Magpies are "birds of the "Corvidae (crow) family. The black and white "Eurasian magpie is widely considered one of the most intelligent animals in the world and one of the only nonmammal species able to recognize itself in a "mirror test (a recent study suggests that "giant manta rays can also recognize their own reflections). In addition to other members of the genus "Pica, corvids considered as magpies are in the genera "Cissa.
Magpies of the genus Pica are generally found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia and western North America, with populations also present in Tibet and high elevation areas of India, i.e. Ladakh (Kargil and Leh) and Pakistan. Magpies of the genus Cyanopica are found in East Asia and also the Iberian peninsula. The birds called magpies in Australia are not related to the magpies in the rest of the world (see "Australian magpie).
According to some studies, magpies do not form the "monophyletic group they are traditionally believed to be—a long tail has certainly elongated (or shortened) independently in multiple lineages of corvid birds. Among the traditional magpies, there appear to be two distinct lineages. One consists of "Holarctic species with black/white colouration and is probably closely related to "crows and Eurasian "jays. The other contains several species from "South to "East Asia with vivid colouration which is predominantly green or blue. The "azure-winged magpie and the "Iberian magpie, formerly thought to constitute a single species with a most peculiar distribution, have been shown to be two distinct species and classified as the genus "Cyanopica.
Other research has cast doubt on the taxonomy of the Pica magpies, since it appears that P. hudsonia and P. nuttalli may not be different species, whereas the "Korean race of P. pica is genetically very distinct from the other Eurasian (as well as the North American) forms. Either the North American, Korean, and remaining Eurasian forms are accepted as three or four separate species, or there exists only a single species, Pica pica.
Holarctic (black-and-white) magpies
Oriental (blue/green) magpies