Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at Downing Street she said, in a paraphrase of the "Prayer of Saint Francis: "Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope."
Thatcher was Leader of the Opposition and Prime Minister at a time of increased racial tension in Britain. Commenting on the "local elections of May 1977, "The Economist noted "The Tory tide swamped the smaller parties. That specifically includes the "National Front, which suffered a clear decline from last year". Her standing in the polls rose by 11% after a January 1978 interview for "World in Action in which she said "the British character has done so much for democracy, for law and done so much throughout the world that if there is any fear that it might be swamped people are going to react and be rather hostile to those coming in", as well as "in many ways [minorities] add to the richness and variety of this country. The moment the minority threatens to become a big one, people get frightened". In the 1979 general election, the Conservatives attracted voters from the National Front, whose support almost collapsed. In a meeting in July 1979 with the "Foreign Secretary "Lord Carrington and "Home Secretary "William Whitelaw she objected to the number of Asian immigrants, in the context of limiting the number of "Vietnamese boat people allowed to settle in the UK to fewer than 10,000.
As Prime Minister, Thatcher met weekly with "Queen Elizabeth II to discuss government business, and their relationship came under close scrutiny. Biographer "John Campbell says their relations were "punctiliously correct but there was little love lost on either side". The Queen's press secretary leaked anonymous rumours of a rift, which were officially denied by the Palace. Campbell concludes that Thatcher had "an almost mystical reverence for the institution of the monarchy ... Yet at the same time she was trying to modernise the country and sweep away many of the values and practices which the monarchy perpetuated". Thatcher later wrote: "I always found the Queen's attitude towards the work of the Government absolutely correct ... stories of clashes between 'two powerful women' were just too good not to make up."
Economy and taxation
|GDP and public spending by functional classification||% change in real terms
1979/80 to 1989/90
|Total government spending||+13|
|Law and order||+53|
|Employment and training||+33|
|Trade and industry||−38|
Thatcher's economic policy was influenced by "monetarist thinking and economists such as "Milton Friedman and "Alan Walters. Together with "Chancellor of the Exchequer "Geoffrey Howe, she lowered direct taxes on income and increased indirect taxes. She increased interest rates to slow the growth of the money supply and thereby lower inflation, introduced cash limits on public spending, and reduced expenditure on social services such as education and housing. Her cuts in higher education spending resulted in her being the first Oxford-educated post-war Prime Minister not to be awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Oxford, after a 738 to 319 vote of the governing assembly and a student petition. Her new centrally funded "City Technology Colleges did not enjoy much success, and the Funding Agency for Schools was set up to control expenditure by opening and closing schools; the "Social Market Foundation, a centre-left think tank, described it as having "an extraordinary range of dictatorial powers".
Some Heathite Conservatives in the Cabinet, the so-called ""wets", expressed doubt over Thatcher's policies. The "1981 England riots resulted in the British media discussing the need for a policy U-turn. At the 1980 Conservative Party conference, Thatcher addressed the issue directly, with a speech written by the playwright "Ronald Millar that included the lines: "You turn if you want to. "The lady's not for turning!"
Thatcher's job approval rating fell to 23% by December 1980, lower than recorded for any previous Prime Minister. As the "recession of the early 1980s deepened she increased taxes, despite concerns expressed in a statement signed by 364 leading economists issued towards the end of March 1981.
By 1982, the UK began to experience signs of economic recovery; inflation was down to 8.6% from a high of 18%, but unemployment was over 3 million for the first time since the 1930s. By 1983 overall economic growth was stronger and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970, although manufacturing output had dropped by 30% since 1978 and unemployment remained high, peaking at 3.3 million in 1984.
By 1987, unemployment was falling, the economy was stable and strong, and inflation was low. Opinion polls showed a comfortable Conservative lead, and "local council election results had also been successful, prompting Thatcher to call a general election for 11 June that year, despite the deadline for an election still being 12 months away. The "election saw Thatcher re-elected for a third successive term. Throughout the 1980s revenue from the 90% tax on "North Sea oil extraction was used as a short-term funding source to balance the economy and pay the costs of reform.
Thatcher reformed local government taxes by replacing "domestic rates (a tax based on the nominal rental value of a home) with the "Community Charge (or poll tax) in which the same amount was charged to each adult resident. The new tax was introduced in Scotland in 1989 and in England and Wales the following year, and proved to be among the most unpopular policies of her premiership. Public disquiet culminated in a 70,000 to 200,000-strong demonstration in London on 31 March 1990; the demonstration around "Trafalgar Square deteriorated into "riots, leaving 113 people injured and 340 under arrest. The Community Charge was abolished by her successor, "John Major. It was revealed in December 2016 that Thatcher had herself failed to register for the poll tax and was threatened with a penalty fine.
Thatcher was committed to reducing the power of the "trade unions, whose leadership she accused of undermining parliamentary democracy and economic performance through strike action. Several unions launched strikes in response to legislation introduced to curb their power, but resistance eventually collapsed. Only 39% of union members voted for Labour in the 1983 general election. According to the BBC, Thatcher "managed to destroy the power of the trade unions for almost a generation".
The "miners' strike was the biggest confrontation between the unions and the Thatcher government. In March 1984 the "National Coal Board (NCB) proposed to close 20 of the 174 state-owned mines and cut 20,000 jobs out of 187,000.
Two-thirds of the country's miners, led by the "National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) under "Arthur Scargill, downed tools in protest. Scargill had refused to hold a ballot on the strike, having previously lost three ballots on a national strike (in January 1982, October 1982 and March 1983). This led to the strike being declared illegal.
Thatcher refused to meet the union's demands and compared the miners' dispute to the Falklands conflict two years earlier, declaring in a speech in 1984: "We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. We always have to be aware of the enemy within, which is much more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty." After a year out on strike, in March 1985, the NUM leadership conceded without a deal. The cost to the economy was estimated to be at least £1.5 billion, and the strike was blamed for much of the "pound's fall against the "US dollar. The government closed 25 unprofitable coal mines in 1985, and by 1992 a total of 97 had been closed; those that remained were privatised in 1994. The eventual closure of 150 coal mines, not all of which were losing money, resulted in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs and devastated entire communities. Miners had helped bring down the Heath government, and Thatcher was determined to succeed where he had failed. Her strategy of preparing fuel stocks, appointing a union-busting NCB leader in "Ian MacGregor, and ensuring police were adequately trained and equipped with riot gear, contributed to her victory.
The number of stoppages across the UK peaked at 4,583 in 1979, when more than 29 million working days were lost. In 1984, the year of the miners' strike, there were 1,221, resulting in the loss of more than 27 million working days. Stoppages then fell steadily throughout the rest of Thatcher's premiership; in 1990 there were 630 and fewer than 2 million working days lost, and they continued to fall thereafter. Thatcher's time in office witnessed a sharp decline in trade union density, with the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union falling from 57.3% in 1979 to 49.5% in 1985. In 1979 up until Thatcher's last year in office, trade union membership also fell, from 13.5 million in 1979 to fewer than 10 million.
The policy of "privatisation has been called "a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism". After the 1983 election the sale of state utilities accelerated; more than £29 billion was raised from the sale of nationalised industries, and another £18 billion from the sale of council houses. The process of privatisation, especially the preparation of nationalised industries for privatisation, was associated with marked improvements in performance, particularly in terms of "labour productivity.
Some of the privatised industries, including gas, water, and electricity, were "natural monopolies for which privatisation involved little increase in competition. The privatised industries that demonstrated improvement sometimes did so while still under state ownership. "British Steel Corporation, for instance, made great gains in profitability while still a nationalised industry under the government-appointed chairmanship of Ian MacGregor, who faced down trade-union opposition to close plants and reduce the workforce by half. Regulation was also significantly expanded to compensate for the loss of direct government control, with the foundation of regulatory bodies such as "Ofgas, "Oftel and the "National Rivers Authority. There was no clear pattern to the degree of competition, regulation, and performance among the privatised industries; in most cases privatisation benefited consumers in terms of lower prices and improved efficiency, but the results overall were "mixed".
Thatcher always resisted "rail privatisation and was said to have told "Transport Secretary "Nicholas Ridley: "Railway privatisation will be the Waterloo of this government. Please never mention the railways to me again." Shortly before her resignation, she accepted the arguments for privatising "British Rail, which her successor "John Major implemented in 1994. The "effect of privatising the railway is disputed, with large growth in passenger numbers and increasing efficiency matched by large public subsidy and concern about foreign companies running British railways.
The privatisation of public assets was combined with "financial deregulation in an attempt to fuel economic growth. "Geoffrey Howe abolished Britain's exchange controls in 1979, allowing more capital to be invested in foreign markets, and the "Big Bang of 1986 removed many restrictions on the "London Stock Exchange. The Thatcher government encouraged growth in the finance and service sectors to compensate for Britain's ailing manufacturing industry.
In 1980 and 1981, "Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and "Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners in Northern Ireland's "Maze Prison carried out "hunger strikes in an effort to regain the status of political prisoners that had been removed in 1976 by the preceding Labour government.
"Bobby Sands began the 1981 strike, saying that he would fast until death unless prison inmates won concessions over their living conditions. Thatcher refused to countenance a return to political status for the prisoners, declaring "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political", but nevertheless the UK government privately contacted republican leaders in a bid to bring the hunger strikes to an end. After the deaths of Sands and nine others, the strike ended. Some rights were restored to paramilitary prisoners, but not official recognition of political status. Violence in Northern Ireland escalated significantly during the hunger strikes; in 1982 "Sinn Féin politician "Danny Morrison described Thatcher as "the biggest bastard we have ever known".
Thatcher narrowly escaped injury in an IRA "assassination attempt at a Brighton hotel early in the morning on 12 October 1984. Five people were killed, including the wife of Cabinet Minister "John Wakeham. Thatcher was staying at the hotel to attend the Conservative Party conference, which she insisted should open as scheduled the following day. She delivered her speech as planned, a move that was widely supported across the political spectrum and enhanced her popularity with the public.
On 6 November 1981, Thatcher and Irish "Taoiseach "Garret FitzGerald had established the Anglo-Irish Inter-Governmental Council, a forum for meetings between the two governments. On 15 November 1985, Thatcher and FitzGerald signed the Hillsborough "Anglo-Irish Agreement, the first time a British government had given the Republic of Ireland an advisory role in the governance of Northern Ireland. In protest the "Ulster Says No movement attracted 100,000 to a rally in Belfast, "Ian Gow resigned as "Minister of State in the "HM Treasury, and all fifteen Unionist MPs resigned their parliamentary seats; only one was not returned in the subsequent "by-elections on 23 January 1986.
Thatcher supported an active climate protection policy and was instrumental in the creation of the "Environmental Protection Act 1990 and in founding the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the British "Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter. Thatcher helped to put climate change, acid rain and general pollution in the British mainstream in the early 1980s. Her speeches included one to Royal Society on 27 September 1988 and to the UN general assembly in November 1989. She did not visit the "Earth Summit 1992 and later became sceptical about "climate change policy.
Thatcher's first foreign policy crisis came with the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. She condemned the invasion, said it showed the bankruptcy of a "détente policy, and helped convince some British athletes to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. She gave weak support to US President "Jimmy Carter who tried to punish the USSR with economic sanctions. Britain's economic situation was precarious, and most of NATO was reluctant to cut trade ties. It was reported that her government secretly supplied "Saddam Hussein with military equipment from 1981.
Thatcher became closely aligned with the "Cold War policies of United States President "Ronald Reagan, based on their shared distrust of Communism, A more serious disagreement came in 1983 when Reagan did not consult with her on the "invasion of Grenada. During her first year as Prime Minister she supported "NATO's decision to deploy US nuclear "cruise and "Pershing II missiles in Western Europe and permitted the US to station more than 160 cruise missiles at "RAF Greenham Common, starting on 14 November 1983 and triggering mass protests by the "Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. She bought the "Trident nuclear missile submarine system from the US to replace Polaris, tripling the UK's nuclear forces at an eventual cost of more than £12 billion (at 1996–97 prices). Thatcher's preference for defence ties with the US was demonstrated in the "Westland affair of January 1986, when she acted with colleagues to allow the struggling helicopter manufacturer "Westland to refuse a takeover offer from the Italian firm "Agusta in favour of the management's preferred option, a link with "Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. Defence Secretary "Michael Heseltine, who had supported the Agusta deal, resigned in protest.
On 2 April 1982 the ruling "military junta in Argentina ordered the invasion of the British-controlled "Falkland Islands and "South Georgia, triggering the "Falklands War. The subsequent crisis was "a defining moment of her [Thatcher's] premiership". At the suggestion of "Harold Macmillan and "Robert Armstrong, she set up and chaired a small "War Cabinet (formally called ODSA, Overseas and Defence committee, South Atlantic) to take charge of the conduct of the war, which by 5–6 April had authorised and dispatched a naval task force to retake the islands. Argentina surrendered on 14 June and the operation was hailed a success, notwithstanding the deaths of 255 British servicemen and 3 Falkland Islanders. Argentinian deaths totalled 649, half of them after the nuclear-powered submarine "HMS Conqueror torpedoed and sank the cruiser "ARA General Belgrano on 2 May. Thatcher was criticised for the neglect of the Falklands' defence that led to the war, and especially by "Tam Dalyell in parliament for the decision to sink the General Belgrano, but overall she was considered a highly capable and committed war leader. The "Falklands factor", an economic recovery beginning early in 1982, and a bitterly divided opposition all contributed to Thatcher's second election victory in "1983. Thatcher often referred after the war to the "Falklands Spirit"; journalists "Max Hastings and "Simon Jenkins had suggested in 1983 that this reflected her preference for the streamlined decision-making of her War Cabinet over the painstaking deal-making of peacetime "cabinet government.
In September 1982 she visited China to discuss with "Deng Xiaoping the "sovereignty of Hong Kong after 1997. China was the first communist state Thatcher had visited and she was the first British prime minister to visit China. Throughout their meeting, she sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory. Deng stated that the PRC's sovereignty on Hong Kong was non-negotiable, but he was willing to settle the sovereignty issue with Britain through formal negotiations, and both governments promised to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity. After the two-year negotiations, Thatcher conceded to the PRC government and signed the "Sino-British Joint Declaration in Beijing in 1984, agreeing to hand over Hong Kong's sovereignty in 1997.
Although saying that she was in favour of "peaceful negotiations" to end "apartheid, Thatcher stood against the sanctions imposed on South Africa by the "Commonwealth and the "EC. She attempted to preserve trade with South Africa while persuading the government there to abandon apartheid. This included "[c]asting herself as President "Botha's candid friend", and inviting him to visit the UK in June 1984, in spite of the "inevitable demonstrations" against his government. Thatcher dismissed the "African National Congress (ANC) in October 1987 as "a typical terrorist organisation".
The Thatcher government supported the "Khmer Rouge keeping their seat in the UN after they were ousted from power in Cambodia by the "Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Although Thatcher denied it at the time, it was revealed in 1991 that from 1983 the "SAS was sent to secretly train the "non-Communist" members of the "CGDK to fight against the Vietnamese-backed "People's Republic of Kampuchea government. The so-called "non-communist members", the Sihanoukists and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front, "were dominated, diplomatically and militarily, by the Khmer Rouge". "Rae McGrath reported that the SAS had taught "the use of improvised explosive devices, booby traps and the manufacture and use of time-delay devices", in what he called "a criminally irresponsible and cynical policy".
Thatcher and her party had supported British membership of the EC in the "1975 national referendum, but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EC's approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation. Thatcher's antipathy towards "European integration became more pronounced during her premiership, particularly after her third election victory in 1987. During a 1988 speech in "Bruges she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community (EC), forerunner of the "European Union, for a federal structure and increased centralisation of decision making. She said, "We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels." For his part, "Enoch Powell commented that Thatcher's "Bruges Speech" marked, in his view, the 'end of the Community'.
Thatcher was firmly opposed to the UK's membership of the "Exchange Rate Mechanism, a precursor to European monetary union, believing that it would constrain the British economy, despite the urging of her "Chancellor of the Exchequer "Nigel Lawson and "Foreign Secretary "Geoffrey Howe, but she was persuaded by "John Major to join in October 1990, at what proved to be too high a rate.
In April 1986 Thatcher permitted US "F-111s to use "Royal Air Force bases for the "bombing of Libya in retaliation for the alleged "Libyan bombing of a Berlin discothèque, citing the right of self-defence under "Article 51 of the UN Charter.[nb 3] Polls suggested that fewer than one in three British citizens approved of Thatcher's decision. She was in the US on a state visit when Iraqi leader "Saddam Hussein invaded neighbouring "Kuwait in August 1990. During her talks with President "George H. W. Bush, who had succeeded Reagan in 1989, she recommended intervention, and put pressure on Bush to deploy troops in the Middle East to drive the "Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. Bush was apprehensive about the plan, prompting Thatcher to remark to him during a telephone conversation that "This was no time to go wobbly!" Thatcher's government provided military forces to the international coalition in the build-up to the "Gulf War, but she had resigned by the time hostilities began on 17 January 1991.
Thatcher was one of the first Western leaders to respond warmly to reformist Soviet leader "Mikhail Gorbachev. Following Reagan–Gorbachev summit meetings and reforms enacted by Gorbachev in the USSR, she declared in November 1988 that "We're not in a Cold War now", but rather in a "new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was". She went on a state visit to the Soviet Union in 1984 and met with Gorbachev and "Nikolai Ryzhkov, the "Chairman of the "Council of Ministers. Thatcher was initially opposed to "German reunification, telling Gorbachev that it "would lead to a change to postwar borders, and we cannot allow that because such a development would undermine the stability of the whole international situation and could endanger our security". She expressed concern that a united Germany would align itself more closely with the Soviet Union and move away from NATO.
Challenges to leadership and resignation
Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP "Sir Anthony Meyer in the 1989 leadership election. Of the 374 Conservative MPs eligible to vote, 314 voted for Thatcher and 33 for Meyer. Her supporters in the party viewed the result as a success, and rejected suggestions that there was discontent within the party.
During her premiership Thatcher had the second-lowest average approval rating (40%) of any post-war Prime Minister. Since the resignation of her Chancellor "Nigel Lawson in 1989, polls consistently showed that she was less popular than her party. A self-described conviction politician, Thatcher always insisted that she did not care about her poll ratings, pointing instead to her unbeaten election record.
Opinion polls in September 1990 reported that Labour had established a 14% lead over the Conservatives, and by November the Conservatives had been trailing Labour for 18 months. These ratings, together with Thatcher's combative personality and willingness to override colleagues' opinions, contributed to discontent within her party.
On 1 November 1990, "Geoffrey Howe, the last remaining member of Thatcher's original 1979 cabinet, resigned from his position as "Deputy Prime Minister over her refusal to agree to a timetable for Britain to join the "European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In his resignation speech on 13 November, Howe commented on Thatcher's European stance: "It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease only for them to find the moment that the first balls are bowled that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain." His resignation was fatal to Thatcher's premiership.
The next day, "Michael Heseltine mounted a challenge for the leadership of the Conservative Party. Opinion polls had indicated that he would give the Conservatives a national lead over Labour. Although Thatcher won the first ballot with 204 to 152 votes and 16 abstentions, Heseltine had attracted sufficient support to force a second ballot. Under party rules, Thatcher not only needed to win a majority, but her margin over Heseltine had to be equivalent to 15% of the 372 Conservative MPs in order to win the leadership election outright; with 54.8% against 40.9% for Heseltine, she came up four votes short. Thatcher initially stated that she intended to "fight on and fight to win" the second ballot, but consultation with her Cabinet persuaded her to withdraw. After visiting the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech, she left Downing Street in tears. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal.
The resignation surprised "Henry Kissinger and "Mikhail Gorbachev. Thatcher was replaced as Prime Minister and party leader by her Chancellor "John Major, who prevailed over Heseltine in the subsequent ballot. Major oversaw an upturn in Conservative support in the 17 months leading up to the "1992 general election and led the Conservatives to their fourth successive victory on 9 April 1992. Thatcher had favoured Major over Heseltine in the leadership contest, but her support for him weakened in later years.
Thatcher returned to the "backbenches as MP for Finchley for two years after leaving the premiership. She retired from the House at the 1992 election, aged 66, saying that leaving the Commons would allow her more freedom to speak her mind.
After leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties. She wrote two volumes of memoirs, "The Downing Street Years (1993) and "The Path to Power (1995). In 1991, she and her husband Denis moved to a house in "Chester Square, a residential garden square in central London's "Belgravia district. In 1992, Thatcher was hired by the tobacco company "Philip Morris as a "geopolitical consultant" for $250,000 per year and an annual contribution of $250,000 to her foundation. She also earned $50,000 for each speech she delivered.
In August 1992, Thatcher called for NATO to stop the Serbian assault on "Goražde and "Sarajevo to end "ethnic cleansing during the "Bosnian War. She compared the situation in Bosnia to "the worst excesses of the Nazis", and warned that there could be a "holocaust". She had been an advocate of "Croatian and "Slovenian independence. In a 1991 interview for "Croatian Radiotelevision, Thatcher had commented on the "Yugoslav Wars; she was critical of Western governments for not recognising the breakaway republics of Croatia and Slovenia as independent states and for not supplying them with arms after the Serbian-led "Yugoslav Army attacked.
She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the "Maastricht Treaty, describing it as "a treaty too far" and stated: "I could never have signed this treaty." She cited "A. V. Dicey when stating that as all three main parties were in favour of the treaty, the people should have their say in a referendum. Thatcher was honorary "Chancellor of the "College of William & Mary in Virginia from 1993 to 2000 and also of the "University of Buckingham from 1992 to 1999, the UK's first private university, which she had opened in 1975. After "Tony Blair's "election as Labour leader in 1994, Thatcher praised Blair in an interview as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since "Hugh Gaitskell. I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair. I think he genuinely has moved".
In 1998, Thatcher called for the release of former Chilean dictator "Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him "arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations. She cited the help he gave Britain during the Falklands War. In 1999, she visited him while he was under house arrest near London. Pinochet was released in March 2000 on medical grounds by Home Secretary "Jack Straw, without facing trial.
In the "2001 general election, Thatcher supported the Conservative general election campaign, as she had done in 1992 and 1997, and in the "Conservative leadership election shortly after, she supported "Iain Duncan Smith over "Kenneth Clarke. In 2002, Thatcher encouraged President "George W. Bush to aggressively tackle the "unfinished business" of "Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and praised "Tony Blair for his "strong, bold leadership" in standing with Bush in the "Iraq War. Later that year Thatcher was said to have regarded Blair and ""New Labour" as her greatest achievement.
She broached the same subject in her "Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, which was published that year and dedicated to "Ronald Reagan, writing that there would be no peace in the Middle East until "Saddam Hussein was toppled. Her book also said that Israel must trade land for peace, and that the European Union (EU) was "fundamentally unreformable", "a classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure". She argued that Britain should renegotiate its terms of membership or else leave the EU and join the "North American Free Trade Area.
Following several small strokes she was advised by her doctors not to engage in further public speaking. On 23 March 2002, she announced that on the advice of her doctors she would cancel all planned speaking engagements and accept no more.
Husband's death: 2003
"Sir Denis Thatcher died of "pancreatic cancer on 26 June 2003 and was cremated on 3 July. She had paid tribute to him in "The Downing Street Years:
Final years: 2003–2013
On 11 June 2004, Thatcher, against doctor's orders, attended the "state funeral service for Ronald Reagan. She delivered her eulogy via videotape; in view of her health, the message had been pre-recorded several months earlier. Thatcher flew to "California with the Reagan entourage, and attended the memorial service and interment ceremony for the president at the "Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. In early 2005 Thatcher criticised the way the decision to "invade Iraq had been made two years previously. Although she still supported the intervention to topple Saddam Hussein, she said that as a scientist, she would always look for "facts, evidence and proof", before committing the armed forces.
Thatcher celebrated her 80th birthday at the "Mandarin Oriental Hotel in "Hyde Park, London, on 13 October 2005; guests included the Queen, the "Duke of Edinburgh, "Princess Alexandra and Tony Blair. Geoffrey Howe, by then Lord Howe of Aberavon, was also present, and said of his former leader: "Her real triumph was to have transformed not just one party but two, so that when Labour did eventually return, the great bulk of Thatcherism was accepted as irreversible." According to a later article in The Daily Telegraph, Thatcher's daughter Carol first revealed that her mother had "dementia in 2005, saying that "Mum doesn't read much any more because of her memory loss ... It's pointless. She can't remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she reaches the end". She later recounted how she was first struck by her mother's dementia when in conversation Thatcher confused the Falklands and Yugoslav conflicts; she recalled the pain of needing to tell her mother repeatedly that Denis Thatcher was dead.
In 2006, Thatcher attended the official Washington, D.C. memorial service to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the 2001 "11 September attacks on the US. She was a guest of Vice President "Dick Cheney, and met Secretary of State "Condoleezza Rice during her visit. In February 2007, Thatcher became the first living British prime minister to be honoured with a "statue in the Houses of Parliament. The bronze statue stands opposite that of her political hero "Sir Winston Churchill's, and was unveiled on 21 February 2007 with Thatcher in attendance; she made a brief speech in the members' lobby of the House of Commons, responding: "I might have preferred iron – but bronze will do ... It won't rust."
Thatcher was a public supporter of the "Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.
After collapsing at a House of Lords dinner, Thatcher was admitted to "St Thomas' Hospital in central London on 7 March 2008 for tests. In 2009 she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm. Thatcher returned to 10 Downing Street in late November 2009 for the unveiling of an official portrait by artist "Richard Stone, an unusual honour for a living ex-Prime Minister. Stone had previously painted portraits of the Queen and the "Queen Mother.
On 4 July 2011, Thatcher was to attend a ceremony for the unveiling of a 10 ft (3.0 m) statue to former US President Ronald Reagan, outside the "American Embassy in London, but was unable to attend due to her frail health. On 31 July 2011, it was announced that her office in the House of Lords had been closed. Earlier that month, Thatcher had been named the most competent British prime minister of the past 30 years in an "Ipsos MORI poll.
Death and funeral: 2013
Baroness Thatcher died on 8 April 2013, at the age of 87, after suffering a stroke. She had been staying at a suite in "the Ritz Hotel in London since December 2012 after having difficulty with stairs at her "Chester Square home in "Belgravia. Reactions to the news of Thatcher's death were mixed in the UK, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain's greatest-ever peacetime Prime Minister to public celebrations of her death and expressions of personalised vitriol.
Details of Thatcher's funeral had been agreed with her in advance. She received a "ceremonial funeral, including full military honours, with a church service at "St Paul's Cathedral on 17 April. Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh attended the funeral, the second time in the Queen's reign that she had attended the funeral of any of "her former Prime Ministers (the first being that of "Winston Churchill in 1965).
After the service at St Paul's Cathedral, Thatcher's body was cremated at "Mortlake Crematorium, where her husband had been cremated. On 28 September a service for Thatcher was held in the All Saints Chapel of the "Royal Hospital Chelsea's Margaret Thatcher Infirmary. In a private ceremony Thatcher's ashes were interred in the grounds of the hospital, next to those of her husband.
|Part of "the politics series on|
Historian Stanislao Pugliese argues that Thatcher "looms as one of the major figures of 20th-century history" and notes that "few politicians generate the amount of admiration and indignation as does Margaret Thatcher. Fewer still have left as profound a mark on their country or the international scene".
Thatcherism represented a systematic, decisive rejection and reversal of the "post-war consensus, whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism, the welfare state, nationalised industry, and close regulation of the economy. The "National Health Service was a notable exception; she promised in 1982 that it was "safe in our hands". Influenced at the outset by "Keith Joseph, the term "Thatcherism" came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including "moral absolutism, "nationalism, "interest in the individual, and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.[nb 4]
Thatcher defined her own political philosophy in a major and controversial break with "one-nation conservatives like her predecessor Edward Heath, in her statement to Douglas Keay, published in "Woman's Own magazine in September 1987:
What is wrong with the deterioration? ["sic?] I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been given to understand "I have a problem, it is the Government's job to cope with it!" or "I have a problem, I will go and get a grant to cope with it!" "I am homeless, the Government must house me!" and so they are casting their problems on society and who is society? There is no such thing! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first. It is our duty to look after ourselves and then also to help look after our neighbour and life is a reciprocal business and people have got the entitlements too much in mind without the obligations.
The number of adults owning shares rose from 7 per cent to 25 per cent during her tenure, and more than a million families bought their council houses, giving an increase from 55 per cent to 67 per cent in owner occupiers from 1979 to 1990. The houses were sold at a discount of 33–55 per cent, leading to large profits for some new owners. Personal wealth rose by 80 per cent in real terms during the 1980s, mainly due to rising house prices and increased earnings. Shares in the privatised utilities were sold below their market value to ensure quick and wide sales, rather than maximise national income.
Thatcher's premiership was also marked by periods of high unemployment and social unrest, and many critics on the left of the political spectrum fault her economic policies for the unemployment level; many of the areas affected by high unemployment as well as her "monetarist economic policies remained blighted for decades by social problems such as drug abuse and family breakdown. Unemployment did not fall below its 1979 level during her tenure. The long-term effects on manufacturing remain contentious.
Speaking in Scotland in April 2009, before the 30th anniversary of her election as Prime Minister, Thatcher insisted she had no regrets and was right to introduce the "poll tax, and to withdraw subsidies from "outdated industries, whose markets were in terminal decline", subsidies that created "the culture of dependency, which had done such damage to Britain". Political economist "Susan Strange called the new financial growth model "casino capitalism", reflecting her view that speculation and financial trading were becoming more important to the economy than industry.
Critics on the left describe her as "divisive" and claim she promoted greed and selfishness. "Michael White, writing in the "New Statesman in February 2009, challenged the view that her reforms had brought a net benefit. Practically all specialists conclude that despite being the first female Prime Minister, Thatcher did "little to advance the political cause of women", either within her party or the government. Burns states that some British "feminists regarded her as "an enemy". June Purvis argues that while she had to struggle hard against the deep sexist prejudices of her day to rise to the top, she made no effort to ease the path for other women. There were some successful women (such as the "Spice Girls) who in the 1990s praised her as the pioneer of their ideology of "girl power. Thatcher did not regard "women's rights as especially important while in office, and although she suggested that women should be shortlisted by default for all public appointments, she also proposed that women with children ought to temporarily leave the work force.
Thatcher's stance on immigration in the late 1970s was regarded as part of a rising racist public discourse, which the film critic Martin Barker called ""new racism". Sociologists Mark Mitchell and Dave Russell responded that Thatcher had been badly misinterpreted. Race was not an important focus of Thatcherism. The leading racist force in Britain at the time was the "National Front (NF). She believed that it was winning over large numbers of Conservative voters with warnings against floods of immigrants. Her strategy was to destroy the NF attack by agreeing that many Britons did have serious fears that needed to be addressed. Her shadow home secretary (William Whitelaw) supported the campaign against the NF, but Thatcher as leader successfully opposed the Conservative contributions to the campaign. In January 1978 Thatcher launched an attack on immigration with the goal of attracting voters away from the NF and back to the Conservatives. In a speech in April 1978 she likened the NF to Communists. Thatcher's rhetoric was followed by the return of Conservative voters from the National Front. The NF peaked in 1978, and collapsed in 1979, never to recover; immigration was not a major political issue in the 1980s. The Conservative and Labour parties by the 1980s had similar positions on immigration policy. In her ten years as Prime Minister there were no policies passed or proposed by the government to restrict immigration. The Conservative government adopted Labour policy recommendations in passing the "British Nationality Act 1981. Following her success in taking votes from the NF, the left believed that she was just as racist as the NF. Muhammad Anwar said that Thatcher made no major speeches on race while she was Prime Minister.
Thatcher's "tenure of 11 years and 209 days as Prime Minister was the longest since "Lord Salisbury (13 years and 252 days, in three spells) and the longest continuous period in office since "Lord Liverpool (14 years and 305 days). She remains the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such, as the post was only officially given recognition in the "order of precedence in 1905, when "Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was in office. Having won her party three general elections, Thatcher also remains the most popular general election victor in British history, with over 40 million ballots casted for the winning Conservative Party under her leadership; her third election win was greeted as an "historic hat trick" by "The Independent.:0:35
Thatcher was voted the fourth-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by "MORI, and in 2002 was ranked number 16 in the BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons. In 1999, "Time magazine named Thatcher one of the "100 most important people of the 20th century. In 2016 she topped "BBC Radio 4's "Woman's Hour Power List of women judged to have had the biggest impact on women's lives over the past 70 years. She was named the most influential woman of the past 200 years in December 2015.
Shortly after Thatcher's death, Scottish First Minister "Alex Salmond argued that her policies had the "unintended consequence" of encouraging "Scottish devolution. "Lord Foulkes of Cumnock agreed on "Scotland Tonight that she had provided "the impetus" for devolution.
One of the earliest satires of Thatcher as Prime Minister involved Wells (as writer/performer), "Janet Brown (voicing Thatcher) and future Spitting Image producer "John Lloyd, who in 1979 were teamed up by producer "Martin Lewis for the satirical audio album The Iron Lady consisting of skits and songs satirising Thatcher's rise to power. The album was released in September 1979, four months after Thatcher became Prime Minister.
Thatcher was the subject or the inspiration for 1980s "protest songs. "Billy Bragg and "Paul Weller helped to form the "Red Wedge collective to support Labour in opposition to Thatcher. Popularly known as "Maggie" by supporters and opponents alike, the chant song ""Maggie Out" became a signature rallying cry among the left during the latter half of her premiership.
Thatcher was lampooned by satirist "John Wells in several media. Wells collaborated with "Richard Ingrams on the spoof ""Dear Bill" letters, which ran as a column in "Private Eye magazine; they were also published in book form and later became a West End stage revue named Anyone for Denis?, with Wells in the role of Denis Thatcher. The revue was followed by a "1982 TV special, directed by "Dick Clement, in which Thatcher was portrayed by "Angela Thorne. "Spitting Image, a British TV show, satirised Thatcher as a bully who ridiculed her own ministers. She was voiced by "Steve Nallon.
Thatcher has been depicted in many television programmes, documentaries, films and plays. She was played by "Patricia Hodge in "Ian Curteis's long unproduced "The Falklands Play (2002) and by "Andrea Riseborough in the TV film "The Long Walk to Finchley (2008). She is the title character in two films, portrayed by "Lindsay Duncan in "Margaret (2009) and by "Meryl Streep in "The Iron Lady (2011), in which she is depicted as suffering from "dementia or "Alzheimer's disease.
Titles, awards and honours
Thatcher became a "Privy Councillor (PC) upon becoming Secretary of State for Education and Science in 1970. She was the first woman entitled to full membership rights as an honorary member of the "Carlton Club on becoming leader of the Conservative Party in 1975, and became an "Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chemistry (FRIC) in 1979. She was "elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1983, which caused controversy among some of the then-existing Fellows.
Within two weeks of leaving office, in December 1990 Thatcher was appointed a "Member of the Order of Merit (OM), an order within the personal gift of the Queen. Her husband Denis was made a "Baronet at the same time.
In 1991, Thatcher was bestowed with the "Grand Cross of the Order of Good Hope by President "F. W. de Klerk, then the highest-existing South African award.
In the Falklands, "Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked every 10 January since 1992, commemorating her visit to the Islands in January 1983, six months after the end of the "Falklands War.
Thatcher became a "member of the House of Lords in 1992 with a "life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire. She was appointed a "Lady Companion of the Order of the Garter (LG) in 1995, the highest order of "chivalry in the United Kingdom for a woman. A patron of "The Heritage Foundation, the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom was established in her honour in 2005.
- "Cadby Hall
- "List of elected or appointed female heads of government
- "List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
- "Political history of the United Kingdom (1945–present)
- "Social history of the United Kingdom (1945–present)
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- Millership, Peter (1 November 1990). "Thatcher's Deputy Quits in Row over Europe". Reuters News.
- "Sir Geoffrey Howe savages Prime Minister over European stance in Resignation speech". The Times. 14 November 1990.
- Walters, Alan (5 December 1990). "Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation was fatal blow in Mrs Thatcher's political assassination". The Times.
- Marr (2007), p. 473.
- Lipsey, David (21 November 1990). "Poll swing followed downturn by Tories; Conservative Party leadership". The Times.
- "Margaret Thatcher profile". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "22 November 1990: Thatcher quits as prime minister". On this day 1950–2005. BBC. 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
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- Kettle, Martin (4 April 2005). "Pollsters taxed". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Major attacks 'warrior' Thatcher". BBC News. 3 October 1999. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
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- "30 June 1992: Thatcher takes her place in Lords". On this day 1950–2005. BBC. 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Thatcher Archive". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Barkham, Patrick (11 May 2005). "End of an era for Thatcher foundation". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Taylor, Matthew (9 April 2013). "Margaret Thatcher's estate still a family secret". "The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Harris, John (3 February 2007). "Into the void". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Thatcher, Margaret (6 August 1992). "Stop the Excuses. Help Bosnia Now". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- "TV Interview for HRT (Croatian radiotelevision) [urges international recognition of Croatia & Slovenia]". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 22 December 1991. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
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- "House of Lords European Communities (Amendment) Bill Speech". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 7 June 1993. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "House of Commons European Community debate". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 20 November 1991. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Chancellor's Robe". College of William and Mary. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Oulton, Charles (1 October 1992). "Thatcher installed as chancellor of private university". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
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- "Pinochet – Thatcher's ally". BBC News. 22 October 1998. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
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- "Pinochet set free". BBC News. 2 March 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Letter supporting Iain Duncan Smith for the Conservative leadership published in the Daily Telegraph". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 21 August 2001. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Thatcher, Margaret (11 February 2002). "Advice to a Superpower". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Harnden, Toby (11 December 2002). "Thatcher praises Blair for standing firm with US on Iraq". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- "Margaret Thatcher's legacy: Spilt milk, New Labour, and the Big Bang – she changed everything". "The Independent. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Glover, Peter C.; Economides, Michael J. (16 September 2010). Energy and Climate Wars: How Naive Politicians, Green Ideologues, and Media Elites are Undermining the Truth about Energy and Climate. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 20. "ISBN "1-4411-5307-1.
- Wintour, Patrick (18 March 2002). "Britain must quit EU, says Thatcher". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- "Statement from the office of the Rt Hon Baroness Thatcher LG OM FRS" (Press release). Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 22 March 2002. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
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- "Lady Thatcher bids Denis farewell". BBC News. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
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- "Private burial for Ronald Reagan". BBC News. 12 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
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- Burns, John F.; Cowell, Alan (10 April 2013). "Parliament Debates Thatcher Legacy, as Vitriol Flows Online and in Streets". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
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- Gamble (2009), p. 16.
- "Who has been UK's greatest post-war PM?". BBC News. 16 September 2008.
- White, Michael (26 February 2009). "The Making of Maggie". New Statesman.
Who was it who first removed the seat belts and airbags from the safe-but-boring Volvo that the West built after 1945? 'Her freer, more promiscuous version of capitalism' in "Hugo Young's phrase is reaping a darker harvest.
- Evans (2004), p. 25.
- Burns (2009), p. 234.
- June Purvis, "What Was Margaret Thatcher's Legacy for Women?" Women's History Review (2013) 22#6 pp 1014–1018.
- Amanda Evans and Tara Brabazon, "I'll never be your woman: the Spice Girls and new flavours of feminism." Social Alternatives 17#2 (1998): 39–42.
- Gelb, Joyce (1989). Feminism and Politics: A Comparative Perspective. University of California Press. pp. 58–59. "ISBN "978-0-520-07184-1.
- Witte, Rob (2014). Racist Violence and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Britain, France and the Netherlands. Routledge. p. 54. "ISBN "978-1-317-88919-9.
- Chin (2009), p. 92.
- Barker, Martin (1981). New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe. Junction Books. "ISBN "978-0-86245-031-1.
- Mark Mitchell and Dave Russell, "Race, the new right and state policy in Britain." Immigrants & Minorities 8#1–2 (1989): 175–190.
- Witte, Rob (2014). Racist Violence and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Britain, France and the Netherlands. Routledge. p. 53. "ISBN "978-1-317-88919-9.
- Iain Dale (2012). The Margaret Thatcher Book of Quotations. Biteback. p. 63.
- Ward, Paul (2004). Britishness Since 1870. Psychology Press. p. 128.
- Richard Vinen, Thatcher's Britain: the Politics and Social Upheaval of the 1980s (2009) pp 227, 279.
- Hansen, Randall (2000). Citizenship and Immigration in Postwar Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 207–8.
- Lester D. Friedman (2006). Fires Were Started: British Cinema and Thatcherism. p. 13.
- Muhammad Anwar, "The participation of ethnic minorities in British politics." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27.3 (2001): 533–549.
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- Quittner, Joshua (14 April 1999). "Margaret Thatcher – Time 100 People of the Century". Time.
- "Woman's Hour – The 7 women who've changed women's lives – BBC Radio 4". BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
Topping the 2016 Power List – in our only ranked position – is the UK's first female Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
- "Margaret Thatcher tops Woman's Hour Power List". BBC News. 14 December 2016.
- Boult, Adam (1 December 2015). "Margaret Thatcher voted most influential woman of past 200 years". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "First Minister: Her policies made Scots believe that devolution was essential". The Herald. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Scotland Tonight". STV. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- ""I'm There" song reissue mocks Margaret Thatcher on day of funeral". USA Today. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Lewis, Randy (16 April 2013). "Album skewering Margaret Thatcher to be reissued on April 17". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Heard, Chris (4 May 2004). "Rocking against Thatcher". BBC News.
- "Sergeant, John (1 August 2005). "8". Maggie: Her Fatal Legacy. Pan Publishing. "ISBN "978-0330411851.
- "Barr, Damien (25 April 2013). Maggie and Me. "A & C Black. pp. 178, 235. "ISBN "978-1408838068.
- "Anyone for Denis?". British Film Institute. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Marr (2007), p. 417.
- Rowley, Tom (9 April 2013). "'I was Maggie Thatcher's voice in Spitting Image – and my Tory gran hated it'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Image of Meryl Streep as Margaret Thatcher unveiled". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Steinberg, Julie (22 December 2011). "'The Iron Lady' Draws Fire For Depicting Margaret Thatcher With Alzheimer's". Speakeasy blog. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Gay, O.; Rees, A. (2005). "The Privy Council" (PDF). House of Commons Library Standard Note. SN/PC/2708. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
- Ungoed-Thomas, Jon (8 February 1998). "Carlton Club to vote on women". The Sunday Times.
- "Speech to the Chemical Society and the Royal Institute of Chemistry (honorary fellowship)". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
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- "Speech on receiving the Order of Good Hope from President De Klerk". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- "Falklands to make 10 January Thatcher Day – Newspaper", Reuters News. 6 January 1992.
- "Margaret Thatcher in Falkland Islands after Argentina's surrender, 1983". Rarehistoricalphotos.com. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
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- "Jim DeMint on Lady Thatcher". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (13 September 2005). "Honoring the Iron Lady". The Washington Times.
- "Aitken, Jonathan (2013). Margaret Thatcher: Power and Personality. A&C Black. "ISBN "978-1-4088-3186-1.
- Aldous, Richard (2012). Reagan and Thatcher: The Difficult Relationship. W. W. Norton. "ISBN "978-0-393-08315-6.
- Beckett, Andy (2010). When the Lights Went Out; Britain in the Seventies. Faber & Faber. "ISBN "978-0-571-22137-0.
- Burns, William E. (2009). A Brief History of Great Britain. Facts on File. "ISBN "978-0-8160-7728-1.
- Beckett, Clare (2006). Margaret Thatcher. Haus Publishing. "ISBN "978-1-904950-71-4.
- Blundell, John (2008). Margaret Thatcher: A Portrait of the Iron Lady. Algora. "ISBN "978-0-87586-630-7.
- Butler, David; Butler, Gareth (1994). British Political Facts 1900–1994 (7th ed.). Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-333-52616-3.
- Campbell, John (2000). Margaret Thatcher; Volume One: The Grocer's Daughter. Pimlico. "ISBN "0-7126-7418-7.
- Campbell, John (2003). Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady. Pimlico. "ISBN "0-7126-6781-4.
- Campbell, J. (2011). Margaret Thatcher Volume Two: The Iron Lady. Random House.
- Childs, David (2006). Britain since 1945: a political history (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis. "ISBN "978-0-415-39326-3.
- Chin, Rita C-K (2009). After the Nazi racial state: difference and democracy in Germany and Europe. "ISBN "978-0-472-11686-7.
- Cochrane, Feargal (2001). Unionist Politics and the Politics of Unionism Since the Anglo-Irish Agreement. Cork University Press. "ISBN "1-85918-259-3.
- English, Richard (2005). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-517753-4.
- Evans, Eric (2004). Thatcher and Thatcherism (The Making of the Contemporary World) (2nd ed.). Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-27013-7.
- Erickson, Carolly (2005). Lilibet: An Intimate Portrait of Elizabeth II. Macmillan. "ISBN "0-312-33938-0.
- Feigenbaum, Harvey; Henig, Jeffrey; Hamnett, Chris (1998). Shrinking the State: The Political Underpinnings of Privatization. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-63918-7.
- Floud, Roderick; Johnson, Paul (2004). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-52738-5.
- Foley, Michael (2002). John Major, Tony Blair and a Conflict of Leadership: Collision Course. "Manchester University Press. "ISBN "0-7190-6317-5.
- Gamble, Andrew (2009). The Spectre at the Feast: Capitalist Crisis and the Politics of Recession. Palgrave Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-230-23075-0.
- Glyn, Andrew (1992). "The 'Productivity Miracle', Profits and Investment'". In Michie, Jonathan. The Economic Legacy, 1979–1992. Academic Press. pp. 77–87. "ISBN "978-0-12-494060-4.
- Görtemaker, Manfred (2006). Britain and Germany in the Twentieth Century. Berg Publishers. "ISBN "1-85973-842-7.
- "Hastings, Max; "Jenkins, Simon (1983). Battle for the Falklands. Norton. "ISBN "0-393-30198-2.
- "Howe, Geoffrey (1994). Conflict of Loyalty. Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-333-59283-0.
- "Jackling, Roger (2005). "The Impact of the Falklands Conflict on Defence Policy". In Badsey, Stephen; Grove, Mark; Havers, Rob. The Falklands Conflict Twenty Years On: Lessons for the Future (Sandhurst Conference Series). Routledge. "ISBN "978-0-415-35030-3.
- James, Clive (1977). "Visions Before Midnight. "ISBN "978-0-224-01386-4.
- Jones, Bill; Kavanagh, Dennis; Moran, Michael (2007). "Media organisations and the political process". Politics UK (6 ed.). Longman. "ISBN "978-1-4058-2411-8.
- Khabaz, D. V. (2007). Manufactured Schema: Thatcher, the Miners and the Culture Industry. Matador. "ISBN "978-1-905237-61-6.
- Lacey, Robert (2003). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-7432-3669-6.
- "Lawson, Nigel (1992). The View from No. 11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical. Bantam. "ISBN "978-0-593-02218-4.
- McAleese, Dermott (2004). Economics For Business: Competition, Macro-stability & Globalisation (3rd ed.). Financial Times Management. "ISBN "978-0-273-68398-8.
- "Marr, Andrew (2007). "A History of Modern Britain. Pan. "ISBN "978-0-330-43983-1.
- Moloney, Ed (2002). A Secret History of the IRA. W. W. Norton & Company. "ISBN "0-393-32502-4.
- Reitan, Earl Aaron (2003). The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001. Rowman & Littlefield. "ISBN "0-7425-2203-2.
- Richards, Howard (2004). Understanding the Global Economy. Peace Education Books. "ISBN "0-9748961-0-1.
- "Seldon, Anthony; Collings, Daniel (2000). Britain Under Thatcher. Longman. "ISBN "978-0-582-31714-7.
- Senden, Linda (2004). Soft Law in European Community Law. Hart Publishing. "ISBN "1-84113-432-5.
- Seward, Ingrid (2001). The Queen and Di: The Untold Story. Arcade Publishing. "ISBN "1-55970-561-2.
- Smith, Gordon (1989). Battles of the Falklands War. I. Allan. "ISBN "978-0-7110-1792-4.
- Stewart, Graham. Bang! A History of Britain in the 1980s (2013) excerpt and text search
- Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins. "ISBN "0-00-255354-6.
- Thatcher, Margaret (1995). The Path to Power. HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-00-638753-4.
- Thornton, Richard C. (2006). The Reagan Revolution II: Rebuilding the Western Alliance. Trafford Publishing. "ISBN "978-1-4120-1356-7.
- Toye, Richard; Gottlieb, Julie V. (2005). Making Reputations: Power, Persuasion and the Individual in Modern British Politics. I. B. Tauris. "ISBN "1-85043-841-2.
- Veljanovski, Cento (1990). "The Political Economy of Regulation". In Dunleavy, Patrick; Gamble, Andrew; Peele, Gillian. Developments in British Politics 3. Macmillan.
- Wapshott, Nicholas (2007). Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher: A Political Marriage. Sentinel. "ISBN "1-59523-047-5.
- Wheeler, Tony (2004). The Falklands and South Georgia Island. Lonely Planet. "ISBN "1-74059-643-9.
- Williams, Andy (1998). UK Government & Politics. Heinemann. "ISBN "978-0-435-33158-0.
- "Abse, Leo (1989). Margaret, Daughter of Beatrice. Jonathan Cape. "ISBN "978-0-224-02726-7.
- Campbell, John. (2011) Margaret Thatcher: Volume One: The Grocer's Daughter.
- Campbell, John. (2011) Margaret Thatcher Volume Two: The Iron Lady.
- "Campbell, John (2011). The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher, from Grocer's Daughter to Prime Minister. Penguin Group US. "ISBN "978-1-101-55866-9. (single volume abridged edition)
- "Cannadine, David (2017). "Thatcher, Margaret Hilda". "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. "doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/106415. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Dale, Iain, ed. (2000). Memories of Maggie. Politicos. "ISBN "978-1-902301-51-8.
- "Moore, Charles (2013). Margaret Thatcher: From Grantham to the Falklands. "ISBN "978-1-1018-7383-0.
- Pugh, Peter; Flint, Carl (1997). Thatcher for Beginners. Icon Books. "ISBN "978-1-874166-53-5.
- "Skard, Torild (2014). "Margaret Thatcher". Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. "Policy Press. "ISBN "978-1-4473-1578-0.
- Young, Hugo (1993). One of Us: Life of Margaret Thatcher (2nd ed.). Pan Books. "ISBN "978-0-330-32841-8.
- "Butler, David; "Adonis, Andrew; "Travers, Tony (1994). Failure in British government: the politics of the poll tax. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "0-19-827876-4.
- Cowley, Philip; Bailey, Matthew. "Peasants' Uprising or Religious War? Re-examining the 1975 Conservative Leadership Contest," British Journal of Political Science (2000) 30#4 pp. 599–630 in JSTOR
- "Jenkins, Peter (1987). Mrs. Thatcher's Revolution: Ending of the Socialist Era. Jonathan Cape. "ISBN "978-0-674-58833-2.
- Jones, Bill (1999). Political Issues in Britain Today. Manchester University Press. "ISBN "0-7190-5432-X.
- Letwin, Shirley Robin (1992). The Anatomy of Thatcherism. Flamingo. "ISBN "978-0-00-686243-7.
- Towers, Brian. "Running the gauntlet: British trade unions under Thatcher, 1979–1988." Industrial & Labor Relations Review 42.2 (1989): 163–188.
- Young, Hugo (1986). The Thatcher Phenomenon. BBC. "ISBN "978-0-563-20473-2.
- Byrd, Peter, ed. British foreign policy under Thatcher (Philip Allan, 1988).
- Gibran, Daniel K. The Falklands War: Britain Versus the Past in the South Atlantic (McFarland, 1997).
- Ionescu, Ghita. Leadership in an Interdependent World: The Statesmanship of Adenauer, De Gaulle, Thatcher, Reagan & Gorbachev (1991) 336pp
- Lahey, Daniel James. "The Thatcher government's response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979–1980." Cold War History 13#1 (2013): 21–42.
- Sharp, Paul, ed. Thatcher's Diplomacy: The Revival of British Foreign Policy (St. Martin's Press, 1997).
- Sharp, Paul. "Thatcher's Wholly British Foreign Policy." Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs 35#3 (1991): 395–411.
- Turner, Michael J. Britain's international role, 1970–1991 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
- Bevir, Mark, and Rod A.W. Rhodes. "Narratives of 'Thatcherism'." West European Politics 21.1 (1998): 97–119. online
- Garnett, Mark. Banality in Politics: Margaret Thatcher and the Biographers Political Studies Review (2007) 5#2 pp 172–182.
- Harrison, Brian. "Margaret Thatcher's Impact on Historical Writing", in William Roger Louis, ed., Irrepressible Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain (London, 2013), 307–321.
- Jackson, Ben and Robert Saunders, eds. Making Thatchers Britain (2012) excerpt
- Kowol, Kit. "Renaissance on the Right? New Directions in the History of the Post-War Conservative Party." Twentieth Century British History 27#2 (2016): 290–304.
- Marquand, David. "The literature on Thatcher." Contemporary British History 1.3 (1987): 30–31. online
- Porter, Bernard. "'Though Not an Historian Myself ...' Margaret Thatcher and the Historians." Twentieth Century British History 5#2 (1994): 246–256.
- Turner, John. "The British Conservative Party in the Twentieth Century: from Beginning to End?." Contemporary European History 8#2 (1999): 275–287.
Books by Thatcher
- Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins. "ISBN 0-00-255354-6.
- Thatcher, Margaret (1995). The Path to Power. HarperCollins. "ISBN 978-0-00-638753-4.
- Thatcher, Margaret; "Harris, Robin (1997). Harris, Robin Harris, ed. The Collected Speeches of Margaret Thatcher. HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-06-018734-7.
- Thatcher, Margaret (2002). Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-06-019973-9.
- "Heseltine, Michael (2001). Life in the Jungle: My Autobiography. Coronet. "ISBN "978-0-340-73916-7.
- Howe, Geoffrey. Conflict of Loyalty (1995), his Memoirs, with 500pp on the Thatcher years
- Hurd, Douglas. Memoirs (2003).
- "Major, John (1999). The Autobiography. HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-00-653074-9.
- "Parkinson, Cecil (1992). Right at the Centre. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. "ISBN "978-0-297-81262-3.
- "Ridley, Nicholas (1991). 'My Style of Government': The Thatcher Years. Hutchinson. "ISBN "978-0-09-175051-0.
- "Tebbit, Norman (1988). Upwardly Mobile. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. "ISBN "978-0-297-79427-1.
|"Library resources about
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- Margaret Thatcher Foundation
- Margaret Thatcher and the Privatization Movement from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher
- Margaret Thatcher on the Downing Street website
- Works by or about Margaret Thatcher at "Internet Archive
- Works by Margaret Thatcher at "LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- "Archival material relating to Margaret Thatcher". "UK National Archives.
- Appearances on "C-SPAN
- Booknotes interview with Thatcher on The Downing Street Years, 5 December 1993.
- Margaret Thatcher at the "Internet Movie Database
- "Margaret Thatcher collected news and commentary". "The Guardian.
- "Margaret Thatcher collected news and commentary". "The New York Times.
- Actresses (and actors) who have portrayed Thatcher. "The Telegraph (London).
- Portraits of Margaret Hilda Thatcher (née Roberts), Baroness Thatcher at the "National Portrait Gallery, London
- Obituary: Margaret Thatcher. "BBC News.
- PREM – Records of the Prime Minister's Office, digitised files from the Prime Minister's office, covering from the 1979 general election to December 1979
- Val Meets... Margaret Thatcher on "BBC iPlayer (7 March 1973), the programme in which she stated there would not be "a woman Prime Minister in [her] lifetime"