Under "Roman law, a slave had no "personhood and was protected under law mainly as his or her master's property. In "ancient Rome, a slave who had been manumitted was a libertus ("feminine liberta) and a citizen.
A "freed slave customarily took his or her former owner's family name, that is, the nomen (see "Roman naming conventions) of his or her master's "gens. The former owner became his or her "patron (patronus). As a client (cliens), the freed person retained certain obligations to his or her master, who in turn owed mutual favors. A freed slave could also acquire multiple patrons.
A freed slave became a citizen. Not all citizens, however, held the same rights and privileges (for instance, "women were citizens, but could not vote or hold public office; see "Roman citizenship). The former slave's rights were limited or defined by particular "statutes. Freed slaves could become civil servants but not hold the "higher magistracies (see for instance "apparitor and "scriba), serve as "priests of the emperor, or hold any of the other highly respected public positions. If they were sharp businesspeople, there were no social limits to the wealth they could amass. The children of a freedman held full legal rights, though "Roman society was stratified. One of the most famous Romans to have been the son of a freedman was the poet "Horace, who enjoyed the patronage of "Augustus.
A notable character of "Latin literature is "Trimalchio, the ostentatiously "nouveau riche freedman in the "Satyricon of "Petronius.
African slaves were freed in the North American colonies as early as the seventeenth century. Some (such as "Anthony Johnson) went on to become landowners and slaveholders in the colonies. Slaves could sometimes arrange manumission by agreeing to "purchase themselves"; that is, to pay the master an agreed amount. Some masters demanded market rates; others set a lower amount in consideration of service.
Regulation of manumission began in 1692, when Virginia established that in order to manumit a slave, a person must pay the cost for them to be transported out of the colony. A 1723 law stated that slaves may not "be set free upon any pretence whatsoever, except for some meritorious services to be adjudged and allowed by the governor and council." In some cases, when a master was drafted into the army, they sent a slave in their place, with a promise of freedom if they survived the war. The new government of Virginia repealed these laws in 1782 and declared freedom for slaves who had fought for the Colonies in the "American Revolutionary War. The 1782 laws also permitted masters to free their slaves on their own accord; previously, a manumission required obtaining consent from the state legislature, an arduous and rarely granted request. However, as population of "free negroes increased, the state passed laws forbidding free negroes from moving into the state (1778) and requiring newly freed slaves to leave within one year unless they had special permission (1806).
In the Upper South in the late eighteenth century, planters had less need for slaves as they switched from labor-intensive tobacco cultivation to mixed-crop farming. Slave states such as Virginia made it easier for slaveholders to free their slaves. In the two decades following the "American Revolutionary War, numerous slaveholders accomplished manumissions by deed or in wills, so that the percentage of free blacks to the total number of blacks rose from less than one percent to 10 percent in the Upper South. In Virginia, the proportion of free blacks increased from 1% in 1782 to 7% in 1800. Together with several northern states abolishing slavery during this period, the percentage of free blacks nationally increased to 13.5 percent of the total black population. New York and New Jersey adopted gradual abolition laws that kept the free children of slaves as indentured servants into their twenties.
After invention of the "cotton gin in 1793, which enabled the development of extensive new areas for new types of cotton cultivation, manumissions decreased due to increased demand for slave labor. In the nineteenth century, slave revolts such as the "Haitian Revolution and especially the 1831 rebellion led by "Nat Turner increased slaveholder fears, and most southern states passed laws making manumission nearly impossible until the passage of the "Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery, "except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, after the "American Civil War in 1865.
Of the "Founding Fathers of the United States as defined by the historian "Richard B. Morris, the southerners were the major slaveholders, but northerners also held them, in generally fewer number, as domestic servants. "John Adams owned none; "George Washington freed his slaves in his will (his wife independently held numerous "dower slaves); "Thomas Jefferson freed five slaves in his will, and the remaining 130 were sold to settle his estate debts; "James Madison did not free his slaves and some were sold to pay off estate debts, and his wife and son retained most to work "Montpelier plantation; "Benjamin Franklin freed his slaves; "Alexander Hamilton's slave ownership is unclear, but he was an officer of the "New York Manumission Society; the society was founded by "John Jay, who freed his domestic slaves in 1798, the same year as governor he signed a gradual abolition law in New York; "John Dickinson freed his slaves in a manumission process between 1776 and 1786, the only Founding Father to do so during this time.
- Richard Burton, Tales from the Arabian Nights, P.H. Newby, editor, New York: Pocket Library Edition, 1954, p. 84. Burton notes: "Here the slave refuses to be set free and starve. For a master to do so without ample reason is held disgraceful."
- "M.I.Finley; Susan M. Treggiari (1996). "Freedmen, Freedwomen". In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony. Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 609. "ISBN "019866172X.
- Bradley, Keith R. (1996). "Slavery". In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony. Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1415–1417.
- Manumission of Female Slaves at Delphi at attalus.org.
- Beard & Crawford (1999) . Rome in the Late Republic. London: Duckworth. pp. 41, 48. "ISBN "071562928X.
- Hornblower & Spawforth (eds) (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 334, 609. "ISBN "019866172X.
- Wilson, Black Codes (1965), p. 15.
- Taylor loc 491
- Taylor loc 604
- Taylor loc 598
- Wilson, Black Codes (1965), p. 16.
- Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619–1877, Hill and Wang, 1993
- Taylor loc 611
- Wilson, Theodore Brantner. The Black Codes of the South. University of Alabama Press, 1965.
- Bradley, K. R. 1984, Slaves and masters in the Roman Empire.
- Garlan, Y. 1988, Slavery in Ancient Greece. Ithaca. (trans. Janet Lloyd)
- Hopkins, M. K. (ed) 1978, Conquerors and Slaves.
- Levy, Reuben (1957). The Social Structure of Islam. UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Lewis, Bernard (1990). Race and Slavery in the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-505326-5.
- "Schimmel, A. (1992). Islam: An Introduction. US: SUNY Press. "ISBN "0-7914-1327-6.
- Taylor, Alan (2013). The internal enemy : slavery and war in Virginia, 1772–1832. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. "ISBN "9780393073713.