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Magpie
""Magpie arp.jpg
"Eurasian magpie
"Scientific classification
Kingdom: "Animalia
Phylum: "Chordata
Class: "Aves
Order: "Passeriformes
Family: "Corvidae
Genera
""
""
Sitting magpie, Sweden 2016

Magpies are "birds of the "Corvidae (crow) family, including the black and white "Eurasian magpie, which is widely considered one of the most intelligent animals in the world,[1][2][3] and the only nonmammal species able to recognize itself in a "mirror test[4] (though a recent study suggests that "giant manta rays can also recognize their own reflections[5]). In addition to other members of the genus "Pica, corvids considered as magpies are in the genera "Cissa.

Magpies of the genus Pica are generally found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia and western North America, with populations also present in Tibet and high elevation areas of India, i.e. Ladakh (Kargil and Leh) and Pakistan. Magpies of the genus Cyanopica are found in East Asia and also the Iberian peninsula. Birds called magpies but not actually related may be found in Australia.

Contents

Systematics and species[edit]

According to some studies, magpies do not form the "monophyletic group they are traditionally believed to be—a long tail has certainly elongated (or shortened) independently in multiple lineages of corvid birds.[6] Among the traditional magpies, there appear to be two distinct lineages. One consists of "Holarctic species with black/white colouration and is probably closely related to "crows and Eurasian "jays. The other contains several species from "South to "East Asia with vivid colouration which is predominantly green or blue. The "azure-winged magpie and the "Iberian magpie, formerly thought to constitute a single species with a most peculiar distribution, have been shown to be two distinct species and classified as the genus "Cyanopica.[7]

Other research has cast doubt on the taxonomy of the Pica magpies, since it appears that P. hudsonia and P. nuttalli may not be different species, whereas the "Korean race of P. pica is genetically very distinct from the other Eurasian (as well as the North American) forms. Either the North American, Korean, and remaining Eurasian forms are accepted as three or four separate species, or there exists only a single species, Pica pica.[8]


Holarctic (black-and-white) magpies

Oriental (blue/green) magpies

Azure-winged magpies

Other "magpies"[edit]

In culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.welcomewildlife.com/worlds-smartest-birds/
  2. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/magpies-reflect-on-a-newly-discovered-intellectual-prowess-901857.html
  3. ^ https://www.britannica.com/spotlight/eurasian-magpie-a-true-bird-brain
  4. ^ Prior H, et al. (2008). De Waal F, ed. "Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLoS Biology. Public Library of Science. 6 (8): e202. "doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202. "PMC 2517622Freely accessible. "PMID 18715117. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  5. ^ Ari, C.; D’Agostino, D.P. (2016). "Contingency checking and self-directed behaviors in giant manta rays: Do elasmobranchs have self-awareness?". Journal of Ethology. Springer. 34 (2): 167–174. "doi:10.1007/s10164-016-0462-z. 
  6. ^ Ericson et al. (2005)
  7. ^ Kyukov et al, Synchronic east–west divergence in azure-winged magpies (Cyanopica cyanus) and magpies (Pica pica), Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42(4): 342-351 (2004)
  8. ^ Lee et al., 2003

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


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