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"City of regional significance
""Old Fire Tower, Mariupol City Theater, Skyline
Old Fire Tower, Mariupol City Theater, Skyline
""Flag of Mariupol
""Coat of arms of Mariupol
Coat of arms
""Mariupol is located in Donetsk Oblast
Mariupol shown within Ukraine
""Mariupol is located in Ukraine
Mariupol (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 47°5′45″N 37°32′58″E / 47.09583°N 37.54944°E / 47.09583; 37.54944"Coordinates: 47°5′45″N 37°32′58″E / 47.09583°N 37.54944°E / 47.09583; 37.54944
"Country  "Ukraine
"Oblast  "Donetsk Oblast
"Raion Mariupol City Municipality
Founded 1778
 • "Mayor Vadym Boychenko
 • Total 244 km2 (94 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 461,810
 • Density 2,058/km2 (5,330/sq mi)
"Postal code 87500—87590
"Area code(s) +380 629
"Climate "Dfa
Website Official site of the city council
First Gymnasium founded 1876
Former Continental Hotel
Private house, early 1900s

Mariupol ("Ukrainian: Маріу́поль "[mɑrʲiˈupɔlʲ], also "Ukrainian: Маріюпіль, "translit. Mariiupil "[mɑrʲiˈjupilʲ];[1] "Russian: Мариу́поль "[mərʲɪˈupəlʲ]; "Greek: Μαριούπολη, "translit. Marioupoli) is a "city of regional significance in south eastern "Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the "Sea of Azov at the mouth of the "Kalmius river, in the "Pryazovia region. It is the tenth-largest city in Ukraine,[2] and the second largest in the "Donetsk Oblast[3] with a population of 449,498 (2017 est.)[4]. The city is largely and traditionally "Russophone, while ethnically the population is divided about evenly between Russians and Ukrainians. Mariupol was founded on the site of a former "Cossack encampment named "Kalmius[5] and granted city rights in 1778. It has been a centre for the grain trade, metallurgy, and heavy engineering, including the "Illich Steel & Iron Works and "Azovstal. Mariupol has played a key role in the "industrialization of Ukraine.

Due to the Soviet authorities frequently renaming cities after Communist leaders,[6] the city was known as Zhdanov, after the Soviet functionary "Andrei Zhdanov, between 1948 and 1989. Today, Mariupol remains a centre for industry, as well as higher education and business.

Following the "Russian invasion of Ukraine and capture of "Donetsk city by pro-Russian insurgents associated with the "Donetsk People's Republic in 2014, Mariupol was made the provisional "administrative centre of the "Donetsk Oblast. The city was secured on June 13, 2014 by Ukrainian troops, and has been under attack several times since.




During the late "Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within a broader region that was largely devastated and depopulated by the intense conflict among the surrounding peoples, including the "Crimean Tatars, the "Nogai Horde, the "Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and "Muscovy. By the middle of the 15th century much of the region north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea was annexed to the "Crimean Khanate and became a dependency of the "Ottoman Empire. East of the "Dnieper river marked a desolate steppe, stretching to the sea of "Azov, where the lack of water made early settlement precarious.[7] Moreover, lying near the "Kalmius trail, the region was subject to frequent raids and plundering by the Tatar tribes which prevented the area's permanent settlement, keeping it sparsely populated or an entirely uninhabited no-man's land under Tatar rule. Hence it was known as the "Wild Fields or the 'Deserted Plains ' (Lat. Campi Deserti).[8][9]

In this region of the Eurasian steppes, the "Cossacks emerged as a distinct people in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Below the "Dnieper Rapids were the "Zaporozhian Cossacks, composed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, and highly mobile groups that practised both "pastoral and "nomadic living. The Cossacks would regularly penetrate the steppe for fishing and hunting, as well as for migratory farming and herding of livestock. Their independence from governmental and landowner authority attracted and enlisted large numbers of fugitive peasants and serfs fleeing the "Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and "Muscovy.

The isolation of the region was increased further by the "Treaty of Constantinople (1700), which provided that there should be no settlements or fortifications on the coast of the Azov Sea to the mouth of the "Mius River. Moreover, in 1709 in response to a Cossack alliance with Sweden against Russia, Tsar "Peter the Great ordered the destruction of the Zaporozhian central stockade ("Sich) and their complete expulsion from the area, without allowance for their return.[10] In 1733, however, Russia was preparing for a "new military campaign against the "Ottoman Empire so it allowed the return of the Zaporozhians, although the territory officially belonged to Turkey. Under the terms of the Agreement of Lubny of 1734, the Zaporozhians regained all their former lands and, in return, they were to serve in the Russian army during wartime. They were also permitted to build a new stockade on the "Dnieper River (called New Sich), though the terms prohibited them from erecting fortifications, allowing only for living quarters (kureni).[11]

Upon their return, the Zaporozhian population in these lands was extremely sparse, and in an effort to establish a measure of control, they introduced a structure of districts (palankas).[12] The nearest to modern Mariupol was the Kalmiusskya district, but its border did not extend to the mouth of the Kalmius River,[13] although this area had been part of its migratory territory. After 1736, the Zaporozhian and the "Don Cossacks (whose capital was at nearby "Novoazovsk) came into conflict over the area, resulting in Tsarina "Elizabeth issuing a decree in 1746 marking the "Kalmius River as the divide between the two Cossack hosts.[14]

Sometime after 1738,[15][16] the treaties of "Belgrade (1739), "Niš (1739), and the Russian-Turkish convention of 1741,[17] and likely concurrent or following the land survey of 1743–1746 (resulting in the demarcation decree of 1746), the Zaporzhian Cassocks established a military outpost on "the high promontory right [west] bank of the Kalmius river."[18] Though the details of its construction and history are obscure, excavations revealed Cossack and other artifacts within the enclosure of approximately 120m by 120m.[19] The outpost was likely a modest structure in that it lay within the territory of the Ottoman Empire, and the constructions of fortifications on the Sea of Azov were prohibited by the Treaty of Niš.

The "last Tatar raid, launched in 1769, covered a vast area, overrunning the New Russia province with a huge army in severe winter weather.[20][21] It destroyed the Kalmius fortifications and burned all the Cassock winter lodgings.[18] In 1770, the Russian government, not waiting for the end of the "war with Turkey, moved its border with the Crimean Khanate southwest by more than two hundred kilometres, initiating the Dnieper fortified line (running from the today's locations of Zaporozhye to Novopetrovka),[22] thereby laying claim to the region, including the site of the future Mariupol, from the Ottoman Empire.

Following the victory of the Russian forces in the "Russo-Turkish War (1768–74), the "Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca eliminated the endemic threat from the Crimea and thereby terminated the historical justification of the Ukraine as a borderland (okraina).[23][24] In 1775, "Zaporizhia was incorporated into the "New Russia Governorate, and part of the land claimed by the establishment of the Dnieper fortified line (including modern Mariupol) was incorporated in the newly reestablished "Azov Governorate.


After the "Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), the governor of the "Azov Governorate, Vasily A. Chertkov, reported to "Grigory Potemkin on 23 February 1776 that at this location existed the ruins of ancient domakha (homes), and in 1788 he planned the new town of Pavlovsk.[25] However, on 29 September 1779, the city of Marianοpol ("Greek: Μαριανόπολη) of Kalmius County was founded on the site. For the Russian authorities the city was named after the Russian Empress "Maria Feodorovna; but the city was named "de facto after the Greek settlement of Mariampol, a suburb of "Bakhchisaray. The name was derived from the "Hodegetria icon of the Holy "Theotokos and Virgin Mary.[26][27] Subsequently, in 1780 Russian authorities forcefully relocated great number of Orthodox Greeks from Crimea to the Mariupol area.[28]

In 1782 it was an administrative seat of the "county in the "Azov Governorate of the "Russian Empire, with a population of 2,948 inhabitants. In the early 19th century the customs house, a church-parish school, the port authorities building, a county religious school, and two privately founded girls' schools appeared in the city. In the 1850s the population grew to 4,600 and the city had 120 shops and 15 wine cellars.

After construction of the railway line from "Yuzovka in 1882, much of the wheat grown in the "Yekaterinoslav Governorate and coal from the "Donets Basin were exported via the port of Mariupol (the second largest after "Odessa in the South Russian Empire), which served as a key funding source for opening a hospital, public library, electric power station and urban water supply system.

Mariupol remained a local trading centre until 1898, when the Belgian subsidiary SA Providence Russe opened a steelworks in Sartana near Mariupol (now the "Ilyich Steel & Iron Works). The company incurred heavy losses and by 1902 went into bankruptcy, owing 6 million francs to the Providence company and needing to be re-financed by the "Banque de l'Union Parisienne.[29] The mills brought cultural diversity to Mariupol as immigrants,mostly peasants from all over the empire, moved to the city looking for a job and a better life. The number of workers employed increased to 5,400 persons.

In 1914 the population of Mariupol reached 58,000. However, the period from 1917 onwards saw a continuous decline in population and industry due to the "February Revolution and the "Civil War. In 1933 a new steelworks (Azovstal) was built along the Kalmius river.

During "World War II, the city was occupied by "Nazi Germany from 8 October 1941 to 10 September 1943. During this time there was tremendous damage to the city and many people were killed. The Jewish population was wiped out by two operations specifically aimed at murdering them.

In 1948 Mariupol was renamed Zhdanov after Soviet politician "Andrei Zhdanov who had been born there in 1896, but with the collapse of the USSR, the name reverted to Mariupol in 1989.

Current conflict[edit]

Following the "2014 Ukrainian revolution, "pro-Russian and anti-revolution protests erupted across eastern Ukraine. This unrest later evolved into "a war between the Ukrainian government and the separatist forces of the "Donetsk People's Republic (DPR). In May of that year, a battle between the two sides broke out in Mariupol after it briefly came under DPR control.[30] The city was eventually recaptured by government forces, and on 13 June Mariupol was proclaimed the temporary capital of "Donetsk Oblast until the city of "Donetsk could be recaptured.[31]

The city remained peaceful until the end of August, when "an offensive by pro-Russian forces from the east came within 16 kilometres (10 mi) of it.[32] A "ceasefire between the two sides was agreed to on 5 September, halting that offensive. Despite this ceasefire, minor skirmishes continued on the outskirts of Mariupol in the following months. To protect the city, government forces established three defence lines on its outskirts, deployed heavy artillery, and large amounts of army and national guard troops.[32]

"An assault on Mariupol was launched on 24 January 2015 by the "Donetsk People's Republic rebel forces. The city was defended by the "Ukrainian government forces.

According to "OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine, on January 24 Grad rockets fired from positions occupied by rebel forces dropped on populated areas of Mariupol killing 30 people. "...the Grad rockets originated from a northeasterly direction... and the Uragan rockets from an easterly direction, both controlled by the 'Donetsk People's Republic'..." [33]

On 1 January 2017 "Russian News Agency TASS reported that the separatists claimed that Ukrainian forces had launched a massive "artillery barrage at the "Donetsk People's Republic" amid the trip of Ukrainian President "Petro Poroshenko and US Senator "John McCain to Mariupol.[34]

Geography and ecology[edit]


A view of Khomutov Steppe landscape in May

Mariupol is located to the south of the "Donetsk Oblast, on the coast of "Sea of Azov and at the mouth of "Kalmius River. It is located in an area of Azov Lowland that is extension of the Ukrainian "Black Sea Lowland. To the east of Mariupol is located the Khomutov Steppe which is also part of the Azov Lowland located on the border with the "Russian Federation.

The city occupies an area of 166.0² (64 mi²) [with suburbs, i.e., the territories subordinated to the Mariupol city council, 244.0 km² (94.2 mi²)]. The downtown area is 106.0 km² (40.9 mi²), while the area of parks and gardens is 80.6 km² (31.1 mi²).

The city is mainly built on land that is made of solonetzic (sodium enriched) "chernozems, with a significant amount of underground subsoil water that frequently leads to landslides.


Mariupol has a "humid continental climate ("Köppen climate classification Dfa) with warm summers and cold winters. The average annual precipitation is 511 millimetres (20 in). Agroclimatic conditions allow the cultivation in the suburbs of Mariupol thermophilic agricultural crops having long vegetative periods (sunflower, melons, grapes, etc.). However water resources in the region are insufficient, and consequently ponds and water basins are used for the needs of the population and industry.

In the winter, the wind direction is mainly east, while in the summer, the wind is from the north.

Climate data for Mariupol (1955–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.0
Average high °C (°F) −0.2
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
Average low °C (°F) −4.9
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 35.1
Average precipitation days 17.7 14.9 15.4 10.4 8.1 8.0 5.2 4.1 6.9 9.5 12.7 15.9 128.8
Average "relative humidity (%) 89.0 86.2 83.0 73.9 70.0 67.5 65.6 61.2 67.4 79.0 86.7 88.9 76.5
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net (temperatures and record high and low)[35]
Source #2: Climatebase.ru (precipitation and humidity)[36]


Air pollution levels in Mariupol

Mariupol leads "Ukraine in the volume of emissions of harmful substances by industrial enterprises. Recently, the city's leading enterprises have begun to address the ecological problems. Thus, over the last 15 years industrial emissions have fallen nearly in half.

Due to stable production by the majority of the large industrial enterprises, the city constantly experiences environmental problems. At the end of the 1970s, Zhdanov (Mariupol) ranked third in the "USSR (after "Novokuznetsk and "Magnitogorsk) in the quantity of industrial emissions. In 1989, including all enterprises, the city had 5,215 sources of atmospheric pollution producing 752,900 tons of harmful substances a year (about 98% from metallurgical enterprises and "Markokhim"). Even given some easing of the maximum-permissible concentrations (maximum concentration limit) in the state's industrial activity (in the mid-1990s), many pollution limits were still exceeded:

In the residential areas adjoining the industrial giants, concentrations of benzapiren reach 6–9 times the maximum concentration limits; fluoric hydrogen, ammonia, and formaldehyde reach 2–3 to 5 times the maximum concentration limits; dust and oxides of carbon, and "hydrogen sulphide are 6-8 times the maximum concentration limits; and dioxides of nitrogen are 2-3 times the maximum concentration limits. The maximum concentration limit has been exceed on phenol by 17x, and on benzapiren by 13-14x.

Ill-considered arrangements of the construction platforms of Azovstal and Markokhim (an economy in transport charges was assumed, both during construction in the 1930s and during the subsequent operation) have led to extensive wind-borne emissions into the central areas of Mariupol. Wind intensity and geographical "flatness" offer relief from the accumulation of long-standing pollutants, somewhat easing the problem.

The nearby "Sea of Azov is in distress. The catch of fish in the area has been reduced by orders of magnitude over the last 30–40 years.

The environmental protection activity of the leading industrial enterprises in Mariupol costs millions of hrivnas, but it appears to have little effect on the city's long-standing environmental problems.


City administration and local politics[edit]

The Mariupol electorate traditionally supports "left wing (socialist and communist) and pro-Russian political parties. At the turn of the 21st century the "Party of Regions numerically prevailed in the City Council followed by the "Socialist Party of Ukraine.

In the "presidential elections of 2004, 91.1% of the city voted for "Viktor Yanukovych and 5.93% for "Viktor Yuschenko. In the "2006 parliamentary elections, the city voted for the "Party of Regions–with 39.72% of the votes, the "Socialist Party of Ukraine–20.38%, the "Natalia Vitrenko Block–9.53%, and the "Communist Party of Ukraine–3.29%.

In the "2014 parliamentary elections the "Opposition Bloc won more than 50% of the votes.[37] The seats of the city's two electoral districts were won by Serhiy Matviyenkov and "Serhiy Taruta.[38]

The Mayor ("head", chairman of executive committee of the city council) is Yuri Khotlubey.

Administrative division[edit]

Division of the territory, subordinated to Mariupol municipality:
Raions of Mariupol:
  Tsentralnyi Raion
  Kalmiuskyi Raion
  Livoberezhnyi Raion
  Prymorskyi Raion
Populated places:
1 — "Sartana
2 — Staryi Krym
3 — "Talakivka
4 — "Hnutove
5 — Lomakyne

Mariupol is divided into four neighborhoods or "raions".

The "Kalmius river separates the Livoberezhnyi Raion from the remaining three raions. The population is mostly concentrated in the Tsentralnyi and Prymorsky Raions. The Kalmiuskyi Raion houses the large "Illich Steel and Iron Works and the Azovmash "manufacturing plant. The Livoberezhnyi (Left Bank) is home to the Azovstal metallurgic combine and the Koksokhim (Coke and Chemical) factory. The settlements of Stary Krym and Sartana are located in close proximity to the city limits of Mariupol (see map).

Coat of arms[edit]

The modern "coat of arms of Mariupol was confirmed in 1989. It is described in heraldic terms as: Per fess wavy argent and azure, on an anchor or, accompanied by the figure 1778 of the last. The gold "anchor has a ring on top. The number 1778 indicates the year of the city's founding. The "argent represents steel; the "azure, the sea; the anchor, the port; and the ring, metallurgy.

City holidays[edit]

Fireworks on the day of the machine engineer

Holidays exclusive to Mariupol include:


As of December 1, 2014, the city's population was 477,992. Over the last century the population has grown nearly twelvefold. The city is populated by "Ukrainians, "Russians, "Pontic Greeks (including "Caucasus Greeks and Tatar- and Turkish-speaking but Greek Orthodox Christian "Urums), "Belarusians, "Armenians, "Jews, etc. The main language is "Russian.

Historical Populations["citation needed]
Year City proper Change Metropolitan Change
1778 168 168
1782 2,948 +1,655% 2,948 +1,655%
1850 4,579 +55.33% 4,579 +55.33%
1897 31,800 +594.47% 31,800 +594.47%
1913 58,000 +82.39% 58,000 +82.39%
1939 221,500 +281.90% 221,500 +281.90%
1941 241,000 +8.80% 241,000 +8.80%
1943 85,000 −64.73% 85,000 −64.73%
1959 283,600 +233.65% 299,100 +251.88%
1979 502,600 +77.22% 525,000 +75.53%
1987 529,000 +5.25% 552,300 +5.20%
1989 518,900 −1.91% 541,000 −2.05%
1994 520,700 0.35% 543,600 0.48%
1998 499,800 −4.01% 521,300 −4.10%
2001 492,200 −1.52% 514,500 −1.30%
2002 489,700 −0.51% 510,800 −0.72%
2005 481,600 −1.65% 502,800 −1.57%
2006 477,900 -0.77%
2007 477,600 -0.06% 499,600 -
2008 496,600 -0.60%
2009 471,975 493,962 -0.53%
2010 469,336 -0.56% 491,295 -0.54%
2011 466,665 -0.57% 488,541 -0.56%
2012 464,457 -0.47% 486,320 -0.45%
2013 461,810 -0.57% 483,679 -0.54%
2014 458,533 -0.71% 480,406 -0.68%
Mariupol population density

The average annual population decline of city from 2010 to 2014 is 0.6%. The death rate is 15.5%.["citation needed]

Ethnic structure[edit]

In 2002, ethnic "Ukrainians made up the largest percentage (48.7%) but less than half of the population; the second greatest ethnicity was "Russian (44.4%). A June-July 2017 survey indicated that Ukrainians had grown to 59% of Mariupol's population and the Russian share had dropped to 33%.[40]

The city is home to the largest population of "Pontic Greeks in Ukraine ("Greeks of Priazovye") at 21,900, with 31,400 more in the six nearby rural areas, totaling about 70% of the Pontic Greek population of the area and 60% for the country.

Ethnic structure in 2002

Ethnicity Number of people Percent of population
"Ukrainian 248,683 48.7
"Russian 226,848 44.4
"Pontic Greeks (including "Caucasus Greeks and "Urums) 21,923 4.3
"Belarusian 3,858 0.8
"Armenian 1,205 0.2
"Jews 1,176 0.2
"Bulgarian 1,082 0.2
other 6,060 1.2
All population 510,835 100

Language structure[edit]

There is a large number of "Greek-speaking people in the city, but the city is predominantly Russian speaking. From 60% to 80% of Ukrainian-language dwellers communicate through so-called "Surzhyk, due to the large influence of Russian culture.

Most Greek-speaking villages in the region speak a dialect called "Rumeíka, that is, a branch of "Pontic Greek. About 17 villages speak this language today. Modern scholars distinguish five subdialects of Rumeíka according to their similarity to standard "Modern Greek. This was derived from the dialect of the original Pontic settlers from the "Crimea. Although Rumeíka is often described as a "Pontic dialect, the situation is more nuanced.

Arguments can be brought both for Rumeíka's similarity to Pontic Greek and to the Northern Greek dialects.

In the view of Maxim Kisilier, while the Rumeíka dialect shares some features with both the Pontic Greek and the Northern Greek dialects, it is better considered on its own terms as a separate Greek dialect, or even a group of dialects.[41]

The village of Anadol speaks "Pontic proper, being settled from the "Pontos in the 19th century.

Native languages of the population as of the "All-Russian Empire Census in 1897:[42]

Language The city of Mariupol
Russian 19,670
Ukrainian 3,125
"Pontic Greek 1,590
Turkish 922
Total Population 31,116

Along with those speaking Rumeíka, there were and are a number of "Tatar speaking Orthodox villages, the so-called "Urums, which is the Tatar term for Romaios or Rumei. This subdivision had already occurred in Crimea before the settlement of the Azov Sea "steppe region by "Pontic Greeks which began following the fall of the "Empire of Trebizond in northeastern "Anatolia in 1461 but on a larger scale after the end of the "Russo-Turkish War in 1779, as part of the Russian policy to populate and develop the region while depriving the Crimea of an economically active part of its population.

Though Greek and Tatar-speaking settlers lived separately, the "language of the Urums was the "lingua franca of the region for a long time, being called the language of the "bazaar. There are also a number of settlements of other ethnic communities, including "Germans, "Bulgarians, and "Albanians (though the meanings of all such terms in this context is open to dispute).

After the "October Revolution of 1917, a Rumaiic revival occurred in the region. The Soviet administration established a Greek-Rumaiic theater, several magazines and a newspaper, and a number of Rumaiic language schools. The best Rumaiic poet Georgi Kostoprav created a Rumaiic poetic language for his work. This process was reversed in 1937 as Kostoprav and many other Rumaiics and Urums were killed as part of "Joseph Stalin's national policies. A large percentage of the population was transported to "Gulags.

A new attempt to preserve a sense of ethnic Rumaiic identity started in the mid-1980s. The Ukrainian scholar Andriy Biletsky created a new Slavonic alphabet for Greek speakers. Though a number of writers and poets make use of this alphabet, the population of the region rarely uses it. The Rumaiic language is declining rapidly, most endangered by the standard Modern Greek which is taught in schools and the local university. The latest investigations by Alexandra Gromova demonstrate that there is still hope that elements of the Rumaiic population will continue to use the dialect.[43]

Language structure in 2002["citation needed]

Language Number (person) Densities (%)
"Russian 457,931 89.64
"Ukrainian 50,656 9.92
"Pontic Greek 1,046 0.20
"Armenian 372 0.07
"Belarusian 266 0.05
"Bulgarian 55 0.01
other 509 0.10
All population 510,835 100

Religious communities[edit]

St. Nicholas church
"Sultan Suleiman Mosque in Mariupol

The city is adorned by the St. Nicholas Cathedral (in the Tsentralnyi borough) and other churches of the city, namely:

In addition to churches, there are 3 Mosques around the city.



About 59% of the people whose occupation is in the national economy work in industry and 11% of them in transportation["citation needed]. As of July 1, 2009, the official rate of unemployment in the city stood at 2%.[44] The figure, however, only includes people registered as "unemployed" in the local job centre. The real unemployment rate is therefore higher.

Historic Unemployment Rate in Mariupol (year end)[44][45][46][47]

Year Unemployment (% of labor force)
2006 0.4
2007 0.4
2008 1.2
2009* 2.0

* – as of July 1


There are 56 industrial enterprises in Mariupol under various plans of ownership. The city's industry is diverse, with heavy industry dominant. Mariupol is home to major steel mills (including some of global importance) and "chemical plants; there is also an important seaport and a railroad junction. The largest enterprises are Ilyich Iron and Steel Works, Azovstal, Azovmash Holding, and the Mariupol Sea Trading Port. There are also shipyards, fish canneries, and various educational institutions with studies in "metallurgy and science.

The total industrial production of the city for eight months in 2005 (January – August) was 21378.2 million hryvnas (US$4.233 billion), compared to 1999 – 6169.806 million hryvnas (US$1.222 billion). This is 37.5% of the total production for "Donetsk Oblast. The leading business of the city is "ferrous metallurgy, which makes up 93.5% of the city's income from industrial production. The annual output estimates are in millions of tonnes of iron, steel, rolled iron, and agglomerate.

Transportation in Mariupol

The above-mentioned enterprises, along with a plethora of others not mentioned, are located in the free economic zone of Azov.


The GDP of the city in 2004 was "22,769,400 ($4,510,400); it is listed in the state budget as ₴83,332,000 ($16,507,400). The city is one of the largest contributors to the Ukrainian national budget (after "Kiev and "Zaporizhia).

The GPA of the city is ₴1,262.04 (~US$250.00) a month, one of the highest in the country. The average pension in the city is ₴423.15 ($83.82). Commercial debts in the city were reduced in 2005 to 1.1% or ₴5.1 million ($1.01 million).

Income from services rendered for 9 months of 2005 was ₴860.4 million ($107.4 million) and the volume of retail trade for the same period was ₴838.7 million ($166.1 million). The city's enterprises for 9 months of 2005 recorded a positive financial result (profit) of ₴3.2 billion ($634 million), which is 23.6% more than in the prior year (2004).


Cultural institutions[edit]

Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre at night



Palaces of Culture (Recreation centres) (together with so-called clubs – 16 units):

Extreme Park in Mariupol
Chernobyl disaster memorial

Showrooms and museums:

Libraries (only 35 units):

In the surrounding environs of city, on the shore of "Sea of Azov, archaeology monuments were excavated from neolithic burial grounds dating from the end of the third millennium BC. During excavations over 120 skeletons were discovered. Found near them were stone and bone instruments, beads, shell-works from shellfishes, and animal teeth.

Art and literature[edit]

Creative Organisations of Artists, Union of Journalists of Mariupol, the Literary Union «Azovye» (from 1924, about 100 members), and others. Works of Mariupol poets and writers: N. Berilov, A. Belous, G. Moroz, A. Shapurmi, A. Savchenko, V. Kior, N. Harakoz, L. Kiryakov, L. Belozerova, P. Bessonov, and A. Zaruba are written in the Russian, Ukrainian, and Greek languages. Presently, 10 members of the National Union of Writers of Ukraine live in the city.

Tourism and attractions[edit]

Beach pier in Mariupol

Tourist interest are mainly on the coast of the Sea of Azov. Around the city the strip of resort settlements was pulled: Melekino, Urzuf, Yalta, Sedovo, Bezymennoye, Sopino, Belosaray Kosa, etc. Travel companies operating are («Azov-voyag-tour», «Azovintur»,«Limpopo» and others).

The first resorts were opened in the city in 1926. Along a sea here during 16 the narrow bar of sandy beaches stretches for one km. Water temperature in the summer ranges from 22 to 24 °C (72–75 °F). The duration of the bathing season is 120 days.


City garden in winter


Statue of "Taras Shevchenko

Mariupol has monuments to "Taras Shevchenko, "Vladimir Vysotsky, "Arkhip Kuindzhi, and many other famous persons. Monuments in honour of the liberation of Donbass, the metallurgists, and others can also be found in the city.

There are also monuments to Makar Maza, Hryhoriy Yuriyovych Horban, K.P. Apatov, and Tolya Balabukha, to seamen–commandos, to pilots V.G. Semenyshyn and N.E. Lavytsky, to soldiers of the Soviet 9th Aviation Division, to victims of political repressions of 1930–1950, etc. During the Soviet period the central square of the city featured a monument to "Andrei Zhdanov, after whom the city was named from 1948–1990. The artists V. Konstantynov and L. Kuzminkov are the sculptors of some of the monuments, including the monument to Metropolitan Ignatiy, the founder of Mariupol.

Hotels and night clubs[edit]

Hotels in the city include Grand Hotel, Spartak, Guest Villa "Horosho", Nash Kutochok, Moryak, Chaika, Iris Hotel, and Brigantina.

Night-clubs in the city include Barbaris, Zebra, Coral, Imperial, Private club "Yes", Egoist, El Gusto, Holiday Romance, Ledo, Crazy Maam, and Divan.


A football match in progress in "Volodymyr Boiko Stadium.

Mariupol is the hometown of the nationally famous swimmer "Oleksandr Sydorenko who lives in the city.

"FC Mariupol is a "football club, with a great sport traditions and a history of participation at the European level competitions.

The water polo team, the «Ilyichevets», is the undisputed champion of Ukraine. It has won the Ukrainian championship 11 times. Every year it plays in the European Champion Cup and Russian championship.

Azovstal' "Canoeing Club on the river "Kalmius. Vitaly Yepishkin – 3rd place in the World Cup in the 200m "K-2.

"Azovmash Basketball Club, similarly to the "Ilichevets" Water-polo Club, has numerous national championship titles. Significant successes were obtained as well by the Mariupol schools of boxing, Greco-Roman wrestling, artistic gymnastics, and other types of sport.

Sport building of city (count 585):


Typical apartment building in Mariupol

Mariupol is the second most populous city in the "Donetsk Oblast (after "Donetsk), and is amongst the ten most populous cities in Ukraine. See the "list of cities in Ukraine.

Architecture and Construction[edit]

Old Mariupol is an area defined by the coast of the "Sea of Azov to the south, by the "Kalmius River to the east, to the north by Shevchenko Boulevard, and to the west by "Metalurhiv Avenue. It is built up mainly of a few storey houses and has kept its pre-revolutionary architecture. Only Artem Street and Miru Avenue were built after "World War II and are considered "modern constructions.

The central area of Mariupol (from Metalurhiv Avenue up to Budivelnykiv Avenue) is made up almost entirely of administrative and commercial buildings, including a city council building, post office, the Lukov cinema, Mariupol Humanitarian University, Priazov State Technical University, the Korolenko central city library, and many large shops.

The architecture of other residential areas ("Zakhidny", "Skhidny", "Kirov", "Cheremushky", 5th, 17th catchment area, etc.) is not particularly distinct or original and consists of typical 5- or 9-storey houses. The term "Cheremushki" carries a special meaning in Russian culture and now also in Ukrainian; it usually refers to the newly settled parts of a city.

The city's residential area covers 9.82 million square meters. The population density is 19.3 square meters per inhabitant. The share of privatized housing in 2003 was 76.3%.

Industrial construction prevails. The mass building of habitable quarters within the city ended in the 1980s. Mainly under construction now are comfortable habitations ["clarification needed]. The city's construction industry for nine months of 2005 executed a volume of civil contract and building works of 304.4 million hrivnas (US$60 million). The city density on this parameter is 22.1%.

Main streets[edit]

In December 1991, by a decision of the city council of Mariupol, the following streets in an old part of the city reverted to their pre-revolutionary names:

Between 1990 and 2000 the following streets and areas were renamed:

See also the list of streets and squares of Mariupol.


City transport[edit]

Routes of urban electric transports in Mariupol
Daily passenger traffic intensity in Mariupol

Mariupol has transportation including bus transportation, trolley-buses, trams, and fixed-route taxis. The city is connected by railways, a seaport and the airport to other countries and cities.


In the city all leading Ukrainian mobile communications carriers are operational. During Soviet times in the city, ten automatic telephone exchanges were operational; six digital automatic telephone exchanges were recently added.

Health service[edit]

There are 70 medical and medical-health establishments in a city — hospitals, polyclinics, the station of blood transfusion, station of urgent medicare, sanatoriums, sanatoriums-preventive clinics, regional centre of social maintenance of pensionaries and invalids, city centres: gastroenterology, thoracic surgery, bleedings, pancreatic, microsurgery of the eye. Central pool-hospital on a water-carriage.


81 general educational establishment are operational, including: 67 comprehensive schools (48,500 students), 2 grammar schools, 3 lyceums, 4 evening replaceable schools, 3 boarding schools, 2 private schools, 11 professional educational institutions (6,274 students), and 94 children's preschool establishments (12,700 children).

Three higher education establishments:

Local media[edit]

More than 20 local newspapers work mostly Russian language-based, including:

12 wireless stations, 7 regional television companies and channels:

Retransmitting about 15 state channels («Inter», «1+1», «STB», «NTN», «5 Channel», «ICTV», «First National TV», «New Channel», TV Company «Ukraina», etc.)

Public organizations[edit]

There are about 300 public associations, including 22 trade-union organizations, about 40 political parties, 16 youth groups, 4 women's organizations, 37 associations of veterans and disabled, and 134 national and cultural societies.

There is a General Consulate of the Republic of Greece as well as the Republic of Cyprus in Mariupol.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Collection of laws and orders of the Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine Archived 2013-12-11 at the "Wayback Machine.. "Radianske Budivnytstvo i Pravo". State archives. February 29, 1932
  2. ^ "List of cities in Ukraine – List of cities in Ukraine
  3. ^ Ukrcensus.org.ua - All-Ukrainian population census '2001
  4. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (in Ukrainian). "State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  5. ^ "Mariupol". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "Mariupol". The Free Dictionary. 
  7. ^ LeDonne John P. The territorial reform of the Russian Empire, 1775-1796 [II. The borderlands, 1777-1796]. In: Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique. Vol. 24 No. 4. October–December, 1983. p. 422.
  8. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. "A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples," p. 197
  9. ^ Wilson, Andrew. "The Donbas between Ukraine and Russia: The Use of History in Political Disputes," Journal of Contemporary History 1995 30: 265 "
  10. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. "A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples," p. 197.
  11. ^ N. D. Polons’ka –Vasylenko, "The Settlement of Southern Ukraine (1750-1775)," The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U.S., Inc., 1955, p. 16.
  12. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. 2010. "A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its People," University of Toronto Press. Second edition. P. 283.
  13. ^ LeDonne John P. The territorial reform of the Russian Empire, 1775-1796 [II. The borderlands, 1777-1796]. In: Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique. Vol. 24 No. 4. October–December, 1983. pp. 420-422.
  14. ^ Wilson, Andrew. "The Donbas between Ukraine and Russia: The Use of History in Political Disputes," Journal of Contemporary History 1995 30: 273
  15. ^ Gorbov V.N., Bozhko, R.P., Kushnir V.V. 2013. "Археологические комплексы на территории крепости Кальмиус и ее окрестностий," ("Archaeological complexes on the territory of the Kalmius fortress and its surroundings") Donetsk Archaeological Collection, No. 17, pp. 138-139, 141.
  16. ^ Clark, George B. "Irish Soldiers in Europe: 17th - 19th Century," Mercier Press, October 12, 2010. Pp. 272, 274, 276.
  17. ^ LeDonne John P. The territorial reform of the Russian Empire, 1775-1796 [II. The borderlands, 1777-1796]. In: Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique. Vol. 24 No. 4. October–December, 1983. p. 420-421
  18. ^ a b Section "Kalmius and the Kalmiusskaya Palanka"["permanent dead link], referencing A. A. Skalkowski, no citation.
  19. ^ Gorbov V.N., Bozhko, R.P., Kushnir V.V. 2013. "Археологические комплексы на территории крепости Кальмиус и ее окрестностий," ("Archaeological complexes on the territory of the Kalmius fortress and its surroundings") Donetsk Archaeological Collection, No. 17, p. 133
  20. ^ N. D. Polons’ka –Vasylenko, "The Settlement of Southern Ukraine (1750-1775)," The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U.S., Inc., 1955, p. 278
  21. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Oxford University., p. 7 with n. 11
  22. ^ Reenactor.ru p. 521
  23. ^ Le Donne, John P. 1983. "The Territorial Reform of the Russian Empire », Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique. Vol. 24, No. 4. Octobre-Décembre 1983. p. 419.
  24. ^ Posun’ko, Andriy, "After the Zaporizhia. Dissolution, reorganization, and transformation of borderland military in 1775-1835, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, 2012, p. 35
  25. ^ Verenikin, V. Yet how old is our city? Vecherniy Mariupol Newspaper website.
  26. ^ Plotnikov, S. Mariupol icon of Theotokos "Hodegetria". Saint-Trinity Temple of Mariupol website. 9 August 2012
  27. ^ Dzhuvaha, V. One of the first deportation of the Empire. How Crimean Greeks populated Wild Fields. "Ukrayinska Pravda. 17 February 2011
  28. ^ Crimean Tatars (КРИМСЬКІ ТАТАРИ). Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine.
  29. ^ John P. McKay (1970). Pioneers for profit; foreign entrepreneurship and Russian industrialization, 1885-1913. University of Chicago Press. pp. 170, 230, 393. 
  30. ^ Blair, David (10 May 2014) Ukraine: Security forces abandon Mariupol ahead of referendum Telegraph.co.uk.
  31. ^ "The President instructed the Head of the Donetsk Regional State Administration to relocate temporarily the administration office to Mariupol". president.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  32. ^ a b "U.S. Weapons Aren't Smart for Ukraine". Bloomberg. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  33. ^ "Rockets fired on Ukraine's Mariupol from rebel territory: OSCE". Yahoo News. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  34. ^ "DPR: situation in southern Donetsk republic deteriorates after McCain's trip". Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  35. ^ "КЛИМАТ МАРИУПОЛЯ" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  36. ^ "Mariupol Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  37. ^ Telegraph.co.uk
  38. ^ Data on vote counting at percincts within single-mandate districts Extraordinary parliamentary election on 26.10.2014 Archived 2014-10-29 at the "Wayback Machine., "Central Election Commission of Ukraine
    (in Ukrainian) Candidates and winners for the seat of the constituencies in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Vibori2014.rbc.ua Archived 2015-02-05 at the "Wayback Machine., "RBK Ukraine
  39. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) On Amending Resolution of the Central Election Commission on April 28, 2012 № 82, "Verkhovna Rada (3 June 2016)
  40. ^ "Public Opinion Survey of Residents of UkraineJune 9 – July 7, 2017" (PDF). iri.org. August 2017. p. 86. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2017. 
  41. ^ Kisilier, Maxim, Is Rumeíka a Pontic or a Northern Greek Dialect? 
  42. ^ "Demoscope Weekly - Annex. Statistical indicators reference". demoscope.ru. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  43. ^ Kissilier, Maxim, ed. (2009), Language and Ethno-Cultural Situation in Greek Villages of Azov Region (PDF), St. Petersburg . The work is based on field research in the Greek villages in the Mariupol region. The expeditions were organised by St. Petersburg State University and carried out from 2001–2004.
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  46. ^ "City's Economy in 2007" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Archived from the original on 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  47. ^ "City's Economy in 2008" (in Russian). Mariupol City Council home page. Archived from the original on 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 

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