  8. ^ Includes Former Spanish Sahara.
  9. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  10. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  11. ^ Excludes "Abkhazia and "South Ossetia.
  12. ^ Excludes data for "Transnistria.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database". "International Monetary Fund. 19 April 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects". "World Economic Outlook. "International Monetary Fund. April 2017. 
  3. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". "Investopedia. "IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  4. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". "About.com. "IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. "National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". "Finance & Development. "International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". "Finance & Development. "International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  8. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". "Planet Money. "National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  9. ^ Burgen, Emily et. al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. "Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  10. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". "Houston Chronicle. "Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". "BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  12. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. "Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  13. ^ "Tuvalu". "Europa. "European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  14. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". "Fortune. "Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. "New York, "United States: "Oxford University Press. 
  16. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). "China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform". Studies on Contemporary China. "Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  17. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. "International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  18. ^ "Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). "National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  19. ^ "The economics of enlargement". "Europa. "European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)" (PDF). "World Development Indicators. "World Bank. Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  21. ^ "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". "United Nations Statistics Division. December 2016. 
  22. ^ "EU GDP (current US$)". "World Development Indicators. "World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  23. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved September 27, 2016. 
  24. ^ "All countries for all years - sorted alphabetically". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved September 27, 2016. 
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