Malmö Municipality is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders, consisting of the City of Malmö and its immediate surroundings.
Malmö (Malmö tätort) consists of the urban part of the municipality together with the small town of "Arlöv in the "Burlöv Municipality. Both municipalities also include smaller "urban areas and rural areas, such as the suburbs of "Oxie and "Åkarp. Malmö tätort is to be distinguished from Malmö stad (the city of Malmö), which is a semi-official name of "Malmö Municipality.
The leaders in Malmö created a commission for a socially sustainable Malmö in November 2010. The commission's was tasked with providing evidence-based strategies for reducing health inequalities and improve living conditions for all citizens of Malmö, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged and issued its final report in December 2013.["non-primary source needed]
Malmö is a young city, with almost half of the population under the age of 35 (48%).
After 1971, Malmö had 265,000 inhabitants, but the population then dropped to 229,000 by 1985. The total population of the urban area was 280,415 in December 2010. It then began to rise again, and had passed the previous record by the 1 January 2003 census, when it had 265,481 inhabitants. On 27 April 2011, the population of Malmö reached the 300,000 mark.
Circa 43% of the population have a foreign background (135,509 residents); 31% was born abroad (99,788) and another 11% was Swedish-born (35,721), with foreign-born parents. The Middle East, Horn of Africa, former Yugoslavia and Denmark are the main sources of immigration.
As of 2015[update], Malmö had the fourth-highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any municipality in Sweden. In addition to these figures, 14% of the population are foreign nationals.
In 2011, the 10 largest groups of "immigrants were born in "Iraq (9,940), "Denmark (8,972), "Serbia (8,426), "Bosnia and Herzegovina (5,969), "Lebanon (3,780), "Iran (3,375), "Poland (3,053), "Turkey (2,110), "Hungary (2,038) and "Romania (2,014). The 5 largest groups in 2014 were:
- " "Iraq (11,003)
- " "Serbia (8,179)
- " "Denmark (7,916)
- " "Poland (7,103)
- " "Bosnia and Herzegovina (6,223)
In 2011, 174 countries and about 150 languages were represented in Malmö.
"Greater Malmö is one of Sweden's three officially recognized Metropolitan areas (storstadsområden) and since 2005 is defined as the municipality of Malmö and 11 other municipalities in the southwestern corner of Scania. On 31 March 2012, its population was recorded as 664,428. The region covers an area of 2,522 square kilometres (974 sq mi). The municipalities included, apart from Malmö, are "Burlöv, "Eslöv, "Höör, "Kävlinge, "Lomma, "Lund, "Skurup, "Staffanstorp, "Svedala, "Trelleborg and "Vellinge. Together with Lund, Malmö is the region's economic and education hub.
The economy of Malmö was traditionally based on shipbuilding ("Kockums) and construction related industries, such as concrete factories. The region's leading university, along with its associated hi-tech and pharmaceutical industries, is located in "Lund about 16 kilometres (10 miles) to the north-east. As a result, Malmö had a troubled economic situation following the mid-1970s. Between 1990–1995, 27,000 jobs were lost, and the budget deficit was more than one billion "Swedish krona. In 1995, Malmö had Sweden's highest unemployment rate.["citation needed]
However, during the last few years there has been a revival. The main contributing factor has been the economic integration with "Denmark brought about by the Øresund Bridge. Almost 10% of the population["citation needed] of Malmö works in "Copenhagen. Also the university founded in 1998 and the effects of integration into the "European Union have contributed.
In 2004, the rate of wage-earners was 63%, compared to 74% in "Stockholm and 71% in "Gothenburg. This in turn led to Malmö municipality in 2007 having the 9th lowest median income in Sweden.
As of 2005[update], the largest companies were:
- "Skanska – heavy construction: 3,025 employees
- ISS Facility Service AB – hospital service, cleaning, etc.: 1,725 employees
- "E.ON Sverige – electricity: 1,025 employees
- "Sydsvenskan – newspaper: 1,025 employees
- "Pågen – bakery: 975 employees
- "Seavus – software developer: 515 employees
Almost 30 companies have moved their headquarters to Malmö during the last seven years, generating around 2,300 jobs.
The number of start-up companies is high in Malmö. Around 7 new companies are started every day in Malmö. In 2010, the renewal of the number of companies amounted to 13.9%, which exceeds both Stockholm and Gothenburg. Among the industries that continue to increase their share of companies in Malmö are transport, financial and business services, entertainment, leisure and construction.
Malmö has the country's eighth largest school of higher education, "Malmö University, established in 1998. It has 1,500 employees and 24,000 students (2011).
In addition nearby "Lund University (established in 1666) has some education located in Malmö:
- Malmö Art Academy (Konsthögskolan i Malmö)
- "Malmö Academy of Music (Musikhögskolan i Malmö)
- "Malmö Theatre Academy (Teaterhögskolan i Malmö)
- The Faculty of Medicine, which is located in both Malmö and "Lund.
The "United Nations "World Maritime University is also located in Malmö. The World Maritime University (WMU) operates under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a specialized agency of the United Nations. WMU thus enjoys the status, privileges and immunities of a UN institution in Sweden.
Secondary education schools in Malmö are ranked at place 248 out of the 290 councils in Sweden.
Film and television
A striking depiction of Malmö (in the 1930s) was made by "Bo Widerberg in his debut film "Kvarteret Korpen (Raven's End) (1963), largely shot in the shabby Korpen working-class district in Malmö. With humour and tenderness it depicts the tensions between classes and generations. The movie was nominated for an "Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1965. The 2005 documentary "Utan gränser – en film om idrott och integration" (Without Borders – A Film About Sports and Integration) was filmed by journalist Paul Jackson for the sports club IFK Malmö and was described by Swedish newspaper "Aftonbladet as "a documentary on how to succeed with integration" of migrants into Swedish society. The film featured Malmö native "Osama Krayem, who would later be one of the perpetrators of the "2016 Brussels bombings.
The cities of Malmö and Copenhagen are, with the Öresund Bridge, the main locations in the television series "The Bridge (Bron/Broen).
In 1944, Malmö Stadsteater (Malmö Municipal Theatre) with a repertoire comprising stage theatre, opera, musical, ballet, musical recitals and experimental theatre. In 1993 it was split into three units, Dramatiska Teater (Dramatical Theatre), Malmö Musikteater (Music Theatre) and Skånes Dansteater (Scanian Dance Theatre) and the name was abandoned. The ownership of the last two where transferred to "Region Skåne in 2006 Dramatiska Teatern regained its old name. In the 1950s "Ingmar Bergman was the Director and Chief Stage Director of Malmö Stadsteater and many of his actors, like "Max von Sydow and "Ingrid Thulin became known through his films. Later stage directors include "Staffan Valdemar Holm and "Göran Stangertz. Malmö Musikteater were renamed "Malmö Operan and plays operas and musicals, classics as newly composed, on one of Scandinavia's large opera scenes with 1,511 seats. Skånes dansteater is active and plays contemporary dance repertory and present works by Swedish and international choreographers in their house in Malmö harbour.
Since the 1970s the city has also been home to independent theatre groups and show/musical companies. It also hosts a rock/dance/dub culture; in the 1960s "The Rolling Stones played the Klubb Bongo, and in recent years stars like "Morrissey, "Nick Cave, "B.B. King and "Pat Metheny have made repeated visits.
"The Cardigans debuted in Malmö and recorded their albums there. On 7 January 2009 "CNN Travel broadcast a segment called "MyCity_MyLife" featuring "Nina Persson taking the camera to some of the sites in Malmö that she enjoys.
The "Rooseum Centre for Contemporary Art, founded in 1988 by the Swedish art collector and financier Fredrik Roos and housed in a former power station which had been built in 1900, was one of the foremost centres for "contemporary art in Europe during the 1980s and 1990s. By 2006, most of the collection had been sold off and the museum was on a time-out; by 2010 Rooseum had been dismantled and a subsidiary of the national Museum of Modern Art inaugurated in its place.
In December 2009, "Moderna Museet Malmö was opened in the old "Rooseum building. It is a part of the "Moderna Museet, with independent exhibitions of modern and contemporary art. The collection of Moderna Museet holds key pieces of, among others, "Marcel Duchamp, "Louise Bourgeois, "Pablo Picasso, "Niki de Saint Phalle, "Salvador Dalí, "Carolee Schneemann, "Henri Matisse and "Robert Rauschenberg
The "Malmö Konsthall is one of the largest exhibition halls in Europe for contemporary art, opened in 1975.
Malmö's oldest building is "Sankt Petri Church. It was built in the early 14th century in Baltic Brick Gothic probably after "St Mary's Church in Lübeck. The church is built with a "nave, two aisles, a "transept and a tower. Its exterior is characterized above all by the flying "buttresses spanning its airy arches over the aisles and "ambulatory. The tower, which fell down twice during the 15th century, got its current look in 1890. Another major church of significance is the "Church of Our Saviour, Malmö, which was founded in 1870.
Another old building is Tunneln, 300 metres (1,000 ft) to the west of Sankt Petri Church, which also dates back to around 1300.
The oldest parts of Malmö were built between 1300–1600 during its first major period of expansion.["citation needed] The central city's layout as well as some of its oldest buildings are from this time. Many of the smaller buildings from this time are typical Scanian: two story urban houses that show a strong Danish influence.["citation needed]
Recession followed in the ensuing centuries. The next expansion period was in the mid 19th century and led to the modern stone and brick city. This expansion lasted into the 20th century and can be seen by a number of "Art Nouveau buildings, among those is the "Malmö synagogue. Malmö was relatively late to be influenced by modern ideas of "functionalist tenement architecture in the 1930s.
Around 1965, the government initiated the so-called "Million Programme, intending to offer affordable apartments in the outskirts of major Swedish cities. But this period also saw the reconstruction (and razing) of much of the historical city centre.["citation needed]
Since the late 1990s, Malmö have seen a more cosmopolitan architecture. "Västra Hamnen (The Western Harbour), like most of the harbour to the north of the city centre, was industrial. In 2001 its reconstruction began as an urban residential neighbourhood, with 500 residential units, most were part of the exhibition "Bo01. The exhibition had two main objectives: develop self-sufficient housing units in terms of energy and greatly diminish phosphorus emissions. Among the new buildings towers were the "Turning Torso, a skyscraper with a twisting design, 190 metres (620 ft) tall, the majority of which is residential. It became Malmö's new landmark. The most recent addition (2015) is the new development of Malmö Live This new building features a hotel, a concert hall, congress hall and a sky bar in the centre of Malmö.
The beach Ribersborg, by locals usually called Ribban, south-west of the harbour area, is a man-made shallow beach, stretching along Malmö's coastline. Despite Malmö's chilly climate, it is sometimes referred to as the "Copacabana of Malmö". It is the site of "Ribersborgs open-air bath, opened in the 1890s.
The long boardwalk at The Western Harbour, Scaniaparken and Daniaparken, has become a new favourite summer hang-out for the people of Malmö and is a popular place for bathing. The harbour is particularly popular with Malmö's vibrant student community and has been the scene of several impromptu outdoor parties and gatherings.["citation needed]
In the third week of August each year a festival, Malmöfestivalen, fills the streets of Malmö with different kinds of cuisines and events.
"BUFF International Film Festival, an international children and young people's "film festival held in Malmö every year in March.
"Nordisk Panorama – Nordic Short & Doc Film Festival, a film festival for "short and "documentary films by film makers from the "Nordic countries, held every year in September.
"Malmö Arab Film Festival (MAFF), the largest Arabic film festival in Europe.
The "Nordic Game conference takes place in Malmö every April/May. The event consists of conference itself, recruitment expo and game expo and attracts hundreds of gamedev professionals every year.
Malmö also hosts other 3rd party events that cater to all communities that reside in Malmö, including religious and political celebrations.
Notable past events
In 1914 the "Baltic Exhibition was held in Malmö which consisted of exhibitions about industry, art and crafts from Sweden, Denmark, Germany and Russia.
In 1992 Malmö was the host of the "Eurovision Song Contest 1992 after Carola won it the previous year, 1991 in "Rome, "Italy. Malmö hosted again in "2013 at the newer "Malmö Arena, after Swedish singer "Loreen's victory at "Eurovision Song Contest 2012, in "Baku, "Azerbaijan.
"Sydsvenskan, founded in 1870, is Malmö's largest daily newspaper, and also one of its larger employers (see section Economy). It has an average circulation of 130,000. Its main competitor is the regional daily Skånska Dagbladet, which has a circulation of 34,000. In addition to these, a number of free-of-charge papers, generally dealing with entertainment, music and fashion have local editions (for instance City, Rodeo, Metro and Nöjesguiden). Malmö is also home to the "Egmont Group's Swedish magazine operations. A number of local and regional radio and TV broadcasters are based in the Greater Malmö area.
Sports in southern Sweden is dominated by "Football. Over the years the city's best football team has been "Malmö FF who play in the top level "Allsvenskan. They had their most successful periods in the 1970s and 1980s, when they won the league several times. In 1979, they advanced to the final of the "European Cup defeating AS Monaco, Dynamo Kiew, Wisla Krakow and Austria Wien (Vienna) but lost in the final at the "Munich Olympic Stadium against "Nottingham Forest by a single goal just before half time scored by "Trevor Francis. To date, they are the only Swedish football club to have reached the final of the competition. Malmö FF is the club where for instance "Bosse Larsson and "Zlatan Ibrahimović began his their football careers. A second football team, "IFK Malmö played in Sweden's top flight for about 20 years and the club's quarterfinal in the European Cup is the club's greatest achievement in its history. Today, the club resides in the sixth tier of the Swedish league system. Examples of other Malmö based clubs are "IF Limhamn Bunkeflo and "FC Rosengård. Both in Division 1 South, the third tier. Held in Sweden, Malmö was one of the four cities to host the "2009 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship and hosted the final.
The most notable other sports team is the ice hockey team "Malmö Redhawks. They were the creation of millionaire Percy Nilsson and quickly rose to the highest rank in the early to mid-1990s and won two Swedish championships, but for a number of years have found themselves residing outside of the top flight. Malmö also has teams that play first division handball "HK Malmö, baseball, American football and Australian football. Of these last mentioned sports only handball attracts a fair amount of attendance. "Gaelic football has also been introduced to Malmö, with the new Malmö G.A.A. club winning the Scandinavian Championships in their inaugural year, 2009, and were again in the running for 2011.
Among non-team sports "badminton and "athletics are the most popular together with east Asian martial arts and boxing. Basketball is also fairly a big sport in the city, including the clubs "Malbas and SF Srbija among others.
Women are permitted by the city council to swim topless in public swimming pools. Everyone must wear bathing attire, but covering of the breasts is not mandatory. "We don’t decide what men should do with their torso, why then do women have to listen to the men. Moreover, many men have larger breasts than women", remarked a council spokesman.
Malmö hosted the "2014 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships from 26 December 2013 to 5 January 2014.
- "Malmö Bulltofta Airport
- "Chapter 4 Concerning the Friary in Malmø in "Chronicle of the Expulsion of the Greyfriars
- "List of governors of Malmöhus County
- "List of people connected to Malmö
- "Ports of the Baltic Sea
- Facts & Figures about Malmö, 2005 at the "Wayback Machine (archived 7 October 2006) – in English. From the municipal webpage, "PDF format.
- "Malmö stad — Statistik" (in Swedish). Malmö.se. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- "Kommunarealer den 1 January 2012" [Municipalities in Sweden and their areas, as of 1 January 2012] (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Folkmängden efter region, civilstånd, ålder och kön. År 1968 – 2015" [Population by region, age and sex. In 1968 – 2015]. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- "Localities 2010, area, population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population". "Statistics Sweden. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012.
- "Kvartal 1 2012 – Statistiska centralbyrån". Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Statistics Sweden. "Landareal per tätort, folkmängd och invånare per kvadratkilometer. Vart femte år 1960 – 2015" [Land area per urban area, population and per square kilometer. Every five years, 1960 – 2015]. "Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- "Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 30 september 2016 och befolkningsförändringar 1 juli–30 september 2016. Totalt" [Population in the country, counties and municipalities, September 30, 2016 and population changes 1 July to 30 September 2016. Total]. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- "Geography". Tendens Øresund. Retrieved 29 October 2010.["dead link]
- Lilja, Sven; Nilsson, Lars. "Malmö: Historia". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). NE Nationalencyklopedin. Retrieved 1 December 2015. (subscription required (. ))
- "Malmös uppkomst" [Malmö Origins Part 1] (in Swedish). "Fotevikens Museum. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Så har Malmö vuxit genom åren" (in Swedish). "Malmö Municipality. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2015.["dead link]
- "Nederbörd Solsken Och Strålning Året 2014" [Precipitation and Sunshine 2014 (Historical Normals section)] (PDF). "Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Precipitation Averages 1961–90". SMHI. April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Statistics from Weather Stations" (in Swedish). SMHI. March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Cars". "Copenhagen Malmö Port. 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- In all official contexts, the town Malmö calls itself "Malmö stad" (or City of Malmö), as does a small number of other Swedish municipalities, and especially the other two metropolitans of Sweden: "Stockholm and "Gothenburg. However, the term "city has administratively been discontinued in Sweden.
- Malmö´s path towards a sustainable future (PDF). The Commission for a Socially sustainable Malmö. December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Befolkningsutveckling Malmö, Malmö Stad. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Befolkningsstatistik 2015. SCB. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Folkmängd i Malmö [Population in Malmö] (PDF). Malmö stad. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2015.["dead link]
- "Nationalencyklopedin, Article Malmö
- "Befolkningsprognos för Malmö" [Population forecast for Malmö] (in Northern Sami). Malmö Stad. Retrieved 29 December 2007.["dead link]
- "Nu är vi över 300 000" [We are now more than 300,000]. "Sydsvenskan. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2015.["dead link]
- "Befolkningsbokslut 2015" (PDF). "Malmö Municipality (in Swedish). 30 June 2014. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Statistik om Malmö". www.ssd.scb.se Search data for Malmö through the search bar.
- Necmi Incegül. "Statistik om Malmö – Malmö stad". Malmo.se. Retrieved 15 September 2011.["dead link]
- ["dead link]
- "Population in Sweden December 2011". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "Malmöbor födda i utlandet" (PDF). Malmö stad. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2012.["dead link]
- "Malmöbor födda i utlandet, 31 december 2014" (PDF). "Malmö Municipality (in Swedish). 31 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2015.["dead link]
- Malmö Snapshot Facts and figures on trade and industry in Malmö, Malmö stad, 2011.
- Definitions of Metropolitan Areas in Sweden at the "Wayback Machine (archived 30 December 2006)
- "Metropolitan areas with municipalities" (PDF). Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- City of Malmö website ["dead link], in turned based on material from "Statistics Sweden Archived 12 June 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
- "SVD Article".
- Source: City of Malmö website – "Malmös största företag"["dead link] Archive copy from 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Malmö Snapshot Facts and figures on trade and industry in Malmö, Malmö stad.
- Malmö Snapshot Facts and figures on trade and industry in Malmö, Malmö stad
- "World Maritime University". Wmu.se. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- Björk, Evalis (25 November 2014). "Göteborg halkar efter i ny skolrankning". "Göteborgsposten. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Nilsson, Christoffer; Melin, Eric (15 April 2016). "Swedish terror suspect was in movie about successful integration – Terrormisstänkt svensk var med i film om lyckad integration". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 April 2016.
As an eleven-year-old Osama Krayem participated in a documentary on how to succeed with integration.
- The Bridge at the "Internet Movie Database
- "Malmö Stadsteater" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Malmö Opera och Musikteater". Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "About us | Skånes Dansteater". Retrieved 2 February 2010.["dead link]
- "Malmö stad — Moderna Museet Malmö" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 February 2010.["dead link]
- "Samlingen — Moderna Museet" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 February 2010.["dead link]
- "About Malmö Konsthall". Malmö Konsthall. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Svenska kyrkan — Malmö S:t Petri församling — S:t Petri kyrka — Malmös katedral" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 February 2010.["dead link]
- City of Malmö website. "Western Harbour/Bo01".["dead link]
- Arkitekterna som formade Malmö, Tyke Tykesson (1996), "ISBN 91-7203-113-1
- Web site Malmö Arkitekturhistoria Arkitekturhistoria, a brief compilation made by "Malmö Public Library website. Accessed 19/05 -06. Has a substantial reference section. (Swedish)
- City of Malmö website. "Strandliv: Ribersborgsstranden" (in Swedish).["dead link]
- City of Malmö website. "Kulturarv: Ribersborgsstranden" (in Swedish).["dead link]
- City of Malmö website. "Strandliv: Scaniabadet" (in Swedish).["dead link]
- "Nordic Game". Nordic Game. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Nordic Game Conference | Media Evolution". Mediaevolution.se. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Malmö to host Eurovision Song Contest 2013!". eurovision.tv. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- "Malmö win for topless Swedish bathers — The Local". Thelocal.se. Retrieved 23 July 2009.["dead link]
- "Women fight for right to bare breasts — The Local". Thelocal.se. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.["dead link]
- The Earthtimes. "Swedish feminists win partial approval for topless swimming: Europe World". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
- "Swedish city legalizes topless bathing....at public swimming pools". Inquisitr.com. 27 June 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
- "Malmö", Norway, Sweden, and Denmark (8th ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1903
- Article Malmö from "Nordisk familjebok, 1912 (Swedish)
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- Official municipal site in Swedish and English["dead link]
- Malmotown.com, Malmö official visitor site
- Maps of Malmö (Swedish)
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