The magnetic moment is a "quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a "magnet or other object that produces a "magnetic field. Examples of objects that have magnetic moments include: loops of "electric current (such as "electromagnets), permanent magnets, elementary particles (such as "electrons), various "molecules, and many astronomical objects (such as many "planets, some "moons, "stars, etc).
More precisely, the term magnetic moment normally refers to a system's magnetic dipole moment the component of the magnetic moment that can be represented by an equivalent "magnetic dipole: a magnetic north and south pole separated by a very small distance. The magnetic dipole component is sufficient for small enough magnets or for large enough distances. Higher order terms (such as the "magnetic quadrupole moment) may be needed in addition to the dipole moment for extended objects.
The magnetic dipole moment of an object is readily defined in terms of the torque that object experiences in a given magnetic field. The same applied magnetic field creates larger torques on objects with larger magnetic moments. The strength (and direction) of this torque depends not only on the magnitude of the magnetic moment but also on its orientation relative to the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic moment may be considered, therefore, to be a "vector. The direction of the magnetic moment points from the south to north pole of the magnet (inside the magnet).
The magnetic field of a magnetic dipole is proportional to its magnetic dipole moment. The dipole component of an object's magnetic field is symmetric about the direction of its magnetic dipole moment, and decreases as the inverse cube of the distance from the object.
The magnetic moment is defined as a "vector relating the aligning "torque on the object from an externally applied "magnetic field to the field vector itself. The relationship is given by:^{[1]}
where τ is the torque acting on the dipole, B is the external magnetic field, and m is the magnetic moment.
This definition is based on how one would measure the magnetic moment, in principle, of an unknown sample if possible.This definition finds for macroscopic current loops that the magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment is current times area of the loop.
The more general definition, which applies to macroscopic current loops as well as to quantum systems, is that the magnetic dipole moment of a system is the negative gradient of its intrinsic energy, U_{int}, with respect to external magnetic field:
Generically, the intrinsic energy includes the self-field energy, , of the system, where the integral is over all space, plus the energy of the internal workings of the system. For example, for a hydrogen atom in a 2p state in an external field, the self-field energy is negligible, so the internal energy is essentially the eigenenergy of the 2p state, which includes Coulomb potential energy and the kinetic energy of the electron. The interaction-field energy between dipole and external fields, , is not part of the internal energy.
The unit for magnetic moment in terms of the "International System of Units (SI) "base units is , where is the "ampere (the SI unit of current) and m is the "meter (the SI unit of distance). This has equivalents in other units used in SI including:^{[2]}^{[3]}
where is the "newton (the SI unit of force), and is the "joule (the SI unit of "energy).
In the "CGS system, there are several different sets of electromagnetism units, of which the main ones are "ESU, "Gaussian, and "EMU. Among these, there are two alternative (non-equivalent) units of magnetic dipole moment:
where statA is "statamperes, cm is "centimeters, erg is "ergs, G is "gauss and abA is "abamperes (1 abampere = 10 "amperes). The ratio of these two non-equivalent CGS units (EMU/ESU) is equal to the "speed of light in free space, expressed in "cm·"s^{−1}.
All formulae in this article are correct in "SI units; they may need to be changed for use in other unit systems. For example, in SI units, a loop of current with current I and area A has magnetic moment IA (see below), but in "Gaussian units the magnetic moment is IA/"c.
Other units for measuring the magnetic dipole moment include the "bohr magneton and the "nuclear magneton.
The preferred classical explanation of a magnetic moment has changed over time. Before the 1930s, textbooks explained the moment using hypothetical magnetic point charges. Since then, most have defined it in terms of Ampèrian currents.^{[4]} In magnetic materials, the cause of the magnetic moment are the "spin and orbital angular momentum states of the electrons, and varies depending on whether atoms in one region are aligned with atoms in another.
The sources of magnetic moments in materials can be represented by poles in analogy to "electrostatics. In this model, a small magnet is modeled by a pair of magnetic poles of equal magnitude but opposite "polarity. Each pole is the source of magnetic force which weakens with distance. Since "magnetic poles always come in pairs, their forces partially cancel each other because while one pole pulls, the other repels. This cancellation is greatest when the poles are close to each other i.e. when the bar magnet is short. The magnetic force produced by a bar magnet, at a given point in space, therefore depends on two factors: the strength p of its poles (magnetic pole strength), and the vector l separating them. The magnetic dipole moment m is related to the fictitious poles as^{[4]}
It points in the direction from South to North pole. The analogy with electric dipoles should not be taken too far because magnetic dipoles are associated with "angular momentum (see "Magnetic moment and angular momentum). Nevertheless, magnetic poles are very useful for "magnetostatic calculations, particularly in applications to "ferromagnets.^{[4]} Practitioners using the magnetic pole approach generally represent the "magnetic field by the "irrotational field H, in analogy to the "electric field E.
After Ørsted discovered that electric currents produce a magnetic field and Ampere discovered that electric currents attracted and repelled each other similar to magnets, it was natural to hypothesize that all magnetic fields are due to electric current loops. In this model developed by Ampere, the elementary magnetic dipole that makes up all magnets is a sufficiently small Amperian loop of current I. The dipole moment of this loop is
where S is the area of the loop. The direction of the magnetic moment is in a direction normal to the area enclosed by the current consistent with the direction of the current using the right hand rule.
The magnetic dipole moment can be calculated for a localized (does not extend to infinity) current distribution assuming that we know all of the currents involved. Conventionally, the derivation starts from a "multipole expansion of the "vector potential. This leads to the definition of the magnetic dipole moment as:
where × is the "vector cross product, r is the position vector, and j is the "electric current density and the integral is a volume integral.^{[5]} When the current density in the integral is replaced by a loop of current I in a plane enclosing an area S then the volume integral becomes a line integral and the resulting dipole moment becomes
which is how the magnetic dipole moment for an Amperian loop is derived.
Practitioners using the current loop model generally represent the magnetic field by the "solenoidal field B, analogous to the electrostatic field D.
A generalization of the above current loop is a coil, or "solenoid. Its moment is the vector sum of the moments of individual turns. If the solenoid has N identical turns (single-layer winding) and vector area S,
When calculating the magnetic moments of materials or molecules on the microscopic level it is often convenient to use a third model for the magnetic moment that exploits the linear relationship between the "angular momentum and the magnetic moment of a particle. While this relation is straight forward to develop for macroscopic currents using the amperian loop model (see below), neither the magnetic pole model nor the amperian loop model truly represents what is occurring at the atomic and molecular levels. At that level "quantum mechanics must be used. Fortunately, the linear relationship between the magnetic dipole moment of a particle and its angular momentum still holds; although it is different for each particle. Further, care must be used to distinguish between the intrinsic angular momentum (or "spin) of the particle and the particle's orbital angular momentum. See below for more details.
The magnetic moment has a close connection with "angular momentum called the gyromagnetic effect. This effect is expressed on a "macroscopic scale in the "Einstein-de Haas effect, or "rotation by magnetization," and its inverse, the "Barnett effect, or "magnetization by rotation."^{[1]} In particular, when a magnetic moment is subject to a "torque in a magnetic field that tends to align it with the applied magnetic field, the moment "precesses (rotates about the axis of the applied field). This is a consequence of the concomitance of magnetic moment and angular momentum, that in case of charged massive particles corresponds to the concomitance of charge and mass in a particle.
On the macroscopic level the relationship between the magnetic moment and the angular momentum can straight forwardly be shown using the amperian loop model as follows: The "angular momentum of a moving charged particle is defined as:
where μ is the mass of the particle and v is the particles "velocity. For an extended particle
where ρ is the "mass density. By convention the direction of the cross product is given by the "right hand grip rule. ^{[6]}
This is similar to the magnetic moment of a moving charged particle distributed in space:
where and is the "charge density of the extended charge particle.
Comparing the two equations results in:
where is the charge of the particle and is the mass of the particle. A variation of this equation is particularly useful for calculating the magnetic moments of atoms and molecules where "quantum mechanics must be used. This variation accounts for the fact that "angular momentum is quantized and for the fact the intrinsic angular momentum of a particle (technically known as its "spin) needs an additional multiplicative factor. See "electron magnetic moment and "Bohr magneton for more details.
Viewing a magnetic dipole as a rotating charged particle brings out the close connection between magnetic moment and angular momentum. Both the magnetic moment and the angular momentum increase with the rate of rotation. The ratio of the two is called the "gyromagnetic ratio and is simply the half of the "charge-to-mass ratio.^{[7]} ^{[8]}
For a spinning charged solid with a uniform charge density to mass density ratio, the gyromagnetic ratio is equal to half the "charge-to-mass ratio. This implies that a more massive assembly of charges spinning with the same angular momentum will have a "proportionately weaker magnetic moment, compared to its lighter counterpart. Even though atomic particles cannot be accurately described as spinning charge distributions of uniform charge-to-mass ratio, this general trend can be observed in the atomic world, where the intrinsic angular momentum ("spin) of each type of particle is a constant: a small "half-integer times the reduced "Planck constant ħ. This is the basis for defining the magnetic moment units of "Bohr magneton (assuming "charge-to-mass ratio of the "electron) and "nuclear magneton (assuming "charge-to-mass ratio of the "proton).
A magnetic moment in an externally produced magnetic field has a potential energy U:
In a case when the external magnetic field is non-uniform, there will be a force, proportional to the magnetic field "gradient, acting on the magnetic moment itself. There has been some discussion on how to calculate the force acting on a magnetic dipole. There are two expressions for the force acting on a magnetic dipole, depending on whether the "model used for the dipole is a current loop or two monopoles (analogous to the electric dipole).^{[9]} The force obtained in the case of a current loop model is
In the case of a pair of monopoles being used (i.e. electric dipole model)
and one can be put in terms of the other via the relation
In all these expressions m is the dipole and B is the magnetic field at its position. Note that if there are no currents or time-varying electrical fields ∇ × B = 0 and the two expressions agree.
An electron, nucleus, or atom placed in a uniform magnetic field will precess with a frequency known as the "Larmor frequency. See "Resonance.
A magnetic dipole is the limit of either a current loop or a pair of poles as the dimensions of the source are reduced to zero while keeping the moment constant. As long as these limits only apply to fields far from the sources, they are equivalent. However, the two models give different predictions for the internal field (see below).
Any system possessing a net magnetic dipole moment m will produce a "dipolar magnetic field (described below) in the space surrounding the system. While the net magnetic field produced by the system can also have higher-order "multipole components, those will drop off with distance more rapidly, so that only the dipolar component will dominate the magnetic field of the system at distances far away from it.
In three dimensions, the "vector potential of the magnetic field produced by magnetic moment m is
and "magnetic flux density is
Alternatively one can obtain the "scalar potential of magnetic field from the magnetic pole perspective,
and hence "magnetic field strength is
The magnetic field of an ideal magnetic dipole is depicted on the right.
In two dimensions, the above expressions need to be rewritten^{[10]}. The "vector potential of magnetic field is then
and "magnetic flux density is
The scalar potential of magnetic field is
and hence "magnetic field strength is
The two models for a dipole (current loop and magnetic poles) give the same predictions for the magnetic field far from the source. However, inside the source region, they give different predictions. The magnetic field between poles (see figure for "Magnetic pole definition) is in the opposite direction to the magnetic moment (which points from the negative charge to the positive charge), while inside a current loop it is in the same direction (see the figure to the right). The limits of these fields must also be different as the sources shrink to zero size. This distinction only matters if the dipole limit is used to calculate fields inside a magnetic material.^{[4]}
If a magnetic dipole is formed by making a current loop smaller and smaller, but keeping the product of current and area constant, the limiting field is
Unlike the expressions in the previous section, this limit is correct for the internal field of the dipole.^{[4]}^{[11]}
If a magnetic dipole is formed by taking a "north pole" and a "south pole", bringing them closer and closer together but keeping the product of magnetic pole-charge and distance constant, the limiting field is^{[4]}
These fields are related by B = μ_{0}(H + M), where M(x) = mδ(x) is the "magnetization.
As discussed earlier, the force exerted by a dipole loop with moment m_{1} on another with moment m_{2} is
where B_{1} is the magnetic field due to moment m_{1}. The result of calculating the gradient is^{[12]}^{[13]}
where r̂ is the unit vector pointing from magnet 1 to magnet 2 and r is the distance. An equivalent expression is^{[13]}
The force acting on m_{1} is in the opposite direction.
The torque of magnet 1 on magnet 2 is
Fundamentally, contributions to any system's magnetic moment may come from sources of two kinds: motion of "electric charges, such as "electric currents; and the "intrinsic magnetism of "elementary particles, such as the "electron.
Contributions due to the sources of the first kind can be calculated from knowing the distribution of all the electric currents (or, alternatively, of all the electric charges and their velocities) inside the system, by using the formulas below. On the other hand, the "magnitude of each elementary particle's intrinsic magnetic moment is a fixed number, often measured experimentally to a great precision. For example, any electron's magnetic moment is measured to be 764×10^{−24} J/T.^{[14]} The " −9.284direction of the magnetic moment of any elementary particle is entirely determined by the direction of its "spin, with the "negative value indicating that any electron's magnetic moment is antiparallel to its spin.
The net magnetic moment of any system is a "vector sum of contributions from one or both types of sources. For example, the magnetic moment of an atom of "hydrogen-1 (the lightest hydrogen isotope, consisting of a proton and an electron) is a vector sum of the following contributions:
Similarly, the magnetic moment of a "bar magnet is the sum of the contributing magnetic moments, which include the intrinsic and orbital magnetic moments of the unpaired "electrons of the magnet's material and the nuclear magnetic moments.
For an atom, individual electron spins are added to get a total spin, and individual orbital angular momenta are added to get a total orbital angular momentum. These two then are added using "angular momentum coupling to get a total angular momentum. For an atom with no nuclear magnetic moment, the magnitude of the atomic dipole moment is then^{[15]}
where j is the "total angular momentum quantum number, g_{J} is the "Landé g-factor, and μ_{B} is the "Bohr magneton. The component of this magnetic moment along the direction of the magnetic field is then^{[16]}
where m is called the "magnetic quantum number or the equatorial quantum number, which can take on any of 2j + 1 values:^{[17]}
The negative sign occurs because electrons have negative charge.
Due to the angular momentum, the dynamics of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field differs from that of an electric dipole in an electric field. The field does exert a torque on the magnetic dipole tending to align it with the field. However, torque is proportional to rate of change of angular momentum, so "precession occurs: the direction of spin changes. This behavior is described by the "Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation:^{[18]}^{[19]}
where γ is the "gyromagnetic ratio, m is the magnetic moment, λ is the damping coefficient and H_{eff} is the effective magnetic field (the external field plus any self-induced field). The first term describes precession of the moment about the effective field, while the second is a damping term related to dissipation of energy caused by interaction with the surroundings.
"Electrons and many elementary particles also have intrinsic "magnetic moments, an explanation of which requires a quantum mechanical treatment and relates to the intrinsic "angular momentum of the particles as discussed in the article "Electron magnetic moment. It is these intrinsic magnetic moments that give rise to the macroscopic effects of "magnetism, and other phenomena, such as "electron paramagnetic resonance.
The magnetic moment of the electron is
where μ_{B} is the "Bohr magneton, S is electron "spin, and the "g-factor g_{S} is 2 according to "Dirac's theory, but due to "quantum electrodynamic effects it is slightly larger in reality: 31930436. The deviation from 2 is known as the " 2.002anomalous magnetic dipole moment.
Again it is important to notice that m is a negative constant multiplied by the "spin, so the magnetic moment of the electron is antiparallel to the spin. This can be understood with the following classical picture: if we imagine that the spin angular momentum is created by the electron mass spinning around some axis, the electric current that this rotation creates circulates in the opposite direction, because of the negative charge of the electron; such current loops produce a magnetic moment which is antiparallel to the spin. Hence, for a positron (the anti-particle of the electron) the magnetic moment is parallel to its spin.
The nuclear system is a complex physical system consisting of nucleons, i.e., "protons and "neutrons. The quantum mechanical properties of the nucleons include the spin among others. Since the electromagnetic moments of the nucleus depend on the spin of the individual nucleons, one can look at these properties with measurements of nuclear moments, and more specifically the nuclear magnetic dipole moment.
Most common nuclei exist in their "ground state, although nuclei of some "isotopes have long-lived "excited states. Each "energy state of a nucleus of a given isotope is characterized by a well-defined magnetic dipole moment, the magnitude of which is a fixed number, often measured experimentally to a great precision. This number is very sensitive to the individual contributions from nucleons, and a measurement or prediction of its value can reveal important information about the content of the nuclear wave function. There are several theoretical models that predict the value of the magnetic dipole moment and a number of experimental techniques aiming to carry out measurements in nuclei along the nuclear chart.
Any molecule has a well-defined magnitude of magnetic moment, which may depend on the molecule's "energy state. Typically, the overall magnetic moment of a molecule is a combination of the following contributions, in the order of their typical strength:
Number of unpaired electrons |
Spin-only moment (m_{B}) |
---|---|
1 | 1.73 |
2 | 2.83 |
3 | 3.87 |
4 | 4.90 |
5 | 5.92 |
In atomic and nuclear physics, the Greek symbol μ represents the "magnitude of the magnetic moment, often measured in Bohr magnetons or "nuclear magnetons, associated with the intrinsic spin of the particle and/or with the orbital motion of the particle in a system. Values of the intrinsic magnetic moments of some particles are given in the table below:
Particle | Magnetic dipole moment (10^{−27} "J·"T^{−1}) |
"Spin quantum number ("dimensionless) |
---|---|---|
"electron (e^{−}) | 284.764 −9 | 1/2 |
"proton (H^{+}) | 067 14.106 | 1/2 |
"neutron (n) | 36 −9.662 | 1/2 |
"muon (μ^{−}) | 478 −44.904 | 1/2 |
"deuteron (^{2}H^{+}) | 7346 4.330 | 1 |
"triton (^{3}H^{+}) | 094 15.046 | 1/2 |
"helion (^{3}He^{2+}) | 174 −10.746 | 1/2 |
"alpha particle (^{4}He^{2+}) | 0 | 0 |
For relation between the notions of magnetic moment and magnetization see "magnetization.