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A "new religious movement (NRM) is a comprehensive term used to identify "religious, ethical, and spiritual groups, communities and practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing "denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]:29[2]:107[3]:206

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to "spirituality or "religion to "communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that "separates their adherents from "mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]:17 Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]:vii–xv

Contents

List[edit]

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
"Emin Raymond Armin 1971 "New Age
"3HO[6]:131 "Harbhajan Singh Khalsa[7]:162 1969[7]:162 "Sikhism[7]:162
"Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship[7]:146[8]:25–28 "Adi Da[7]:146 1972[7]:146 "Hindu-inspired[7]:146
"Adonai-Shomo[8]:28 Frederick T. Howland[9]:707 1861[9]:707 "Adventist "Communal[9]:707
"Adonism[10] Franz Sättler[10] 1925[10] "Neopagan[10]
"Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]:28–29 "Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 "Religious Science
"Aetherius Society[7]:3[8]:29–31[11]:25–26 "George King[7]:3 1954[7]:3 "UFO-"Christian[7]:3
"The African Church[11]:26 Jacob Kehinde Coker[12] 1901[12] "Anglican Communion
"African initiated churches [11]:26–27 Multiple Christianity; Indigenous
"African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]:31 "Walter Eugene King[9]:934 1973[9]:934 "Voodoo[9]:934
"Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]:32 "Richard Zenor[9]:764 1943[9]:764 "Spiritualism[9]:764
"Agni Yoga[6]:6[8]:32 "Nicholas Roerich[9]:876 mid-1920s[9]:876 "Theosophical[9]:876
"Ahmadiyya Muslim Community[6]:6[8]:32–33[11]:27–28 "Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[9]:985 1889[9]:985 "Islam[9]:985
"Aladura[6]:7[11]:28–29 Josiah Ositelu[9] 1930[9]:517 "Pentecostal[9]:517
"Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]:7[8]:33–34[11]:29 Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]:13 1969[7]:13 "Fundamentalist; "Communal[7]:13
"Altruria[8]:34–35 Edward Biron Payne[9]:707 1894[9]:707 "Christian Socialist "Communal[9]:707
"American Buddhist Movement[8]:35–36 1980[9]:1116 Western "Buddhism[9]:1116
"American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]:36 Robert Ernest Dickhoff[9]:1102 1945[9]:1102 Tibetan "Buddhism[9]:1102
"American World Patriarchs[8]:37–38 Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[9]:309 1972[9]:309 Eastern "Liturgy[9]:309
"Amica Temple of Radiance[8]:38 Ivah Berg Whitten[9]:876 1932[9]:876 "Theosophical[9]:876
"Ananda Marga[6]:11[8]:41[11]:30–31[13]:370 "Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[9]:1001 1955[9]:1001 "Hinduism[9]:1001
"Ancient British Church in North America[8]:43 Jonathan V. Zotique[9]:1142 "Homosexually Oriented[9]:1142
"Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]:11[8]:42–43[11]:31 "H. Spencer Lewis[9]:841 1915[9]:841 "Rosicrucianism[9]:841
"Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[8]:43 "Darwin Gross[9]:1054 1983[9]:1054 "Sant Mat[9]:1054
"Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]:13[8]:43–44 Howard B. Rand[9]:651 1928[9]:651 "British Israelism[9]:651
"Ansaaru Allah Community[8]:44 "As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[9]:986–987 late 1960s[9]:986–987" "Black Islam[9]:986–987
"Anthroposophy[6]:13[8]:44–47[11]:33–34 "Rudolf Steiner[7]:20 1912[7]:20 Western "Occultist[7]:20
"Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]:47 Gordon Mar Peter[9]:241 1980s[9]:241 Independent "Catholic, "Monophysite[9]:241
"Antoinism[6] Louis-Joseph Antoine[6] 1910[6] "Healing, "Christian[6]
"Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]:47–48 "Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1906[9]:548 European "Free-Church[9]:548
"Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]:47–48 "Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1830[9]:548 European "Free-Church[9]:548
"Apostolic Church[6]:15 Daniel Powell Williams[7]:23 1916[7]:23 "Pentecostal[7]:23
"Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]:48 Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[9]:464 1969[9]:464 "Apostolic "Pentecostal[9]:464
"Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]:16 William Thomas Phillips[9]:465 1920[9]:465 "Apostolic "Pentecostal[9]:465
"Arcane School[11]:38 "Alice and Foster Bailey[9]:857 1937[9]:857 Alice Bailey Groups[9]:857
"Arica School[6]:17[11]:38–39 "Oscar Ichazo[9]:971 1968[9]:971 "Sufism[9]:971
"Arkeon[14] Vito Carlo Moccia[15] 1999[15] "Reiki, "Roman Catholicism[14]
"Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[9]:1004 "Ravi Shankar[9]:1004 1981[9]:1004 "Hinduism[9]:1004
"Arya Samaj[6]:18[11]:40–41 "Mul Shankara[9]:1004 1875[9]:1004 "Hinduism[9]:1004
"Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[11]:91 "Wesley Swift[9]:654 late 1940s[9]:654 "British Israelism[9]:654
"Ásatrú [16] "Stephen McNallen[16] 1970s[16] "Neo-pagan[16]
"Assemblies of God[11]:41–42 merger[17]:106 1914[17]:106 "Pentecostalism[17]:106
"Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]:18 merger[9]:466 1952[9]:466 "Apostolic "Pentecostal[9]:466
"Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]:21 Jessie L. Thrift[9]:1131 1971[9]:1131 Unclassified, "Ku Klux Klan-based[9]:1131
"Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]:21[11]:42–43 "Edgar Cayce[7]:31 1931[7]:31 "Occultist[7]:31
"Association of Vineyard Churches[6]:316 "John Wimber[9]:446 1982[9]:446 "Trinitarian "Pentecostals[9]:446
"Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]:23[11]:44–45[18][19] "Shoko Asahara[9]:1073 1987[9]:1073 Japanese "Buddhism[9]:1073
"Ausar Auset Society[6]:24 "R.A. Straughn[9]:842 mid-1970s[9]:842 "Rosicrucianism[9]:842
"Bábism[20] "Báb[20] 1844[20] "Islam[20]
"Bahá'í Faith[6]:25–26[11]:48–49 "Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri[9]:992 1863[9]:992 Middle Eastern, "Baha'i[9]:992
"Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[11]:50–51 "Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[9]:972 1971[9]:972 "Sufism[9]:972
"Bethel Ministerial Association[6]:32 Albert Franklin Varnell[9]:466 1934[9]:466 "Apostolic "Pentecostal[9]:466
"Bible Presbyterian Church[6]:33 "Carl McIntire[9]:370 1938[9]:370 Reformed "Presbyterian[9]:370
"Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]:34[8]:77 schism[9]:466 1957[9]:466 "Apostolic "Pentecostal[9]:466
The "Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[21]:35 May Otis Blackburn[21]:1 1922[21]:1 "Neopaganism and "New Thought[21]:1
"Brahma Kumaris[6]:37[11]:56–57[22] "Dada Lekhraj[9]:1006 1936[9]:1006 "Hinduism[9]:1006
"Branch Davidians[6]:38[11]:59 "Victor T. Houteff[9]:617 1930[9]:617 "Seventh Day Adventist[9]:617
"Branhamism[23]:37–40 "William M. Branham[23]:37–40 1951[23]:37–40 Oneness Pentecostal[23]:37–40
"Breatharians also known as Inedia[11]:60–61 Wiley Brooks[24]:30 1970s[24]:30 "Hinduism-influenced[24]:30
"The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[9]:1131–1132 "Jimmie T. Roberts[9]:1131–1132 c. 1970[9]:1131–1132 Unclassified "Christian Churches[9]:1131–1132
"British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]:39–40[11]:61–62
"Bruderhof, also known as the "Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[11]:63–64 "Eberhard Arnold[25]:709 c. 1920[9]:709 "Communal[9]:709
"Brunstad Christian Church[6]:269–270
"Builders of the Adytum[6]:41–42[11]:67–68 "Paul Foster Case[9]:891 1922[9]:891 "Ritual magic[9]:891
"Candomblé[6]:43–44[11]:68–69 19th century[7]:61 "Syncretistic; Neo-African; "Divination[7]:61
"Cao Dai, also known as "Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]:44[11]:69–70 "Ngô Văn Chiêu; "Lê Văn Trung[7]:61 1919[7]:61 "Syncretistic; Vietnamese "Millenarian[7]:61
"Cargo cults[6]:45[11]:70 "Syncretistic; "Nativist[7]:62
"CAUSA International[11]:72 "Sun Myung Moon[9]:837–838 1970[9]:837–838 "Unification Church[9]:837–838
"Celestial Church of Christ[11]:73 "Samuel Oshoffa[7]:64 1947[7]:64 "Nativist "Christian "Pentecostal[7]:64
"The Centers Network[11]:73–74
"Chabad-Lubavitch[6]:206,368[11]:70 Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century "Chasidic movement in "Orthodox Judaism.
"Charismatic Movement[11]:78 1950s[23]:70
"Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[11]:78–79
"Cheondoism, also called "Chendogyo[11]:80–81 "Choe Je-u
"Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as "Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and "Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[11]:79 Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]:65 c. 1925[7]:65 African "Pentecostal[7]:65
"Christ Apostolic Church[11]:82–83 "Joseph Ayo Babalola[9]:479 1941[9]:479 "Pentecostal[9]:479
"Christadelphians, also called "Thomasites[6]:50[11]:81–82 "John Thomas[23]:48 1844[9]:107 "Baptist family[9]:107
"The Christian Community, also known as the "Christian Community Church and "Christengemeinschaft[11]:83 "Rudolf Steiner
"Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]:70
1922[7]:70 "Anthroposophy[7]:70
"Christian Identity[6]:138[11]:84 1982[9]:652 "British Israelism[9]:652
"Christian Reformed Church in North America[11]:86 "Gijsbert Haan[9]:365 1857[9]:365 Reformed "Presbyterian[9]:365
"Christian Science[6]:54[11]:86–87. "Mary Baker Eddy[9]:741 1876[9]:741 "Christian Science-Metaphysical;[9]:741 "New Thought[26]
"Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the "Spiritual Counterfeits Project[11]:87–88 Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana[7]:76 1969[7]:76 "Christian Fundamentalist-"Millenarian[7]:76
"Church of All Worlds[6]:58[11]:88–89 "Tim Zell; Lance Christie[9]:909 1962[9]:909 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:909
"Church of Aphrodite[6]:58 "Gleb Botkin[9]:911 1939[9]:911 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:911
"Church of Bible Understanding[6]:59[11]:89–90 Stewart Traill[7]:79 1971[7]:79 "Adventist; "Fundamentalist[7]:79
"Church of Daniel's Band[6]:61 1893[9]:395 Non-"Episcopal "Methodism[9]:395
"Church of God in Christ[6]:62 "Charles H. Mason[7]:85 1908[7]:85 "Pentecostal[7]:85
"The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]:62 Grady R. Kent[9]:437 1957[9]:437 White "Trinitarian "Holiness "Pentecostal[9]:437
"Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]:63, 65 J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas 1906[9]:437 White "Trinitarian "Holiness "Pentecostal[9]:437
"Church of God of Prophecy[6]:62–63 "Ambrose Tomlinson[9]:438 1903[9]:438 White "Trinitarian "Holiness "Pentecostal[9]:438
"Church of God with Signs Following[27]:300–301 "George Went Hensley[9]:489 1920s[9]:489 "Holiness "Pentecostal[9]:489
"Church of Israel[6]:65 "Dan Gayman[9]:653 1974[9]:653 "British Israelism[9]:653
"Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints "Joseph Smith 1830 "Latter-day Saint Movement; "Millenarianism; "Mormonism
"The Church of Light[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 "C.C. Zain[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 1932[28]:210–211[29]:105–106 "Hermetism[28]:210–211[29]:105–106
"Church of Satan[11]:91–92 "Anton LaVey[30]:508–509 1966[30]:508–509 "Satanism[30]:508–509
"Church of the SubGenius "J.R. "Bob" Dobbs 1979 "UFO; "Apocalypticism
"Church of the Creator[9]:668 Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI 1969 Liberal family[9]:668
"Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[31][32] or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson 2005
"Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[11]:92–93 "John Robert Stevens[7]:386 1954[7]:386 "Fundamentalist; "Occultist[7]:386
"Church of the Lord (Aladura)[11]:93 Josiah Ositelu[9]:517 1930[9]:517 "Pentecostal Family[9]:517
"Church of World Messianity[6]:94, 371[11]:94 "Mokichi Okada[9]:1120 1934[9]:1120 "Shintoism[9]:1120
"Church Universal and Triumphant[6]:281[11]:94–95 "Mark Prophet; "Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]:97 1958[7]:97 "Theosophical; "Occultist[7]:97
"Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[11]:71 "Sun Myung Moon[33][34] 1955[34] "Unification Church[34]
"Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]:74[8]:180 "Arnold Josiah Ford[9]:951 1924[9]:951 Black "Judaism[9]:951
"Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]:75 "Donald Lee Barnett[9]:496 1967[9]:496 "Latter Rain "Pentecostal[9]:496
"Concerned Christians[11]:96
"Conservative Judaism[6]:76[11]:97 "Sabato Morais, "Marcus Jastrow, "H. Pereira Mendes[9]:943 1887[9]:943 Mainline "Judaism[9]:943
"Covenant of the Goddess[6]:98[11]:48–49 merger[9]:915 1975[9]:915 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:915
"Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]:99[11]:99 "Margot Adler[9]:915 1987[9]:915 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:915
"The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]:78[11]:99–100 "James D. Ellison[9]:654 mid-1970s[9]:654 "British Israelism[9]:654
"Creativity[35] "Ben Klassen[35] early-1970's "Pantheism; "Agnostic Atheism; "White Racialism.[35]
"Crossroads Movement[11]:100 1970s[27]:100
"Cyberchurches[11]:103
"Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement "B. R. Ambedkar 1956 "Buddhism ("Navayana or Neo Buddhism branch)
"Dances of Universal Peace[36]
"Dianic Wicca[6]:84 merger[9]:916 1971[9]:916 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:916
"Eckankar[6]:91 "Paul Twitchell[9]:1056 1971[9]:1056 Derived from "Sant Mat but denies connection[9]:1056
"Elan Vital (formerly "Divine Light Mission)[6]:85–86[22]:126[37]:156 "Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[9]:1055 1920s[9]:1055 "Sant Mat[9]:1055
End Time Survivors "Jesus Christians [38] David McKay [39] "Fundamentalist "Millennialism
"Esoteric Nazism[40]
est ("Erhard Seminars Training)[1]:44[22]:126–127[41] "Werner Erhard[42]:193 1971[23]:108[43]:167,171–172 "Human Potential Movement,[5]:35[23]:107–108[44] "Self religions[45]
"Evangelical Methodist Church[6]:97 "J.H. Hamblen[9]:396 1946[9]:396 Non-"Episcopal "Methodist[9]:396
"Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[46] "Sun Myung Moon[46] 1994[46] "Unification Church[46]
"Falun Gong[47] "Li Hongzhi[9]:1126 1992[9]:1126 "Qigong movement
"Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]:133[22]:126[48] "David Berg[7]:133 1968[7]:133 "Fundamentalist,[7]:133 "Jesus movement offshoot,[48] with "countercultural and "Evangelical beliefs[30]:185
"Fellowship of Isis[6]:103 Olivia Robertson[9]:888 1976[9]:888 Spiritual organization[9]:888
"Feraferia[49] Frederick Adams[49] 1967[49] "Neopagan, "Goddess[49]
"Findhorn Foundation[6]:104 "Eileen Caddy; "Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson[7]:138 1963[7]:138 "Christian-"Anthroposophistical-"Rosicrucian[7]:138
"Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]:104 W.E. Fuller[9]:482 1898[9]:482 Black "Trinitarian "Pentecostal[9]:482
"Followers of Christ[9]:1137 Marion Reece (or Riess)[9]:1137[50] late 19th century[9]:1137 Unclassified[9]:1137 "Pentecostal [50]
"Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]:108 "Paschal Beverly Randolph[9]:843 1858[9]:843 "Rosicrucianism[9]:843
"Freedomites[6]:272
"Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[51] "Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[51] "Buddhism
"Fundamentalist Christianity[6]:113–114
"General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]:117 schism[9]:763 1890[9]:763 "Swedenborgianism[9]:763
The "Genesis II Church of Health and Healing Jim Humble 2009 or 2010[52] "UFO-"New Age inspired "Pseudoscience[53][54][55]
"Ghost Dance[6]:119
"Global Peace Foundation[56] "Hyun Jin Moon[57] 2007[56] "Unification Church[56]
"Grail Movement[6]:122–123 "Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[9]:786 1924[9]:786 "Spiritualist, "Psychic and "New Age; "Channeling[9]:786
"Hanuman Foundation[6]:129 "Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[23]:51 1980[9]:1013 "Hinduism[9]:1013
"Heaven's Gate[58] Marshall Herff Applewhite; Bonnie Lu Nettles[58] 1973[58] "New Age, "UFO[58]
"Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]:133 "Swami Rama[9]:1014 1971[9]:1014 "Hinduism[9]:1014
"I AM Activity[6]:138 "Guy Ballard[9]:873 "I AM Groups; Ascended Masters[9]:873
"Iglesia Ni Cristo[59] "Felix Y. Manalo[60] 1914[60] "Restorationism; "Unitarianism
"Isha Foundation [61] "Jaggi Vasudev 1992 Hinduism
"Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]:142 R. Lee Kirkland[7]:179 1922[7]:179 Unaffiliated "Fundamentalist[7]:179
"Insight Meditation Society[6]:143 "Jack Kornfield, "Sharon Salzberg, "Joseph Goldstein[9]:1067 1976[9]:1067 "Theravada "Buddhism[9]:1067
"International House of Prayer also known as (IHOP or IHOPKC) "Mike Bickle 1999 Christian Charismatic, Post-tribulational, Historic premillennialism
"International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]:108 "Aimee Semple McPherson[9]:451 1923[9]:451 White "Trinitarian "Pentecostal[9]:451
"International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[23]:139 "Eugene Douglas Savoy[23]:139 1972[23]:139 "New Age "Occultist[23]:139
"International Society for Krishna Consciousness[6]:146–148 "Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta[9]:997 mid-1960s[9]:997 "Hinduism[9]:997
"Jediism[62]:62 2000s[62]:62 "Star Wars-inspired "New Age[62]:62
"Jehovah's Witnesses[6]:150, 152–153 "Charles Taze Russell[9]:637 1870[9]:637 "Adventist; "Bible Student Groups[9]:637
"Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")[6]:153 Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)[13]:149–163 1977[13]:149–163 "Fundamentalist, "Communal[13]:149–163
"Jesus Movement[6]:153[63] late 1960s[7]:196 "Fundamentalist[7]:196
"Jews for Jesus[6]:155 "Moishe Rosen[7]:197 1970[7]:197 "Fundamentalist Christianity[7]:197
"John Frum[6]:155 1936[7]:197 "Syncretistic; "Millenarian[7]:197
"Kabbalah Centre[30]:292–293 "Philip Berg[30]:292–293 1970s[30]:292–293 "New Age[30]:292–293
"Kemetic Orthodoxy[64] "Tamara Siuda[64] 1988[64] "Kemetic[64]
"Kerista[6]:158 John Presmont[9]:730 1956[9]:730 "Communal—After 1960[9]:730
"Kopimism "Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
"Konkokyo[6]:161 Bunjiro Kawate[9]:1122 1859[9]:1122 "Shintoism[9]:1122
"Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]:161 "Amrit Desai[9]:1019 1966[9]:1019 "Hinduism[9]:1019
"Lama Foundation[6]:164 Steve Durkee[9]:731 1967[9]:731 "Communal—After 1960[9]:731
"Latter Day Saint movement[6]:190, 192 "Joseph Smith[23]:187 1830[23]:187 "Latter Day Saint movement; "Mormonism;
"Latter Rain Movement[6]:165 schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt[7]:209 1946[7]:209 "Millenarian "Pentecostal[7]:209
"Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]:165 "Paul S. L. Johnson[9]:639 c. 1920[9]:639 "Adventist; "Bible Student Groups[9]:639
"Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]:165–166 1924[9]:844 "Rosicrucianism[9]:844
"The Living Word Fellowship[65] "John Robert Stevens[9]:506 1951[9]:506 "Latter Rain "Pentecostals[9]:506
"Local Church movement[6]:169, 171 Ni Shu-tsu ("Watchman Nee)[9]:609–610 1920s[9]:609–610 Independent "Fundamentalist; Other "Bible Students[9]:609–610
"Love Family, also known as the "Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and "Love Israel[11]:90–91 Paul Erdman[7]:216 1969[7]:216 "Communalism[7]:216
"Lucis Trust[6]:172–173 "Alice A. Bailey[7]:217 1923[7]:217 "Occultist; "Theosophical[7]:217
"Madkhalism[66][67] "Rabee Al-Madkhali[68][69] early 1990s[70][71][72] "Islam[73][74]
"Mahikari[6]:176 "Kotama Okada[9]:1123 1959[9]:1123 "Shintoism[9]:1123
"Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]:178 Bob Weiner[7]:223 1972[7]:223 "Pentecostalism[7]:223
"Mazdaznan[6]:181 "Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[9]:991 1902[9]:991 "Zoroastrianism[9]:991
"Meher Baba followers[37] "Merwan Sheriar Irani[9]:991 1921[9]:991 "Hindu-inspired[9]:991
"Messianic Judaism[6]:184 "Christianity
"Million Man March[75] "Louis Farrakhan[75] 1995[75] "Nation of Islam[75]
"Mita Congregation[6]:186 "Juanita García Peraza[9]:462 1940[9]:462 "Deliverance "Pentecostal[9]:462
"Monastic Order of Avallon[76] Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[76] 1972[76] "Neo-pagan[76]
"Moody Church[6]:186 "Dwight L. Moody[9]:602 1864[9]:602 "Fundamentalist and "Evangelical Churches[9]:602
"Moorish Science Temple of America[6]:186, 188 Timothy Drew[9]:988 1925[9]:988 "Black Islam[9]:988
"Moral Re-Armament[6]:188, 190 "Frank N. D. Buchman[7]:233 1921[7]:233
"Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]:194 "John-Roger Hinkins[9]:1054 1971[9]:1054 "Sant Mat[9]:1054
"Namdhari[6]:196 "Balak Singh[7]:243 mid-19th century[7]:243 "Sikhism[7]:243
"Nation of Islam[77] "Elijah Muhammad[7]:245 mid-1930s[7]:245 "Black Muslims[7]:245
"Nation of Yahweh[78]:217[6]:200 "Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[9]:952–953 1970s[9]:952–953 Black "Judaism[9]:952–953
"National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]:197 Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, "Cora L. Richmond[9]:772 1893[9]:772 "Spiritualism[9]:772
"Native American Church[6]:202 1906[9]:809 "Entheogen Groups[9]:809
"New Apostolic Church[6]:205 Heinrich Geyer[9]:1139 1863[9]:1139 Unclassified "Christian Churches[9]:1139
"New Kadampa Tradition[79]:310–311 "Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[9]:1112 mid-1970s[9]:1112 Tibetan "Buddhism[9]:1112
"The New Message from God[80] "Marshall Vian Summers 1992[81]
"New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]:207 1969[9]:923 "Witchcraft and "Neo-Paganism[9]:923
"New Thought[6]:208 "Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]:258 mid-19th century[7]:258 Metaphysical[7]:258
"Oahspe Faithists[82] John Ballou Newbrough 1882 UFO-Christian
"Odinism[83] "Orestes Brownson[83] 1848 [83] "Neo-paganism[83]
"Oomoto[6]:216 Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]:266 1899[7]:266 "Millenarian "Shintoism[7]:266
"Open Bible Standard Churches[6]:217 merger[9]:454 1935[9]:454 White "Trinitarian "Pentecostals[9]:454
"Opus Dei[22]:126[30]:427–428[84][85]:3, 122–123[86][87][88]:251 "Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[30]:427–428 1928[30]:427–428 "Roman Catholic[30]:427–428
"Ordo Templi Orientis[7]:270 "Carl Kellner;[7]:270[30]:430 "Theodor Reuss[30]:430 1895;[7]:270 1906[30]:430 "Thelema[30]:430
"Pentecostal Church of God[6]:225 1919[17]:109 "Pentecostalism[17]:109
"Pentecostalism[6]:224–225
"Peoples Temple[6]:226[89] "Jim Jones[9]:832 1955[9]:832 Other "Psychic, "New Age Groups[9]:832
"Philosophical Research Society[6]:228 "Manly Palmer Hall[9]:849 1934[9]:849 "Occult Orders[9]:849
"Pilgrims of Arès[90] "Michel Potay[90] 1974[90]
"Plymouth Brethren[6]:228–229[11]:61 "John Nelson Darby[7]:281 1830[7]:281 "Millenarian[7]:281
"Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[23]:51–52 "Wayman Mitchell[23]:51–52 1970[23]:51–52 "Pentecostalism[23]:51–52
"Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]:234 "Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[9]:1059 1861[9]:1059 "Sant Mat[9]:1059
"Raëlism[6]:234 "Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[9]:806 1973[9]:806 "Flying Saucer Groups[9]:806
"Rainbow Family[6]:234, 236 Barry Adams[9]:732 late-1960s[9]:732 "Communal—After 1960[9]:732
"Rajneesh movement[6]:236, 238 "Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[9]:1051 1966[9]:1051 "Eastern Family[9]:1051
"Ramtha[91] "J. Z. Knight[92] 1977[93] "New Age[91]
"Rastafari[6]:241,243[94] "Leonard Howell, "Joseph Hibbert, "Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[9]:954 1935[9]:954 Black "Judaism[9]:954
"Reformed Druids of North America[6]:244 1960s[7]:299 "Neo-Paganism[7]:299
"Religious Science[6]:245–246 "Ernest Holmes[7]:301 1948[7]:301 "New Thought[7]:301
"Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]:248 "Nikkyo Niwano and "Myoko Naganuma[95] 1938 [95] "Nichiren Buddhist[95]
"Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]:249 "Carl Louis von Grasshof[9]:845 1909[9]:845 "Rosicrucianism[9]:845
"Sacred Name Movement[6]:251 "Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Aventist; "Church of God (Seventh-Day);
"Sahaja Yoga[96] "Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[9]:1029 1970[9]:1029 "Hinduism[9]:1029
"Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]:251 "Subramuniy[9]:1029 1957[9]:1029 "Hinduism[9]:1029
"The Salvation Army[6]:252, 254 "William Booth[9]:419 1865[9]:419 Nineteenth Century "Holiness[9]:419
"Sant Nirankari Mission[6]:210 Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikhism
"Santa Muerte Cult[97] Syncretic "Folk Catholic
"Scientology[22]:126[98][99][100] "L. Ron Hubbard[9]:816 1955[9]:816 "UFO, Other "Psychic, "New Age Groups[9]:816
"Self-Realization Fellowship[6]:261 "Paramahansa Yogananda[9]:1031 1935[9]:1031 "Hinduism[9]:1031
"Semitic Neopaganism[101] "Raphael Patai[101] 1960s[101] "Neo-paganism, "Feminism[101]
"Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]:262 "Ellen G. White[9]:621 1860[9]:621 "Seventh Day Adventists[9]:621
"Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]:262–263 schism[9]:622–623 1925[9]:622–623 "Seventh Day Adventists[9]:622–623
"Shakers[6]:263, 265 "Ann Lee[9]:724 1750s[9]:724 "Communal—Before 1960[9]:724
"Shepherd's Rod, also known as the "Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]:189 "Victor T. Houteff[9]:619 1935[9]:619 "Seventh Day Adventists[9]:619
"Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]:266 John J. Higgins, Jr.[9]:734 1969[9]:734 "Communal—After 1960[9]:734
"Shinnyo-en[6]:266–267 "Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito[9]:1081 1936[9]:1081 Japanese "Buddhism[9]:1081
"Shinreikyo[6]:266 Kanichi Otsuka[9]:1123 post–"World War II[9]:1123 "Shintoism[9]:1123
"Shri Ram Chandra Mission[102] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[102] 1945[102] "Hinduism[102]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]:268–269 "Kuppuswami Iyer[9]:1035 1935[9]:1035 "Hinduism[9]:1035
"Soka Gakkai International[6]:271[103] "Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[9]:1082 1930[9]:1082 "Nichiren Buddhism[9]:1082
"Subud[6]:279 "Muhammed Subuh[9]:981 1933[9]:981 "Sufism[9]:981
"Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]:279 "Samuel L. Lewis[7]:342 1968[7]:342 "Sufism[7]:342
"Sukyo Mahikari[6]:281 Sekiguchi Sakae[7]:344 1978[7]:344 "Mahikari "Syncretistic[7]:344
"Summum[6]:281 "Claude Rex Nowell[9]:1141 1975[9]:1141 Unclassified "Christian Churches[9]:1141
"Temple of Satan[104][105][106] "Lucien Greaves and Malcolm Jarry[107] 2012[108] "Satanism, "Nontheistic[105]
"Tenrikyo[6]:287–288 "Miki Nakayama[9]:1124 1838[9]:1124 "Shintoism[9]:1124
"Terasem[109] "Martine Rothblatt 2004 "Transhumanism
"Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO)[51] "Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[51] "Buddhism
"Tolstoyan primitivism[110]:672 "Leo Tolstoy[110]:672 1901[110]:672 "Christian anarchism, "Pacifism[110]:672
"Toronto Blessing[111] Randy Clark[13]:122–123 1994[13]:122–123 "Pentecostalism[13]:122–123
"Transcendental Meditation[6]:292–293, 295–296 "Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[9]:1045 1958[9]:1045 "Hinduism[9]:1045
"True Buddha School[112] "Lu Sheng-yen[112] Late 1980s Tibetan "Buddhism/"Taoism[112]
"Twelve Tribes[6]:212, 334–335 Gene and Marsha Spriggs[9]:737 1972[9]:737 "Communal—After 1960[9]:737
"Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]:298 "William Irvine[11]:330 1897[113] Independent "fundamentalist family[9]:611
"Umbanda[6]:299 "Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[114] 1920[114] "Spiritism[114]
"Unarius Academy of Science[6]:300, 302–303 "Ernest Norman, "Ruth Norman 1954 "UFO Religion
"Unification Church[6]:300, 302–303 "Sun Myung Moon[7]:365 1954[7]:365 "Unification Church[7]:365
"Unitarian Universalism[27]:335 consolidation[23]:308–310 1961[23]:308–310 "Unitarian Universalism[23]:308–310
"United Holy Church of America[6]:304 Isaac Cheshier[9]:487 1900[9]:487 Black "Trinitarian "Pentecostal[9]:487
"United House of Prayer for All People[6]:304–305 "Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]:371 1925[7]:371 African American "Pentecostal[7]:371
"United Israel World Union[6]:305 "David Horowitz[9]:959 1944[9]:959 Other "Jewish Groups[9]:959
"United Lodge of Theosophists[6]:305 "Robert Crosbie[9]:855 1909[9]:855 "Theosophy[9]:855
"United Pentecostal Church International[6]:287–306 merger[9]:476 1945[9]:476 "Apostolic "Pentecostals[9]:476
"Unity Church[6]:306–307 "Charles Fillmore[7]:373 1903[7]:373 "New Thought[7]:373
"Universal Great Brotherhood[6]:310 "Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[9]:883 late 1940s[9]:883 Other "Theosophical Groups[9]:883
"Universal Life Church[6]:311 "Kirby Hensley[9]:680 1962[9]:680 Liberal Family[9]:680
"Universal White Brotherhood[115] "Peter Deunov[9]:880 1900[9]:880 Other "Theosophical Groups[9]:880
"Urantia Foundation[23]:319–322 "William S. Sadler[23]:319–322 1934[23]:319–322 "UFO,[23]:319–322 Spiritualist, Psychic, New Age[9]:839 and Christian occultist[7]:380
"Vajradhatu[6]:313 "Chögyam Trungpa[9]:1115 1973[9]:1115 Tibetan "Buddhism[9]:1115
"Vale do Amanhecer[116] "Tia Neiva[116] 1959[116] Spiritualism[116]
"Vedanta Society[6]:314 "Swami Vivekananda[7]:382 1894[7]:382 "Hinduism[7]:382
"Volunteers of America[6]:316 "Ballington Booth and "Maud Booth[9]:420 1896[9]:420 Nineteenth Century "Holiness[9]:420
"The Way International[6]:318 "Victor Paul Wierwille[9]:608 1942[9]:608 Independent "fundamentalist family[9]:608
"The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[117] Serge Benhayon[117] 1999[117] "Theosophical[118]
"White Eagle Lodge[6]:319 Lady Elizabeth Carey[9]:884 1943[9]:884 Other "Theosophical Groups[9]:884
"Wicca[119] "Gerald Gardner[23]:338 c. 1949[23]:338 "Occultist[23]:338
"Women's Federation for World Peace[120]:203–205 "Hak Ja Han[120]:203–205 1992[120]:203–205 "Unification Church[120]:203–205
"The Word Foundation[6]:320 "Harold W. Percival[9]:856 c. 1904[9]:856 "Theosophy[9]:856

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Beckford, James A., ed. (1 January 1987). New religious movements and rapid social change. London: Sage Publications. "ISBN "978-0-8039-8003-7. 
  2. ^ Nelson, Geoffrey K. (3 December 1987). Cults, new religions and religious creativity. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. "ISBN "978-0-7102-0855-2. 
  3. ^ Swenson, Donald S. (15 August 2009). Society, spirituality, and the sacred : a social scientific introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. "ISBN "978-0-8020-9680-7. 
  4. ^ Coney, Judith (June 1998). "A Response to: Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne, Vol. 5, No. 2". "ISKCON Communications Journal. International Society for Krishna Consciousness. 6 (1). 
  5. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan R.; Cresswell, Jamie, eds. (5 May 1999). New religious movements : challenge and response. London [u.a.]: Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-20049-3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe "Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger, ed. The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. "ISBN "978-0-8239-1505-7. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv "Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 June 1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. "ISBN "978-0-8239-2586-5. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Lewis, James R. (July 1998). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions ([Nachdr.] ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. "ISBN "978-1-57392-222-7. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nq nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz oa ob oc od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op oq or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz pa pb pc pd pe pf pg "Melton, J. Gordon (December 2002). Encyclopedia of American religions (7th ed.). Detroit: Gale. "ISBN "978-0-7876-6384-1. 
  10. ^ a b c d Hakl, Hans Thomas (2010). "Franz Sättler (Dr. Musallam) and the Twentieth-Century Cult of Adonism". Pomegranate: the International Journal of Pagan Studies. United Kingdom: "Equinox Publishing Ltd. 12 (1). "ISSN 1528-0268. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh "Chryssides, George D. (15 November 2001). Historical dictionary of new religious movements. Lanham, Md. [u.a.]: Scarecrow Press. "ISBN "978-0-8108-4095-9. 
  12. ^ a b Omoyajowo 1995, pp. xv, 113.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring new religions. London: Continuum. "ISBN "978-0-8264-3890-4. 
  14. ^ a b Introvigne, Massimo. "The 2008 International Conference - Twenty Years of Studies of New Religious Movements: Autohagiography or Post-Mortem?". www.cesnur.org (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
  15. ^ a b Pitrelli, Stefano; Vecchio, Gianni Del (2011-03-10). Occulto Italia (in Italian). Bur. "ISBN "9788858615720. 
  16. ^ a b c d Strmiska and Sigurvinsson 2005, pp. 127–180.
  17. ^ a b c d e Clark, Elmer T. (June 1940). The Small Sects in America (1st ed.). New York: Abingdon Press. "ISBN "978-0-687-38703-8. 
  18. ^ Partridge, 2004, p. 261.
  19. ^ Saliba, 2003, p. 171.
  20. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Iranica 1989, "Babism".
  21. ^ a b c d Fort, Samuel (9 October 2014). Cult of the Great Eleven. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. "ISBN "978-1-5027-8258-8. ["self-published source]
  22. ^ a b c d e f "Bhugra, Dinesh, ed. (1996). Psychiatry and religion : context, consensus and controversies. London [u.a.]: Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-08955-5. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nichols, Larry A.; Mather, George; Schmidt, Alvin J. (13 August 2006). Dictionary of cults, sects, and world religions (Rev. and updated ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. "ISBN "978-0-310-23954-3. 
  24. ^ a b c Bergman, Gregory (30 May 2006). Isms. Avon, MA: Adams Media. "ISBN "978-1-59337-483-9. 
  25. ^ "Eberhard Arnold: Founder of the Bruderhof". www.eberhardarnold.com. Retrieved 2017-05-25. 
  26. ^ See:
    • "Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements. Rowman Altamira, 2003, p. 26: "The Christian Science-Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as "New Thought" in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments."
    • "Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
  27. ^ a b c "Chryssides, George D. (17 April 2006). The A to Z of new religious movements (Rev. pbk. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. "ISBN "978-0-8108-5588-5. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Lewis, James R. (2002). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions (2nd ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. "ISBN "978-1-57392-888-5. 
  29. ^ a b c d "Greer, John Michael (8 October 2003). The new encyclopedia of the occult. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. "ISBN "978-1-56718-336-8. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Clarke, Peter B., ed. (22 December 2005). Encyclopedia of new religious movements. London: Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-45383-7. 
  31. ^ Atheist, Friendly. "Thanks to a Technicality, Pastafarianism is Now an Official Religion in Poland!". patheos.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  32. ^ "Pastafarian recognized in Texas ID". nydailynews.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  33. ^ "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [1]
  34. ^ a b c Storey, John Woodrow; Glenn H. Utter (2002). Religion and Politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. "ISBN "1-57607-218-5. 
  35. ^ a b c Robinson 2005.
  36. ^ Van Bruinessen 2007, p. 258.
  37. ^ a b "Beckford, James A. (15 September 2003). Social theory and religion. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-77336-2. 
  38. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "Conference Program/ New Religious Movements/ The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". Australian Association for the Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  39. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". AASR. Australian Association of Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  40. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, p. 17.
  41. ^ See:
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  42. ^ Aupers, Stef (2005). "'We Are All Gods': New Age in the Netherlands 1960–2000". In Sengers, Erik. The Dutch and Their Gods: Secularization and Transformation of Religion in the Netherlands. Studies in Dutch Religious History. 3. Hilversum: Verloren. "ISBN "90-6550-867-8. 
  43. ^ "Clarke, Peter; "Sutherland, Stewart, eds. (31 December 1991). The study of religion, traditional and new religions (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-06432-3. 
  44. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM) ..."
  45. ^ See:
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
  46. ^ a b c d Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, "ISBN "1-56085-145-7, page 47–52
  47. ^ Lewis 2004, p. 195.
  48. ^ a b Melton 2009, p. 676.
  49. ^ a b c d Ellwood 1971.
  50. ^ a b Peters 2008, pp. 186–187.
  51. ^ a b c d Irons 2008, p. 206.
  52. ^ News, A. B. C. (29 October 2016). "Husband Says Fringe Church's 'Miracle Cure' Killed His Wife". ABC News. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  53. ^ about, David Ono, bio, (28 October 2016). "'Church of Bleach': ABC News confronts founder of Genesis II Church". abc7.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  54. ^ Zapotosky, Matt (10 March 2016). "This church's cancer-curing elixir is really bleach, federal authorities say". Retrieved 7 February 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com. 
  55. ^ Macaskill, Grace (27 January 2018). "Desperate parents forcing kids to drink bleach to cure autism in sick cult". mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  56. ^ a b c Philippine Daily Inquirer 2008.
  57. ^ Global Leadership Council Archived 2011-10-28 at the "Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ a b c d Partridge, 2004, p. 406.
  59. ^ Associated Press (10 October 2011). "Iglesia Ni Cristo purchases US town". Archived from the original on 2018-01-28. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  60. ^ a b "About the Iglesia Ni Cristo". Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  61. ^ "'The Mystic' Is Coming to London". vice.com. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2018. 
  62. ^ a b c "Bouma, Gary (26 March 2007). Australian soul : religion and spirituality in the twenty-first century. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-67389-1. 
  63. ^ Gallagher 2006, p. 86.
  64. ^ a b c d Krogh 2004, p. 167.
  65. ^ Tucker 2004, pp. 360–362.
  66. ^ "Omar Ashour, Libyan Islamists Unpacked Archived 2013-06-17 at the "Wayback Machine.: Rise, Transformation and Future. "Brookings Doha Center, 2012.
  67. ^ Mohammad Pervez Bilgrami, Arab Counter-revolution on Threshold of Plummeting. World Bulletin, Sunday, September 21, 2014.
  68. ^ ICG Middle East Report N°31. Saudi Arabia Backgrounder: Who Are the Islamists? "Amman/"Riyadh/"Brussels: "International Crisis Group, 21 September 2004.
  69. ^ Roel Meijer, Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, pg. 49. "New York: "Columbia University Press, 2009.
  70. ^ Notes, Whatever Happened to the Islamists?: Salafis, Heavy Metal Muslims and the Lure of Consumerist Islam, pg. 291. Eds. Amel Boubekeur and Olivier Roy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. "ISBN "978-0-231-15426-0
  71. ^ Hossam Tammam and Patrick Haenni, Islam in the insurrection? Archived 2013-10-29 at the "Wayback Machine. "Al-Ahram Weekly, 3–9 March 2011, Issue No. 1037.
  72. ^ Professor Girma Yohannes Iyassu Menelik, The Emergence and Impacts of Islamic Radicalists, pg. 16. "Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH, 2009.
  73. ^ Omayma Abdel-Latif, "Trends in Salafism." Taken from Islamist Radicalisation: The Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations, pg. 74. Eds. Michael Emerson, Kristina Kausch and Richard Youngs. "Brussels: "Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009. "ISBN "978-92-9079-865-1
  74. ^ "Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Sheikh Rabi' Ibn Haadi 'Umayr Al Madkhali. The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims
  75. ^ a b c d Nelson Jr., William E. (1998). "Black Church Politics and The Million Man March". In Best, Felton O. Black Religious Leadership from the Slave Community to the Million Man March; flames of fire. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. p. 245. 
  76. ^ a b c d Marhic 1996, pp. 25–29.
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