|President Lucas Mangope|
|"President of Bophuthatswana|
6 December 1977 – 13 March 1994
|Preceded by||post established|
|Succeeded by||post abolished|
|Chief Minister of Bophuhtatswana|
1 June 1972 – 6 December 1977
|Chief Councillor of Tswanaland|
c 1968 – 1 June 1972
27 December 1923|
"Motswedi, "Transvaal, "South Africa
|Died||18 January 2018
"Motswedi, "Lehurutshe, "South Africa
Kgosi Lucas Manyane Mangope (27 December 1923 – 18 January 2018) was the leader of the "Bantustan (homeland) of "Bophuthatswana, and the founder and leader of the "United Christian Democratic Party, a political party based in the "North West of "South Africa.
Born in "Motswedi, Mangope worked as a high school teacher until 8 August 1959, when he succeeded his father Lucas as Chief of the Motswedi Ba hurutshe-Boo-Manyane tribe. On 1 May 1971, Mangope became Chief Minister of the Bophuthatswana Legislative Assembly and retained his post following the first Bophuthatswana elections on 4 October 1972. Initially leader of the Bophuthatswana National Party, Mangope left the party following what was officially referred to as 'internal strife' and formed the Bophuthatswana Democratic Party, which then became the governing party. He became "President in 1977, when Bophuthatswana was declared independent by the South African government. On 10 February 1988 he was briefly overthrown by members of a military police unit, led by Rocky Malebane-Metsing of the People's Progressive Party (PPP), who had accused Mangope of corruption and charged that the recent election had been rigged in the government's favour. Mangope was reinstated following intervention by the "South African Defence Force. South Africa's government stated that it was responding to a request for assistance from the legal government of a sovereign nation.
Sasha Polakow-Suransky wrote that Mangope was "widely considered a puppet and a joke in South Africa" during his presidency. Mangope was nevertheless given some recognition during visits to "Israel, meeting with prominent figures such as "Moshe Dayan. (Bophuthatswana had an unofficial "embassy" in Israel in the 1980s despite objections from the "Israeli Foreign Ministry, which did not recognize the bantustan as a state.)
Mangope was accused of using his Defence Force and Police to suppress protests, and had been accused of police brutality when a student protest was suppressed by his police force. Mangope's supporters, however, have argued that Bophuthatswana was comparatively more successful than other Bantustans in social and economic development, owing to its mineral wealth. Although designated as an ethnic "Tswana homeland, Bophuthatswana was more or less an integrated society where "Apartheid legislation did not apply, in common with other homelands.
At the "Kempton Park negotiations in 1993 that led to the first non-racial elections in South Africa in 1994, Mangope had made clear that Bophuthatswana would remain independent of the new and integrated South Africa and that he would not allow the upcoming elections to take place in "his country". With most residents in favour of reintegration, the defence force mutinied. Mangope called on outside help, but was eventually forced to flee the homeland, and shortly thereafter, the homelands were reincorporated into South Africa.
After the transition to nonracial democracy, Mangope remained active in politics, forming the "United Christian Democratic Party in 1997. Party support was confined to the "North West Province (which contained most of Bophuthatswana), and at its peak it held three seats out of 400 in the "National Assembly. Mangope led the party for fifteen years, but was expelled from the party in 2012. He had been accused of being autocratic, but failed to attend his disciplinary hearing, and had his membership terminated. In the runup to the following election, "in 2014, many of the party's members, encouraged by Mangope, left to join the "Democratic Alliance. The party subsequently lost all of its seats including those in the provincial parliament and provincial legislature.