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Large-scale manufacturing.

Manufacturing is the production of "merchandise for use or sale using labour and "machines, "tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from "handicraft to "high tech, but is most commonly applied to "industrial production, in which "raw materials are transformed into "finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as "aircraft, "household appliances, "furniture, "sports equipment or "automobiles, or sold to "wholesalers, who in turn sell them to "retailers, who then sell them to "end users and "consumers.

"Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of "economic systems. In capitalist "free markets, goods are manufactured on demand by millions of small independent producers in direct competition with each other. In capitalist "captive markets, goods are mass-produced by legally protected publishing and manufacturing monopolies. In "Collectivist markets, the manufacturing of goods is entirely directed by the state based on necessity.

Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as "semiconductor and "steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.

The manufacturing sector is closely connected with "engineering and "industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in "North America include "General Motors Corporation, "General Electric, "Procter & Gamble, "General Dynamics, "Boeing, "Pfizer, and "Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include "Volkswagen Group, "Siemens, and "Michelin. Examples in Asia include "Toyota and "Bridgestone.

Contents

History and development[edit]

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Finished regenerative "thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant
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Assembly of Section 41 of a "Boeing 787 Dreamliner
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An industrial "worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, "Bytča, "Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
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A modern "automobile "assembly line

Manufacturing systems: changes in methods of manufacturing[edit]

Industrial policy[edit]

Economics of manufacturing[edit]

"Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the "Manufacturing Belt in the "United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national "infrastructure and for "national defense.

On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of "hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose "workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving "efficiency, reducing waste, using "industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals.

The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with "labor laws and "environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the "environmental costs of manufacturing activities. "Labor unions and "craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the "third world. "Tort law and "product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.

Manufacturing and investment[edit]

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Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the "FRG and in the USA

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:

In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.[1][2]

On June 26, 2009, "Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the "United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.[3] Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries.[4] A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007.[5] In the UK, "EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.

Countries by manufacturing output using the most recent known data[edit]

List of top 20 manufacturing countries by total value of manufacturing in US dollars for its noted year according to "Worldbank.[6][7]

Rank Country/Region Millions of $US Year
 "World 12,578,627 2014
1  "China 3,713,300 2014
9999999  "European Union 2,566,070 2014
2  "United States 2,068,080 2014
9999999 ""Logo European Central Bank.svg "Eurozone 1,946,857 2014
3  "Japan 850,902 2014
4  "Germany 787,503 2014
5  "South Korea 389,582 2014
6  "India 321,721 2014
7  "Italy 296,611 2014
8  "France 283,664 2014
9  "United Kingdom 282,675 2014
10  "Russia 248,481 2014
11  "Brazil 218,799 2014
12  "Mexico 216,773 2014
13  "Indonesia 186,744 2014
14  "Spain 166,594 2014
15  "Canada 162,074 2014
16   "Switzerland 128,881 2014
17  "Turkey 126,365 2014
18  "Thailand 112,214 2014
19  "Netherlands 95,683 2014
20  "Australia 93,461 2016

Manufacturing processes[edit]

Control[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manufacturing & Investment Around The World: An International Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, ISR Publications/Google Books, revised second edition, 2002. "ISBN "978-0-906321-25-6.
  2. ^ Research, Industrial Systems (2002-05-20). "Manufacturing and Investment Around the World: An International Survey of Factors Affecting Growth and Performance". "ISBN "978-0-906321-25-6. 
  3. ^ Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal. UK Guardian. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
  4. ^ Brookings Institution, Why Does Manufacturing Matter? Which Manufacturing Matters?, February 2012 Archived 2012-10-08 at the "Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Factory jobs: 3 million lost since 2000". USATODAY.com. April 20, 2007.
  6. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". access in February 20, 2013.
  7. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) for EU and Eurozone". access in February 20, 2013.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]


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