Powered by
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia

Luxembourg City
""Skyline of Luxembourg City viewed over the Grund quarter
Skyline of Luxembourg City viewed over the "Grund quarter
""Flag of Luxembourg City
""Coat of arms of Luxembourg City
Coat of arms
""Map of Luxembourg with Luxembourg City highlighted in orange, and the canton in dark red
Map of Luxembourg with Luxembourg City highlighted in orange, and the canton in dark red
Coordinates: 49°36′38″N 6°07′58″E / 49.6106°N 6.1328°E / 49.6106; 6.1328"Coordinates: 49°36′38″N 6°07′58″E / 49.6106°N 6.1328°E / 49.6106; 6.1328
"Country  "Luxembourg
"Canton "Luxembourg
 • Total 51.46 km2 (19.87 sq mi)
Area rank "7th of 102
Highest elevation 402 m (1,319 ft)
 • Rank "48th of 102
Lowest elevation 230 m (750 ft)
 • Rank "42nd of 102
Population (2018)[2]
 • Total 116,323
 • Rank "1st of 102
 • Density 2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)
 • Density rank "2nd of 102
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
"LAU 2 LU0000304
Website vdl.lu
City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications
"UNESCO World Heritage Site
""Mudam 04 jnl.jpg
The reconstructed "Fort Thüngen, formerly a key part of Luxembourg City's fortifications, now on the site of the Mudam, Luxembourg's museum of modern art
"Criteria Cultural: iv
Reference 699
Inscription 1994 (18th "Session)
Area 29.94 ha
Buffer zone 108.73 ha

Luxembourg ("Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg, "French: Luxembourg, "German: Luxemburg),[pron 1] also known as Luxembourg City ("Luxembourgish: Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, "French: Ville de Luxembourg, "German: Stadt Luxemburg)[pron 2], is the "capital city of the "Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the "country's most populous commune. Standing at the "confluence of the "Alzette and "Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of "Western Europe, situated 213 km (132 mi) by road from "Brussels, 372 km (231 mi) from "Paris, and 209 km (130 mi) from "Cologne.[3] The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the "Franks in the "Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed.

As of January 2018, Luxembourg City had a population of 116,323,[2] which is more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune ("Esch-sur-Alzette).

In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119 (PPP),[4] with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 "Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for "quality of living.[5]

Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the "European Union (alongside Brussels and "Strasbourg), as it is the seat of several institutions of the "European Union, including the "European Court of Justice, the "European Court of Auditors, the "Secretariat of the European Parliament, the "European Investment Bank, the "European Investment Fund, and the "European Stability Mechanism.



Old City of Luxembourg at night

In the "Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two "Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of "Saint Maximin in "Trier in 963, "Siegfried I of the "Ardennes, a close relative of "King Louis II of "France and "Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc ("small castle"), on the "Bock Fiels ("rock"), mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty.

In 987, Archbishop "Egbert of "Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption (today "St. Michael's Church). At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed.

The city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new "St. Nicholas Church (today the cathedral of "Notre Dame), new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares (12 acres). In about 1340, under the reign of "John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867.

In 1443, the "Burgundians under "Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, and later "Spanish and "Austrian empires (See "Spanish Netherlands and "Spanish road) and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was repeatedly strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, and the "Prussians conquered Luxembourg.

In the 17th century, the first "casemates were built; initially, Spain built 23 km (14 mi) of tunnels, starting in 1644.[6] These were then enlarged under French rule by "Marshal Vauban, and augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s.

During the "French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by "France twice: once, briefly, in 1792–3, and, later, after a seven-month "siege.[7] Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer "Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best "fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the '"Gibraltar of the North'.[7]

Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison eventually surrendered, and as a consequence, Luxembourg was "annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the "département of "Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its "préfecture. Under the 1815 "Treaty of Paris, which ended the "Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under "Prussian military control as a part of the "German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the "House of Orange-Nassau, in "personal union with the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

After the "Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 "Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City. Their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold "francs, and required the destruction of over 24 km (15 mi) of underground defences and 4 hectares (9.9 acres) of "casemates, "batteries, "barracks, etc.[8] Furthermore, the Prussian "garrison was to be withdrawn.[9]

When, in 1890, "Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, and into an independent line under "Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, Luxembourg, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a truly "independent country, and Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a fully independent state.

Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain "neutral in the "First World War, it was "occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, "Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, and Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted "communist revolution; on 9 November 1918, communists declared a "socialist republic, but it lasted only a few hours.[10]

In 1921, the "city limits were greatly expanded. The communes of "Eich, "Hamm, "Hollerich, and "Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg City, making the city the largest commune in the country (a position that it would hold until 1978).

In 1940, "Germany occupied Luxembourg again. The "Nazis were not prepared to allow Luxembourgers self-government, and gradually integrated Luxembourg into the Third Reich by informally attaching the country administratively to a neighbouring German province. Under the occupation, the capital city's streets all received new, German names, which was announced on 4 October 1940.[11] The Avenue de la Liberté for example, a major road leading to the railway station, was renamed "Adolf-Hitlerstraße".[11] Luxembourg City was liberated on 10 September 1944.[12] The city was under long-range bombardment by the German "V-3 cannon in December 1944 and January 1945.

After the war, Luxembourg ended its neutrality, and became a founding member of several inter-governmental and supra-governmental institutions. In 1952, the city became the headquarters of the High Authority of the "European Coal and Steel Community. In 1967, the High Authority was merged with the commissions of the other European institutions; although Luxembourg City was no longer the seat of the ECSC, it hosted some part-sessions of the "European Parliament until 1981.[13] Luxembourg remains the seat of the European Parliament's secretariat, as well as the "European Court of Justice, the "European Court of Auditors, and the "European Investment Bank. Several departments of the "European Commission are also based in Luxembourg.


View from the "Grund up to the Old Town

The highest point of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is "Kneiff at 560 m, closely followed by Burgplatz at 559 m and Napoleonsgaart at 554 m.


Luxembourg City lies on the southern part of the "Luxembourg plateau, a large "Early Jurassic "sandstone formation that forms the heart of the "Gutland, a low-lying and flat area that covers the southern two-thirds of the country.

The city centre occupies a picturesque site on a salient, perched high on precipitous cliffs that drop into the narrow valleys of the "Alzette and "Pétrusse rivers, whose confluence is in Luxembourg City. The 70 m (230 ft) deep gorges cut by the rivers are spanned by many bridges and "viaducts, including the "Adolphe Bridge, the "Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge, and the "Passerelle. Although Luxembourg City is not particularly large, its layout is complex, as the city is set on several levels, straddling hills and dropping into the two gorges.

The commune of Luxembourg City covers an area of over 51 km2 (20 sq mi), or 2% of the Grand Duchy's total area. This makes the city the "fourth-largest commune in Luxembourg, and by far the largest "urban area. Luxembourg City is not particularly densely populated, at about 1,700 people per km2; large areas of Luxembourg City are maintained as parks, forested areas, or sites of important heritage (particularly the "UNESCO sites), while there are also large tracts of farmland within the city limits.

Quarters of Luxembourg City[edit]

Luxembourg City is subdivided into twenty-four "quarters ("French: quartiers), which cover the commune in its entirety. The quarters generally correspond to the major "neighbourhoods and "suburbs of Luxembourg City, although a few of the historic districts, such as "Bonnevoie, are divided between two quarters.


Considering its "latitude, Luxembourg City has a mild "oceanic climate, with moderate "precipitation, cold to cool winter temperatures and temperate summers. Moderate to heavy cloud cover is present for more than two-thirds of the year.

Climate data for Luxembourg, Luxembourg (1981–2000, extremes 1947–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.9
Average high °C (°F) 3.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
Average low °C (°F) −1.6
Record low °C (°F) −17.8
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 76.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.1 13.8 16.1 13.6 14.6 14.0 12.8 13.2 12.8 15.2 17.2 17.7 178.1
Average snowy days 8.6 8.0 4.7 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.8 7.3 33.5
Average "relative humidity (%) 87 81 75 68 69 69 67 70 76 83 88 88 77
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 50.3 83.6 125.1 181.6 213.4 227.0 250.3 230.8 161.9 105.9 54.2 41.0 1,725.1
Percent "possible sunshine 18.8 29.4 34.0 44.1 44.8 46.7 51.0 51.7 42.7 31.8 19.8 16.1 35.9
Source: Meteolux[14][15]


Local government[edit]

"Luxembourg City Hall is the heart of the communal administration, and hosts the offices of both the "communal council and the "mayor.

Under the "Luxembourgian constitution, local government is centred on the city's "communal council. Consisting of twenty-seven members (fixed since 1964), each elected every six years on the second Sunday of October and taking office on 1 January of the next year,[16] the council is the largest of all communal councils in Luxembourg. The city is nowadays considered a stronghold of the "Democratic Party (DP),[17] which is the third-largest party nationally. Currently, the Democratic Party is the largest party on the council, with eleven councillors.[18]

The city's administration is headed by the "mayor, who is the leader of the largest party on the communal council. After Xavier Bettel became Luxembourg's new prime minister on 4 December 2013, "Lydie Polfer (DP) was sworn in as new mayor of Luxembourg on 17 December of the same year. The mayor leads the cabinet, the "collège échevinal, in which the DP forms a coalition with "The Greens.[19] Unlike other cities in Luxembourg, which are limited to four "échevins at most, Luxembourg is given special dispensation to have six échevins on its collège échevinal.[20]

National government[edit]

The Plateau de Kirchberg has many new buildings including those for the European Institutions

Luxembourg City is the seat for the Luxembourg Government. The "Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg lives at "Berg Castle in "Colmar-Berg.

For national elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the city is located in the "Centre constituency.

European institutions[edit]

Luxembourg City is the seat of several institutions of the "European Union, including the "European Court of Justice, the "European Commission, the secretariat of the "European Parliament, the "European Court of Auditors and the "European Investment Bank. The majority of these institutions are located in the "Kirchberg quarter, in the northeast of the city.


"Casino Luxembourg is currently used for exhibitions of local art.

Despite the city's comparatively small size, it has several notable museums: the recently renovated "National Museum of History and Art (MNHA), the "Luxembourg City History Museum, the new "Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam) and "National Museum of Natural History (NMHN). The city of Luxembourg itself is on the "UNESCO "World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.[21] In addition to its two main theatres, the "Grand Théâtre de Luxembourg and the "Théâtre des Capucins, there is a new concert hall, the "Philharmonie, as well as a "conservatory with a large auditorium. Art galleries include the "Villa Vauban, the "Casino Luxembourg and "Am Tunnel.[22]

Luxembourg was the first city to be named "European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, along with the Romanian city Sibiu, the European Capital of Culture[23] was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the "German-speaking part of Belgium, and the "Lorraine area in "France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders in all areas, physical, psychological, artistic and emotional.

Luxembourg City is also famed for its wide selection of restaurants and cuisines, including four Michelin starred establishments.[24]


The "ING "Europe Marathon has been contested annually in the capital since June 2006. It attracted 11,000 runners and over 100,000 spectators during the 2014 edition

The "BGL Luxembourg Open is a tennis tournament held since 1991 in the capital. The tournament runs from 13 to 21 October. "BGL BNP Paribas, one of the most famous sponsors in the world of tennis, is the contracted title sponsor of the tournament until 2014.

The "D'Coque National Sporting and Cultural Centre, in the "quarter of "Kirchberg, is the largest sporting venue in the country, with a capacity of 8,300 for indoor sports and swimming.

The two football clubs of the city of Luxembourg; "Racing FC Union Luxembourg and "FC RM Hamm Benfica, play in the country's highest league, the "Luxembourg National Division. The 8,000-seater "Stade Josy Barthel hosts the "Luxembourg national football team, and "CAL Spora Luxembourg, which with 400 members is the nation's largest athletics club.[25]

Places of interest[edit]

The Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial

Places of interest include the "Gothic Revival "Cathedral of Notre Dame, the fortifications, the AM Tunnel (an art gallery underground), the "Grand Ducal Palace, the "Gëlle Fra "war memorial, the "casemates, the "Neumünster Abbey, the "Place d'Armes, the "Adolphe Bridge and the city hall. The city is the home of the "University of Luxembourg and "RTL Group.

The Second World War "Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial is located within the city limits of Luxembourg at "Hamm. This cemetery is the final resting place of 5,076 American military dead, including General "George S. Patton. There is also a memorial to 371 Americans whose remains were never recovered or identified.



Luxembourg is situated in the heart of Europe in the Gold Triangle between "Frankfurt, "Paris and "Amsterdam. It is therefore connected to several motorways and international routes.

Public transport[edit]

Luxembourg City has a network of 31[26] bus routes, operated by the buses of the City of Luxembourg (Autobus de la Ville de Luxembourg, AVL), partly subcontracted to private bus companies. There is also a free bus service linking the Glacis to the "Central Station, the "Joker Line" for seniors, and a "City night network". The city also owns 5 free carparks, situated at the entry points of Luxembourg (Beggen: 160 cars, Bouillon: 2442, "Kirchberg: 265, "Kockelscheuer: 567, Luxembourg-Sud: 881). Those "Park & Ride" carparks are connected to the bus network with the aim of encouraging people to commute into town by bus. In addition to AVL buses, the "CFL and RGTR operate regional buses to other places in Luxembourg and nearby cities in Germany and France.

On 10 December 2017, the first stage of the new "tram opened between Rout Bréck-Pafendall and Luxexpo serving the "Kirchberg quarter. An extension to the city centre (Stäreplaz-Étoile) is envisaged for April 2018, further extensions to Gare Centrale, Bonnevoie, Howald and Cloche d’Or are also under construction are planned to be finished by 2020/21.[27] The tram, as with other public transport means in Luxembourg, costs €2 to ride for one hour and €4 for a day ticket.


Luxembourg City has only one "railway station, the main one of the country, which is also the terminus of all the lines in the Grand Duchy. It is owned by the state of Luxembourg and by the Luxemburgish railway company: the "CFL. It is connected to the "German, "Belgian and "French railway network via several trains per hour. The station is also connected to the French "TGV Est network (with which connections are provided to "Paris and "Strasbourg) and to "Basel and "Zürich in "Switzerland via two daily international trains.


Luxembourg is served by the only international airport in the country: "Luxembourg Findel International Airport (codes: "IATA: LUX, "ICAO: ELLX). It is situated in the municipality of "Sandweiler, 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from the City. It is linked to the city centre by bus, but railway and tram links are planned. The airport is the main base for the two Luxembourgish airlines, "Luxair and "Cargolux.

International relations[edit]

Luxembourg is a member of the QuattroPole union of cities, along with "Trier, "Saarbrücken, and "Metz (neighbouring countries: "Germany and "France).

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Luxembourg is "twinned with:

Country City State / Region Since
"United Kingdom "United Kingdom "Camden, "London[28] ""Flag of England.svg "England 2007
"France "France ""Blason Metz 57.svg "Metz ""Flag fr-lorraine 300px.png "Lorraine
"Russia "Russia ""Coat of Arms of Tambov (Tambov oblast) (1781).png "Tambov ""Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg "Tambov Oblast 2012
"Czech Republic "Czech Republic ""Prague coat of arms.png "Prague[29] ""Prague coat of arms.png "Prague 2012

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Luxembourgish: "[ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ]
    French: "[lyksɑ̃buʁ]
    German: "[ˈlʊksm̩bʊɐ̯k]
  2. ^ Luxembourgish: "[ˈʃtaːt ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ], "[tʃtaːt]
    French: "[vil də lyksɑ̃buʁ]
    German: "[ˈʃtat ˈlʊksm̩bʊɐ̯k]


  1. ^ "Territorial subdivisions (Situation on 1st January 2018)". www.statistiques.public.lu. Statistics portal of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  2. ^ a b "Population by canton and municipality 2018". www.statistiques.public.lu. Statistics portal of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  3. ^ "Great Circle Distances between Cities". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 26 March 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006. 
  4. ^ "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  5. ^ "2011 Quality of Living worldwide city rankings – Mercer survey", Mercer. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  6. ^ "The Fortress". Luxembourg City Tourism Office. Retrieved 23 July 2006. 
  7. ^ a b Kreins (2003), p. 64
  8. ^ "World Heritage List – Luxembourg" (PDF). UNESCO. 1 October 1993. Retrieved 19 July 2006. 
  9. ^ (in French) Treaty of London, 1867, Article IV. GWPDA. Retrieved 19 July 2006.
  10. ^ Luxembourg country profile. WorldStatesman.org. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  11. ^ a b May, Guy (2002). "Die Straßenbezeichnungen der Stadt Luxemburg unter deutscher Besatzung (1940–1944)" (PDF). Ons Stad (in German) (71): 30-32. 
  12. ^ Thewes (2003), p. 121
  13. ^ "Alcide De Gasperi Building". Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2006. 
  14. ^ "Données Climatologiques" (PDF). Meteolux. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "Normales et extrêmes" (in French). Administration de l’Aéroport de Luxembourg. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Organisation et fonctionnement des organes politiques". Ville de Luxembourg (in French). Retrieved 31 October 2017. 
  17. ^ Hansen, Josée (8 October 1999). "Cliff-hanger". Lëtzebuerger Land (in French). Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007. 
  18. ^ "Composition du conseil communal" (in French). Ville de Luxembourg. Retrieved 21 September 2007. 
  19. ^ "Composition du collège échevinal" (in French). Ville de Luxembourg. Retrieved 21 September 2007. 
  20. ^ "Organisation des communes – Textes Organiques" (PDF). Code administratif Luxembourgeois (in French). Service central de législation. 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007. 
  21. ^ "Culture in Luxembourg". 
  22. ^ "Art et Culture", Ville de Luxembourg. (in French) Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007" (PDF). 
  24. ^ "Guide Michelin 2012: Le Luxembourg perd des étoiles" Archived 23 November 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "WelcomeFooter". Cslath.lu. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  26. ^ "Les 31 lignes d'autobus". vdl.lu. 
  27. ^ "HOME – Luxtram.lu – Un tram pour la Ville de Luxembourg". luxtram.lu. 
  28. ^ "Twin Towns in the UK". Dorset Twinning Association. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007. 
  29. ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 


See also: "Bibliography of the history of Luxembourg City

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

) ) WikipediaAudio is not affiliated with Wikipedia or the WikiMedia Foundation.