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Malin Craig
""MalinCraig.jpg
General Malin Craig, official Army portrait
14th "United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
October 2, 1935 – August 31, 1939
President "Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by "Douglas MacArthur
Succeeded by "George C. Marshall
Personal details
Born George Malin Craig
(1875-08-05)August 5, 1875
"St. Joseph, "Missouri
Died July 25, 1945(1945-07-25) (aged 69)
"Walter Reed Hospital
"Washington, D.C.
Awards "Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Military service
Allegiance "United States United States
Service/branch  "United States Army
Years of service 1898–1939
1941–1945
Rank ""US-O10 insignia.svg "General
Commands "Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army
"IX Corps
Battles/wars

Malin Craig (August 5, 1875 – July 25, 1945) was a "United States Army "general who served as "United States Army Chief of Staff from 1935 to 1939. He was recalled to active duty during World War II.[1]

Contents

Early life[edit]

Craig was born on August 5, 1875 in "Saint Joseph, Missouri. He entered the "United States Military Academy at West Point, New York on June 20, 1894, where he was a classmate of future U.S. generals "Fox Conner and "Guy V. Henry, Jr.[2]

Early career[edit]

Craig graduated from West Point on April 26, 1898 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Infantry branch, assigned to the "4th Infantry. He transferred to the Cavalry on June 23 and served with the "6th Cavalry in the "Santiago Campaign, the United States invasion of Cuba during the "Spanish–American War.[2] After his return from Cuba, Craig transferred to the "4th Cavalry, serving in Wyoming and Oklahoma until 1900, when he served in the "China Relief Expedition and in the "Philippine Insurrection until 1902. He was promoted to first lieutenant on February 2, 1901,[2] transferring back to the 6th Cavalry.[3]

After serving in the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, and the relief expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, Craig attended the "Infantry and Cavalry School from 1903 to 1904 and the "Staff College from 1904 to 1905. He was promoted to captain on May 7, 1904,[2] assigned to the "10th Cavalry and later the "1st Cavalry. Craig was garrisoned as a regimental quartermaster at "Fort Clark in "Kinney, Texas from 1906 to 1909. He would go on to graduate from the "Army War College in 1910 and serve in a variety of administrative positions, most notable of which was assigning troops to their regiments. He would then serve with the 1st Cavalry Regiment of the western U.S. in 1912, then became an instructor at Fort Leavenworth located in Leavenworth, Kansas in 1916 until 1917 where he was moved to the General Staff Corps.[4]

World War I[edit]

Craig was promoted to major on May 15, 1917 shortly after the United States entered World War I in April of the same year. He was promoted to temporary lieutenant colonel on August 17 and temporary colonel on March 27, 1918.[5]

He served in France during "World War I as chief of staff to General "Hunter Liggett in the "41st Infantry Division and later in "I Corps where he was promoted to temporary brigadier general on July 11, 1918. He then became chief of staff of the "3rd Army.[5]

He received the "Distinguished Service Medal for his service during the First World War. His citation reads as follows:

General Craig served in turn as Chief of Staff of a division, a corps, and an Army, in each of which capacities he exhibited great ability. His personal influence, aggressiveness, and untiring efforts were repeatedly displayed in the operations of the 1st Corps in the vicinity of Chateau-Thierry, on the Oureq, and the Vesle during the St. Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse offensives.[6]

Interwar period[edit]

After the war, Craig reverted to his permanent rank of major on August 15, 1919 but was promoted to colonel on July 1, 1920 and to brigadier general only 15 days later.

When Craig was promoted to colonel, he was put in command of the District of Arizona in 1920 and became the commandant of the Cavalry School from 1921 to 1923 after his promotion to brigadier general in April 1921.[4]

He served as Chief of Cavalry with the rank of major general from July 24, 1924 to March 20, 1926.[5] He was succeeded by "Herbert B. Crosby, after which he was assigned to command the "Panama Canal Zone.

Chief of Staff[edit]

Craig served as president of the "Army War College in 1935 and served as the "U.S. Army Chief of Staff from October 2, 1935 to August 31, 1939, succeeding General "Douglas MacArthur, and preceding "George C. Marshall. That appointment carried with it a temporary promotion to full (four star) general.[5]

As Chief of Staff of the Army, Craig pointed out to Congress the Army's lack of preparedness in manpower and material, stressed the necessity of lead time in military preparedness, focused attention on Army planning, and, within governmental constraints, prepared the Army for World War II. He retired, with the rank of general, on August 31, 1939 - after forty-one years of active duty. Upon his retirement, he received a second Distinguished Service Medal for his service as Army Chief of Staff.

World War II and death[edit]

General Craig's retirement was short-lived, however. On September 26, 1941, with war on the horizon he was recalled to active duty to head the War Department's Personnel Board, a body responsible for selecting individuals who were to receive direct commissions in the army. He headed the board in his permanent rank of major general until shortly before his death.

He died at the "Walter Reed Hospital in "Washington, D.C. on July 25, 1945, where he had been ill for the previous year.[1] He was posthumously awarded a third Distinguished Service Medal and was buried in "Arlington National Cemetery.[5]

Personal life[edit]

Craig married Genevieve Woodruff in April 1901.[3]

Awards[edit]

""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""Bronze oak leaf cluster
""
"" "" "" ""
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""Bronze star
""
"" "" ""
"" "" "" ""
"" "" "" ""
1st Row "Army Distinguished Service Medal with two "Oak Leaf Clusters
2nd Row "Spanish Campaign Medal "China Relief Expedition Medal "Philippine Campaign Medal "Mexican Border Service Medal
3rd Row "World War I Victory Medal with five battle clasps "Army of Occupation of Germany Medal "American Defense Service Medal "American Campaign Medal
4th Row "World War II Victory Medal "Companion of the Bath (United Kingdom) "Commandeur of the Legion of Honor (France) "French Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with Palm
5th Row "Order of the Crown, Grade Commander (Belgium) "Order of the Crown of Italy, Commander "Order of Abdon Calderón, 1st Class (Ecuador) Missouri State Medal of Merit

Dates of rank[edit]

No insignia "Cadet, "United States Military Academy: June 20, 1894
No pin insignia in 1898 "Second lieutenant, "Regular Army: April 26, 1898
""US-O2 insignia.svg "First lieutenant, Regular Army: February 2, 1901
""US-O3 insignia.svg "Captain, Regular Army: May 7, 1904
""US-O4 insignia.svg "Major, Regular Army: May 15, 1917
""US-O5 insignia.svg "Lieutenant colonel, "National Army: August 17, 1917
(Date of rank August 5, 1917.)
""US-O6 insignia.svg "Colonel, National Army: March 27, 1918
(Date of rank February 6, 1918.)
""US-O7 insignia.svg "Brigadier general, National Army: July 11, 1918
(Date of rank June 26, 1918.)
""US-O4 insignia.svg Major, "Regular Army: August 15, 1919
(Reverted to permanent rank.)
""US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1920
""US-O7 insignia.svg "Brigadier general, Regular Army: July 16, 1920
(Date of rank July 3, 1920.)
""US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, Regular Army: March 4, 1921
(Reverted to permanent rank.)
""US-O7 insignia.svg "Brigadier general, Regular Army: May 9, 1921
(Date of rank was April 28, 1921.)
""US-O8 insignia.svg "Major general, temporary: July 24, 1924
""US-O8 insignia.svg "Major general, Regular Army: March 21, 1926
""US-O10 insignia.svg "General, temporary: October 2, 1935
""US-O10 insignia.svg "General, Retired List: August 31, 1939
""US-O10 insignia.svg "General, Retired on Active Duty: September 26, 1941
(Recalled to active duty.)

[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Gen. Craig Is Dead. Ex-Chief Of Staff. Distinguished Army Leader Succumbs in Washington After a Year's Illness. Planned 1918 Battles. Helped Map the Strategy for Our Offensives in France. Enlisted Man's Champion Forty Years a Soldier Had Scholastic Difficulty Served With First Corps Sought Increase in Army". "New York Times. July 26, 1945. 
  2. ^ a b c d Davis, pp. 85-86
  3. ^ a b Bell 2013, p. 124.
  4. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer C., ed. World War II: the definitive encyclopedia and document collection. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2016. Web. p. 475
  5. ^ a b c d e Davis, p. 86
  6. ^ "Malin Craig". Military Times Hall of Valor. Retrieved 22 March 2018. 
  7. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army, 1944. pg. 1122.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
"Douglas MacArthur
"Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1935–1939
Succeeded by
"George C. Marshall
) ) WikipediaAudio is not affiliated with Wikipedia or the WikiMedia Foundation.