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Marble in Carrara marble quarry, Italy
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The "Taj Mahal is entirely clad in marble.

Marble is a "metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized "carbonate minerals, most commonly "calcite or "dolomite. Marble may be "foliated. In "geology the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed "limestone, but its use in "stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble is commonly used for "sculpture and as a "building material.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

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Carlo Franzoni's sculptural marble "chariot clock depicting "Clio, the Greek "muse of history.
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Marble wall of "Ruskeala. "Republic of Karelia, "Russia

The word "marble" derives from the "Ancient Greek μάρμαρον (mármaron),[2] from μάρμαρος (mármaros), "crystalline rock, shining stone",[3][4] perhaps from the verb μαρμαίρω (marmaírō), "to flash, sparkle, gleam";[5] "R. S. P. Beekes has suggested that a ""Pre-Greek origin is probable."[6]

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Folded and weathered marble at "General Carrera Lake, "Chile

This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning "marble-like." While the English term resembles the "French marbre, most other European languages follow the original Greek—see "Persian and "Irish marmar, "Spanish mármol, "Italian marmo, "Portuguese mármore, "Welsh, "Slovene, "German, "Norwegian, "Danish and "Swedish marmor, "Finnish marmori, "Romanian marmură, "Polish marmur, "Dutch marmer, "Turkish mermer, "Czech error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: cz ("help), and "Russian мрáмор (mramor). In "Hungarian it is called márvány.

Physical origins[edit]

Marble is a rock resulting from "metamorphism of "sedimentary "carbonate rocks, most commonly "limestone or "dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate "crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock ("protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.

Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure ("silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. The characteristic swirls and "veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as "clay, "silt, "sand, "iron oxides, or "chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is often due to "serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with "silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.

Types[edit]

Examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations:

Marble Color Location Country
"Pentelic marble[7] pure-white, fine-grained semitranslucent "Mount Pentelicus (Πεντελικό όρος), "Attica (Ἀττική)  "Greece
"Creole marble white and blue/black "Pickens County, Georgia  "United States
"Etowah marble pink, salmon, rose "Pickens County, Georgia  "United States
"Makrana marble white "Makrana, "Nagaur district, "Rajasthan  "India
"Murphy marble white "Pickens and "Gilmer Counties, "Georgia  "United States
"Nero Marquina marble black "Markina, Spain  "Spain
"Parian marble pure-white, fine-grained Island of "Paros (Πάρος), "South Aegean (Νοτίου Αιγαίου)  "Greece
"Carrara marble white or blue-gray "Carrara, "Tuscany  "Italy
"Ruskeala marble white near "Ruskeala (Рускеала), "Karelia (Карелия)  "Russia
"Rușchița marble[8] white, pinkish, reddish "Poiana Ruscă Mountains, "Caraș-Severin County  "Romania
Sienna marble[9] yellow with violet, red, blue or white veins near "Siena, "Tuscany  "Italy
"Bianco Sivec white near "Prilep (Прилеп), "Pelagonia (Пелагониски)  "Macedonia
"Swedish green marble green near "Kolmården, "Södermanland  "Sweden
"Sylacauga marble white "Talladega County, Alabama  "United States
"Vermont marble white "Proctor, Vermont  "United States
"Yule marble uniform pure white near "Marble, Colorado  "United States
"Wunsiedel marble white "Wunsiedel, "Bavaria  "Germany

Uses[edit]

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Ritual "amphora of veined marble from "Zakros. "New palace period (1500–1450 BC), "Heraklion Archaeological Museum, "Crete.
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An 1862 monumental conical pendulum clock by "Eugène Farcot with a red griotte marble pedestal
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Marble Products in "Romblon, "Philippines.

Sculpture[edit]

White marble has been prized for its use in "sculptures[10] since "classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative "isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Also, the low "index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic waxy look which gives "life" to marble sculptures of any kind, which is why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting.

Construction marble[edit]

Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish.[11] More generally in "construction, specifically the "dimension stone trade, the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone. For example, "Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon "Ordovician limestone that "geologists call the "Holston Formation.

"Ashgabat, the capital city of "Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 "Guinness Book of Records as having the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings.[12]

Production[edit]

According to the "United States Geological Survey, U.S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production (for aggregate and industrial uses) in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground "calcium carbonate and the rest was "construction aggregate. For comparison, 2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. U.S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, compared to 10.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. The largest dimension marble application is tile.

In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for almost half of world production of marble and decorative stone. Italy and China were the world leaders, each representing 16% of world production, while Spain and India produced 9% and 8%, respectively. "Italy is the world leader in marble export, with 20% share in global marble production, followed by "China with 16%, "India with 10%, "Spain with 6%, and "Portugal with 5%.[13]

Occupational safety[edit]

Dust produced by cutting marble could cause lung disease but more research needs to be carried out on whether dust filters and other safety products reduce this risk.[14]

United States[edit]

The "Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit ("permissible exposure limit) for marble exposure in the workplace as 15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. The "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a "recommended exposure limit (REL) of 10 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.[15]

Microbial degradation[edit]

The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium "Methylophaga murata was isolated from deteriorating marble in the "Kremlin.[16] Bacterial and fungal degradation was detected in four samples of marble from Milan cathedral; black "Cladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin[17] using melanin.[18]

Cultural associations[edit]

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"Jadwiga of Poland's sarcophagus by Antoni Madeyski, "Wawel Cathedral, "Cracow
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"Relief on the Marble Door of the "Hagia Sophia in "Istanbul

As the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects (see "classical sculpture), marble has become a cultural "symbol of tradition and refined taste. Its extremely varied and colorful patterns make it a favorite decorative material, and it is often imitated in background patterns for "computer displays, etc.

Places named after the stone include "Marblehead, Massachusetts; "Marblehead, Ohio; "Marble Arch, London; the "Sea of Marmara; India's "Marble Rocks; and the towns of "Marble, Minnesota; "Marble, Colorado; "Marble Falls, Texas, and "Marble Hill, Manhattan, New York. The "Elgin Marbles are marble sculptures from the "Parthenon that are on display in the "British Museum. They were brought to Britain by the "Earl of Elgin.

Artificial marble[edit]

Marble dust is combined with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or "cultured marble. The appearance of marble can be simulated with "faux marbling, a painting technique that imitates the stone's color patterns.

Gallery[edit]

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The "Nike of Samothrace is made of Parian marble (c. 220–190 BC) 
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The "Praetorians Relief, made from grey veined marble, c. 51–52 AD 
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Ancient marble columns in the prayer hall of the "Mosque of Uqba, in "Kairouan, "Tunisia 
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"Aon Center in "Chicago was the tallest structure clad in marble upon its completion. The marble however proved to be fragile, and the building was re-clad in a similarly-colored "granite at an extreme financial cost. 
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"Cleopatra by "William Wetmore Story was described and admired in "Nathaniel Hawthorne's romance, "The Marble Faun, and is on display at "The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City 
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As with many Brazil's government buildings in "Brasília, the "Palácio do Planalto, official workplace of the "Brazilian President, is clad in marble 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kearey, Philip (2001). Dictionary of Geology, Penguin Group, London and New York, p. 163. "ISBN "978-0-14-051494-0
  2. ^ μάρμαρον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  3. ^ μάρμαρος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. ^ Marble, Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Askoxford.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  5. ^ μαρμαίρω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  6. ^ "R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 907.
  7. ^ Pentelic marble, Britannica Online Encyclopaedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  8. ^ "RAPORT DE ȚARĂ. Domul din Milano a fost reconstruit cu marmură de Rușchița". 
  9. ^ Jameson, Robert (2011). System of Mineralogy (2 [Digital] ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "9781108029742. 
  10. ^ PROCEEDINGS 4th International Congress on “Science and Technology for the Safeguard of Cultural Heritage in the Mediterranean Basin” VOL. I. Angelo Ferrari. "ISBN "9788896680315. 
  11. ^ Marble Institute of America pp. 223 Glossary
  12. ^ "Turkmenistan enters record books for having the most white marble buildings | World news". London: theguardian.com. 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  13. ^ Strategic positioning study of the marble branch. CEPI Brief N° 6. tunisianindustry.nat.tn
  14. ^ Foja, A.F. (1993) Marble industry: its socioeconomic, environmental and health effects among marble worker/producer households in Romblon. Philippines University Thesis. fao.org
  15. ^ "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Marble". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-27. 
  16. ^ Doronina NV; Li TsD; Ivanova EG; Trotsenko IuA. (2005). "Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble". Mikrobiologiia. 74 (4): 511–9. "PMID 16211855. 
  17. ^ Cappitelli F; Principi P; Pedrazzani R; Toniolo L; Sorlini C (2007). "Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins". Science of the Total Environment. 385 (1–3): 172–81. "doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.06.022. "PMID 17658586. 
  18. ^ Cappitelli F; Nosanchuk JD; Casadevall A; Toniolo L; Brusetti L; Florio S,; Principi P; Borin S; Sorlini C (Jan 2007). "Synthetic consolidants attacked by melanin-producing fungi: case study of the biodeterioration of Milan (Italy) cathedral marble treated with acrylics". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (1): 271–7. "doi:10.1128/AEM.02220-06. "PMC 1797126Freely accessible. "PMID 17071788. 

External links[edit]

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