In March 1955, "Claudette Colvin, a black fifteen-year-old pregnant schoolgirl in Montgomery, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with "Jim Crow laws, which were local regulations in the "Southern United States that enforced "racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; because Colvin was pregnant and unmarried, "E. D. Nixon and "Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue.
On December 1, 1955, "Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. The Montgomery bus boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that "King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in "Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. King's role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
In 1957, King, "Ralph Abernathy, "Fred Shuttlesworth, "Joseph Lowery, and other civil rights activists founded the "Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the "moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. One of the group's inspirations was the crusades of evangelist "Billy Graham, who befriended King after he attended a Graham crusade in New York City in 1957. King led the SCLC until his death. The SCLC's 1957 "Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King addressed a national audience. Other civil rights leaders involved in the SCLC with King included: "James Bevel, "Allen Johnson, "Curtis W. Harris, "Walter E. Fauntroy, "C. T. Vivian, "Andrew Young, "The Freedom Singers, "Charles Evers, "Cleveland Robinson, "Randolph Blackwell, "Annie Bell Robinson Devine, "Charles Kenzie Steele, "Alfred Daniel Williams King, "Benjamin Hooks, "Aaron Henry and "Bayard Rustin.
On September 20, 1958, while signing copies of his book "Stride Toward Freedom in Blumstein's department store in Harlem, King narrowly escaped death when "Izola Curry, a mentally ill black woman who believed he was conspiring against her with communists, stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. After emergency surgery by Aubre de Lambert Maynard, Emil Naclerio and "John W. V. Cordice, King was hospitalized for several weeks, while Curry was found mentally incompetent to stand trial. In 1959, he published a short book called The Measure of A Man, which contained his sermons ""What is Man?" and "The Dimensions of a Complete Life." The sermons argued for man's need for God's love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization.
Harry Wachtel—who joined King's legal advisor Clarence B. Jones in defending four ministers of the SCLC in a libel suit over a newspaper advertisement ("New York Times Co. v. Sullivan)—founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the "Gandhi Society for Human Rights." King served as honorary president for the group. Displeased with the pace of President Kennedy's addressing the issue of segregation, King and the Gandhi Society produced a document in 1962 calling on the President to follow in the footsteps of "Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of "Second Emancipation Proclamation. Kennedy did not execute the order.
The "FBI, under written directive from Attorney General "Robert F. Kennedy, began "tapping King's telephone in the fall of 1963. Concerned that allegations of communists in the SCLC, if made public, would derail the administration's civil rights initiatives, Kennedy warned King to discontinue these associations, and later felt compelled to issue the written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other SCLC leaders. FBI Director "J. Edgar Hoover feared the Civil Rights movement and investigated the allegations of communist infiltration. When no evidence emerged to support this, the FBI used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of his leadership position, in the "COINTELPRO program.
King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as "Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.
King organized and led marches for blacks' right to "vote, "desegregation, "labor rights and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the "law of the United States with the passage of the "Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 "Voting Rights Act.
King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the "Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities, who sometimes turned violent.
Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks such as "Nation of Islam member "Malcolm X. "Stokely Carmichael was a "separatist and disagreed with King's plea for "racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture. "Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European "colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force.
The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in "Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. In December, King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he "had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel." The following day he was swept up in a "mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. According to King, "that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city" after he left town.
King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Police Chief Laurie Pritchett discreetly arranged for King's fine to be paid and ordered his release. "We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ... ejected from churches ... and thrown into jail ... But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail." It was later acknowledged by the King Center that "Billy Graham was the one who bailed King out of jail during this time.
After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts. Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for King and the national civil rights movement, the national media was highly critical of King's role in the defeat, and the SCLC's lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC. After Albany, King sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations.
In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in "Birmingham, Alabama. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. "Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and "sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust.
King's intent was to provoke mass arrests and "create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation." However, the campaign's early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police's actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist "James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations. "Newsweek called this strategy a "Children's Crusade.
During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by "Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children. Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation's attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement. Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm's way. But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King's reputation improved immensely.
King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest out of 29. From his cell, he composed the now-famous "Letter from Birmingham Jail which responds to "calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change. King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed." He points out that the "Boston Tea Party, a celebrated act of rebellion in the American colonies, was illegal civil disobedience, and that, conversely, "everything "Adolf Hitler did in Germany was 'legal'." King also expresses his frustration with white moderates and clergymen too timid to oppose an unjust system:
I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistic-ally believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season."
St. Augustine, Florida
In March 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling's then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling's group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them. King and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to "St. Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested. During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, "often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention." Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.
In December 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with the "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in "Selma, Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months. A local judge issued an injunction that barred any gathering of 3 or more people affiliated with the SNCC, SCLC, DCVL, or any of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at "Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965.
New York City
On February 6, 1964, King delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the "New School called "The American Race Crisis." No audio record of his speech has been found, but in August 2013, almost 50 years later, the school discovered an audiotape with 15 minutes of a question-and-answer session that followed King's address. In these remarks, King referred to a conversation he had recently had with "Jawaharlal Nehru in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India's "untouchables.
March on Washington, 1963
King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were "Roy Wilkins from the "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; "Whitney Young, "National Urban League; "A. Philip Randolph, "Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; "John Lewis, SNCC; and "James L. Farmer Jr., of the "Congress of Racial Equality.
The primary logistical and strategic organizer was King's colleague "Bayard Rustin. For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of "United States President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of "civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the "UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.
The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers' concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation's capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the "Farce on Washington", and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march.
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The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 "minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for "Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the "National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.'s history.
King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as ""I Have a Dream." In the speech's most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of "Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, "Tell them about the dream!"—King said:
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.'
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
"I Have a Dream" came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. The March, and especially King's speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The original typewritten copy of the speech, including King's handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of "George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the "University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.
Selma voting rights movement and "Bloody Sunday", 1965
Acting on James Bevel's call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state's capital. The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as "Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King's nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present.
King met with officials in the "Lyndon B. Johnson Administration on March 5 in order to request an "injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line." Footage of "police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.
King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the "Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965. At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the "state capitol, King delivered a speech that became known as ""How Long, Not Long." In it, King stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, "because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice."[a]
Chicago open housing movement, 1966
In 1966, after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with "Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of "North Lawndale on Chicago's West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.
The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by "Albert Raby, and the combined organizations' efforts were fostered under the aegis of the "Chicago Freedom Movement. During that spring, several white couple/black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered "racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes. Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, "Belmont Cragin, "Jefferson Park, "Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), "Gage Park, "Marquette Park, and others.
Abernathy later wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, 1966, were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs. Rioting seemed very possible. King's beliefs militated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor "Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result. King was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger.
When King and his allies returned to the South, they left "Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the "Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks.
Opposition to the Vietnam War
|You may listen to the speech, "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", by Martin Luther King here.|
King long opposed American involvement in the Vietnam War, but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson's policies might have created. However, at the urging of SCLC's former Director of Direct Action and now the head of the "Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, James Bevel, King eventually agreed to publicly oppose the war as opposition was growing among the American public. During an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City "Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled ""Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence." He spoke strongly against the U.S.'s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam "to occupy it as an American colony" and calling the U.S. government "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today." He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:
A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just."
King also opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on "social welfare at home. The "United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on "anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death." He stated that North Vietnam "did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands", and accused the U.S. of having killed a million Vietnamese, "mostly children." King also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam's land reforms.
King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham, union leaders and powerful publishers. "The press is being stacked against me", King said, complaining of what he described as a double standard that applauded his nonviolence at home, but deplored it when applied "toward little brown Vietnamese children." "Life magazine called the speech "demagogic slander that sounded like a script for "Radio Hanoi", and "The Washington Post declared that King had "diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people."
The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive "Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated. King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. He guarded his language in public to avoid being linked to "communism by his enemies, but in private he sometimes spoke of his support for "democratic socialism. In a 1952 letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic ..." In one speech, he stated that "something is wrong with capitalism" and claimed, "There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism." King had read "Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected "traditional capitalism", he also rejected communism because of its "materialistic interpretation of history" that denied religion, its "ethical relativism", and its "political totalitarianism."
King also stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar ... it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring." King quoted a United States official who said that from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was "on the wrong side of a world revolution." King condemned America's "alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America", and said that the U.S. should support "the shirtless and barefoot people" in the "Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution.
King's stance on Vietnam encouraged "Allard K. Lowenstein, "William Sloane Coffin and "Norman Thomas, with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the "1968 United States presidential election. King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.
On April 15, 1967, King participated in and spoke at an anti-war march from New York's Central Park to the "United Nations organized by the "Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel. At the U.N. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft.
I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.
Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists, Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort. Despite his growing public opposition towards the Vietnam War, King was also not fond of the "hippie culture which developed from the anti-war movement. In his 1967 "Massey Lecture, King stated:
The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.
On January 13, 1968, the day after President Johnson's "State of the Union Address, King called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars."
We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.
Poor People's Campaign, 1968
In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the ""Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice. King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent "civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.
The campaign was preceded by King's final book, "Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? which laid out his view of how to address social issues and poverty. King quoted from "Henry George and George's book, "Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a "guaranteed basic income. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C., demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States.
King and the "SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America's cities. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity." He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided "poverty funds with miserliness." His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of "racism, poverty, militarism and materialism", and argued that "reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced."
The Poor People's Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.
After King's death
The plan to set up a "shantytown in Washington, D.C., was carried out soon after the April 4 "assassination. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered.
Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the "National Mall and established a camp they called ""Resurrection City." They stayed for six weeks.
Assassination and aftermath
Final 30 seconds of ""I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech by Martin Luther King Jr.
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On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, who were represented by "AFSCME Local 1733. The workers had been "on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.
On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address at "Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the "Church of God in Christ. King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the close of the last speech of his life, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:
And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?
Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.
King was booked in Room 306 at the "Lorraine Motel (owned by Walter Bailey) in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the "United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room 306 so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite." According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King's last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician "Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: "Ben, make sure you play '"Take My Hand, Precious Lord' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty."
King was fatally shot by "James Earl Ray at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, as he stood on the motel's second-floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King's head as King lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had "reached out" for King.
After emergency chest surgery, King died at "St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer "Taylor Branch, King's autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he "had the heart of a 60 year old", which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the Civil Rights Movement.
The assassination led to a nationwide wave of "race riots in "Washington, D.C., "Chicago, "Baltimore, "Louisville, "Kansas City, and dozens of other cities. Presidential candidate Robert F. "Bobby" Kennedy was on his way to "Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave "a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence. "James Farmer Jr., and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.
President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice President "Hubert Humphrey attended King's funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson's presence might incite protests and perhaps violence. At his widow's request, King's last sermon at "Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral, a recording of his "Drum Major" sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity."
His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord", at the funeral.
Two months after King's death, escaped convict "James Earl Ray was captured at "London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled "Rhodesia. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney "Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray later claimed a man he met in "Montreal, Quebec, with the alias "Raoul" was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.
Allegations of conspiracy
Ray's lawyers maintained he was a "scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy assassin "Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. Supporters of this assertion said that Ray's confession was given under pressure and that he had been threatened with the death penalty. They admitted that Ray was a thief and burglar, but claimed that he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon. However, prison records in different U.S. cities have shown that he was incarcerated on numerous occasions for charges of armed robbery. In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. "I never been with nobody as bold as he is," Jerry said. "He just walked in and put that gun on somebody, it was just like it's an everyday thing."
Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive "ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's "Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon. Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. Witnesses near King at the moment of his death said that the shot came from another location. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. However, Ray's fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from. An examination of the rifle containing Ray's fingerprints also determined that at least one shot was fired from the firearm at the time of the assassination.
In 1997, King's son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a "new trial.
Two years later, Coretta Scott King, King's widow, along with the rest of King's family, won a "wrongful death claim against "Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators." Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination. "William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial.
In 2000, the "U.S. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. A sister of Jowers admitted that he had fabricated the story so he could make $300,000 from selling the story, and she in turn corroborated his story in order to get some money to pay her income tax.
In 2002, "The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King. He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way." Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims.
King researchers "David Garrow and "Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. In 2003, Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts. King's friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, "There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man." In 2004, Jesse Jackson stated:
The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. ... I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.
King's main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the U.S. Just days after King's assassination, Congress passed the "Civil Rights Act of 1968. Title VIII of the Act, commonly known as the Fair Housing Act, prohibited discrimination in housing and housing-related transactions on the basis of race, religion, or national origin (later expanded to include sex, familial status, and disability). This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.S.
Internationally, King's legacy includes influences on the "Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movement in South Africa. King's work was cited by and served as an inspiration for South African leader "Albert Lutuli, who fought for racial justice in his country and was later awarded the Nobel Prize. The day following King's assassination, school teacher "Jane Elliott conducted her first "Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes" exercise with her class of elementary school students in "Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community. King has become a national icon in the history of "American liberalism and "American progressivism. King also influenced Irish politician and activist "John Hume. Hume, the former leader of the "Social Democratic and Labour Party, cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the "Good Friday Agreement, calling him "one of my great heroes of the century."
King's wife, Coretta Scott King, followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Their son, Dexter King, serves as the center's chairman. Daughter Yolanda King, who died in 2007, was a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.
Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King's widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported "gay rights. However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to "gay marriage.
On February 4, 1968, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:
I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody.
I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity.
Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won't have any money to leave behind. I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind.
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Beginning in 1971, cities such as "St. Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King. At the "White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President "Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called "Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Following President "George H. W. Bush's 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday. On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states. "Arizona (1992), "New Hampshire (1999) and "Utah (2000) were the last three states to recognize the holiday. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.
King is remembered as a martyr by the "Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual "feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4. The "Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates King liturgically on the anniversary of his birth, January 15.
UK legacy and The Martin Luther King Peace Committee
In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee exists to honour King's legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967. The Peace Committee operates out of the chaplaincies of the city's two universities, Northumbria and Newcastle, both of which remain centres for the study of Martin Luther King and the US Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace."
Ideas, influences, and political stances
As a "Christian minister, King's main influence was "Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King's faith was strongly based in Jesus' commandment of "loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His "nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to "turn the other cheek in the "Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus' teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52). In his famous "Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus' "extremist" love, and also quoted numerous other "Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In another sermon, he stated:
Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don't plan to run for any political office. I don't plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I'm doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man.
In his speech ""I've Been to the Mountaintop", he stated that he just wanted to do "God's will.
Veteran African-American civil rights activist "Bayard Rustin was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence. King was also advised by the white activists "Harris Wofford and "Glenn Smiley. Rustin and Smiley came from the "Christian pacifist tradition, and Wofford and Rustin both studied Gandhi's teachings. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the "Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the 1940s, and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early 1950s. King had initially known little about "Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early 1950s. King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance, arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms.
In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote "Stride Toward Freedom, which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and "Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting.
King was inspired by "Mahatma Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God". King had "for a long time ... wanted to take a trip to India." With assistance from Harris Wofford, the "American Friends Service Committee, and other supporters, he was able to fund the journey in April 1959. The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of "nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America's struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity."
Bayard Rustin's open homosexuality, support of "democratic socialism, and his former ties to the "Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin, which King agreed to do. However, King agreed that Rustin should be one of the main organizers of the 1963 March on Washington.
King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire ... He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage."
Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles, though Gandhi himself had been influenced by "The Kingdom of God Is Within You, a nonviolent classic written by Christian anarchist "Leo Tolstoy. In turn, both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy, and King, Gandhi and Tolstoy had been strongly influenced by "Jesus' Sermon on the Mount. King quoted Tolstoy's "War and Peace in 1959.
Another influence for King's nonviolent method was "Henry David Thoreau's essay "On Civil Disobedience, which King read in his student days. He was influenced by the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system. He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians "Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich, as well as Walter Rauschenbusch's Christianity and the Social Crisis. King also sometimes used the concept of ""agape" (brotherly Christian love). However, after 1960, he ceased employing it in his writings.
Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary. Throughout his career King was frequently protected by other civil rights activists who carried arms, such as "Colonel Stone Johnson, "Robert Hayling, and the "Deacons for Defense and Justice.
As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: "I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either." In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, "I don't think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses ... And I'm not inextricably bound to either party." King did praise Democratic Senator "Paul Douglas of Illinois as being the "greatest of all senators" because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years.
King critiqued both parties' performance on promoting racial equality:
Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.
Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for "Adlai Stevenson or "Dwight Eisenhower, but that "In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket." In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate "John F. Kennedy: "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one." King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying "Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964." In 1964, King urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator "Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world." King supported the ideals of democratic socialism, although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the "United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism. King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community.
King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for "Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.
He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils." He presented this idea as an application of the "common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races."
On being awarded the "Planned Parenthood Federation of America's "Margaret Sanger Award on "5th May, 1966, King said:
Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of "flying saucers. While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us. I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create "engines and "strategies for war. They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by "disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for "population planning, even though its "spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet. Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain.
There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. "Family planning, to relate population to "world resources, is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike "plagues of the "dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of "overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess.
What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims...
FBI and King's personal life
FBI surveillance and wiretapping
FBI director "J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. According to the "Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the "U.S. Congress, "From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to 'neutralize' him as an effective civil rights leader."
The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General "Robert F. Kennedy in the fall of 1963 and informed President "John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from "Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA. Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so", Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy. The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison's and King's home and office phones, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. In 1967, Hoover listed the "SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: "No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups ... to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited."
NSA monitoring of King's communications
In a secret operation code-named ""Minaret", the "National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam. A review by the NSA itself concluded that Minaret was "disreputable if not outright illegal."
Allegations of communism
For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960). The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King's most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison.
The FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them. Another King lieutenant, "Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the "House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.
For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida." He argued that Hoover was "following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South" and that his concern for communist infiltration of the Civil Rights Movement was meant to "aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements." Hoover did not believe King's pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was "the most notorious liar in the country." After King gave his "I Have A Dream" speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as "the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country." It alleged that he was "knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists."
The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators." However, the 1950s and '60s Civil Rights Movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations."
Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs. "Lyndon Johnson once said that King was a "hypocritical preacher."
Ralph Abernathy stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage. It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation." In a later interview, Abernathy said that he only wrote the term "womanizing", that he did not specifically say King had "extramarital sex and that the infidelities King had were "emotional rather than sexual. Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs, such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated. In his original wording, Abernathy had claimed he saw King coming out of his room with a lady when he awoke the next morning and later claimed that "he may have been in there discussing and debating and trying to get her to go along with the movement, I don't know."
In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, "that relationship ... increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of King's life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings ... of King's travels." He alleged that King explained his extramarital affairs as "a form of anxiety reduction." Garrow asserted that King's supposed promiscuity caused him "painful and at times overwhelming guilt." King's wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that "all that other business just doesn't have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed." Shortly after Bearing the Cross was released, civil rights author "Howell Raines gave the book a positive review but opined that Garrow's allegations about King's sex life were "sensational" and stated that Garrow was "amassing facts rather than analyzing them."
The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family. The bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work. The "FBI–King suicide letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part:
The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant ["sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation.
A tape recording of several of King's extramarital liaisons, excerpted from FBI wiretaps, accompanied the letter. King interpreted this package as an attempt to drive him to suicide, although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to "convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC." King refused to give in to the FBI's threats.
In 1977, "Judge "John Lewis Smith Jr. ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI's electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the "National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027.
Police observation during the assassination
A fire station was located across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which James Earl Ray was staying. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Agents were watching King at the time he was shot. Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King. The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an "all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination.
Awards and recognition
King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the "Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading nonviolent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S. In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the "American Jewish Committee for his "exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty." In his acceptance remarks, King said, "Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free."
In 1957, he was awarded the "Spingarn Medal from the "NAACP. Two years later, he won the "Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the "Margaret Sanger Award for "his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity." Also in 1966, King was elected as a fellow of the "American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In November 1967 he made a 24-hour trip to the United Kingdom to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University, being the first African-American to be so honoured by Newcastle. In a moving impromptu acceptance speech, he said
There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war.
In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a "Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.
In 1977, the "Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to King by President "Jimmy Carter. The citation read:
Martin Luther King Jr. was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.
King and his wife were also awarded the "Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.
King was second in "Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. In 1963, he was named "Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online "Person of the Century" poll by the same magazine. King placed third in the "Greatest American contest conducted by the "Discovery Channel and "AOL.
Memorials and eponymous places and buildings
There are numerous memorials to King in the United States, including:
- More than 730 cities in the United States have "streets named after King.
- "King County, Washington, rededicated its name in his honor in 1986 and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007.
- The city government center in "Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is named in honor of King.
- In 1980, the U.S. "Department of the Interior designated King's boyhood home in Atlanta and several nearby buildings the "Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site.
- A "bust of Dr. King was added to the "gallery of notables" in the "United States Capitol in 1986, portraying him in a "restful, nonspeaking pose."
- The beginning words of King's ""I Have a Dream" speech are etched on the steps of the "Lincoln Memorial, at the place where King stood during that speech. These words from the speech—"five short lines of text carved into the granite on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial"—were etched in 2003, on the 40th anniversary of the march to Washington, by stone carver Andy Del Gallo, after a law was passed by Congress providing authorization for the inscription.
- In 1996, Congress authorized the "Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, of which King is still a member, to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a national "Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the "National Mall in Washington, D.C. King was the first African American and the fourth non-president honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area. The memorial opened in August 2011 and is administered by the "National Park Service. The address of the monument, 1964 "Independence Avenue, SW, commemorates the year that the "Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law.
- The "Landmark for Peace Memorial in "Indianapolis, Indiana
- The "Homage to King sculpture in "Atlanta, Georgia
- "The Dream sculpture in "Portland, Oregon
- The "Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Bridge in "Fort Wayne, Indiana
- The "National Civil Rights Museum, at the Lorraine Motel in "Memphis, Tennessee, where King died
- "Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church in "Selma, Alabama
- On October 11, 2015, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported a proposed "Freedom Bell" may be installed atop "Stone Mountain honoring King and his "I Have a Dream" speech, specifically the line "Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia."
- A "bust of Martin Luther King Jr. has been in the collection of the collection of the "Smithsonian Institution's "National Portrait Gallery since 1974, and displayed in the "White House since 2000; a second cast is in the collection of the "National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Numerous other memorials honor him around the world, including:
- The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Church in "Debrecen, Hungary
- The King-Luthuli Transformation Center in "Johannesburg, South Africa
- The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Forest in "Israel's Southern Galilee region (along with the "Coretta Scott King Forest in Biriya Forest, Israel)
- The Martin Luther King Jr. School in "Accra, Ghana
- The Gandhi-King Plaza (garden), at the India International Center in "New Delhi, India
- In "Norfolk, Virginia stands a memorial in honor of King. The 83-foot-high granite "obelisk was conceived by former Norfolk Councilman and General District Court Judge Joseph A. Jordan Jr.
Five dollar bill
On April 20, 2016, "Treasury Secretary "Jacob Lew announced that the $5, $10, and $20 would all undergo redesign prior to 2020. Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the obverse of the $5 bill, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. Among the planned designs are images from King's ""I Have a Dream" speech and the 1939 concert by opera singer "Marian Anderson.
- "Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) "ISBN 978-0-06-250490-6
- The Measure of a Man (1959) "ISBN 978-0-8006-0877-4
- "Strength to Love (1963) "ISBN 978-0-8006-9740-2
- "Why We Can't Wait (1964) "ISBN 978-0-8070-0112-7
- "Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967) "ISBN 978-0-8070-0571-2
- "The Trumpet of Conscience (1968) "ISBN 978-0-8070-0170-7
- A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. (1986) "ISBN 978-0-06-250931-4
- The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. (1998), ed. Clayborne Carson "ISBN 978-0-446-67650-2
- "All Labor Has Dignity" (2011) ed. "Michael Honey "ISBN 978-0-8070-8600-1
- "Thou, Dear God": Prayers That Open Hearts and Spirits Collection of King's prayers. (2011), ed. "Lewis Baldwin "ISBN 978-0-8070-8603-2
- MLK: A Celebration in Word and Image Photographed by "Bob Adelman, introduced by Charles Johnson "ISBN 978-0-8070-0316-9
- "Martin Luther King Jr. authorship issues
- "Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King Jr.
- "The Meeting
After Martin Luther King
- Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W W Norton & Co. p. 138. "ISBN "0-393-05897-2.
- "Upbringing & Studies". The King Center. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
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- LaFeber, Walter. The deadly bet: LBJ, Vietnam, and the 1968 election. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005. p66, accessed December 15, 2016 at https://books.google.com/books?id=GxQkjeu4QCcC&pg=PA66#v=onepage&q&f=false
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- Millender, Dharathula H. (1986). Martin Luther King Jr.: Young Man with a Dream. Aladdin. pp. 45–46. "ISBN "978-0-02-042010-1.
- Frady, Marshall (2005). Martin Luther King, Jr: A Life. pp. 12–15. "ISBN "978-0-14-303648-7.
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- "An Autobiography of Religious Development". The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Stanford University. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
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- King, Martin Luther (1992). The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr, Volume 1. University of California Press. p. 82. "ISBN "978-0-520-07950-2.
- "Carson, Clayborne (1992). "Introduction". The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. Volume I: Called to Serve, January 1929 – June 1951. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 35–36. "ISBN "978-0-520-07950-2. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Frady, p. 18.
- Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. p. 150. "ISBN "0-86554-207-4.
- Nojeim, Michael J. (2004). Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 179. "ISBN "0-275-96574-0.
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- Civil Rights History from the Ground Up: Local Struggles, a National Movement. University of Georgia Press. p. 410.
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- Harrell, David Edwin; Gaustad, Edwin S.; Miller, Randall M.; Boles, John B.; Woods, Randall Bennett; Griffith, Sally Foreman (2005). Unto a Good Land: A History of the American People, Volume 2. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing. p. 1055. "ISBN "0-8028-2945-7.
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- Augustine.com – "Black History: Dr. Robert B. Hayling" ; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316–318
- "We Shall Overcome—Lincolnville Historic District". nps.gov.
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- Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002) . Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. pp. 350, 351. "ISBN "0-618-21928-5.
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- Fairclough, Adam (1987). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference & Martin Luther King Jr. University of Georgia Press. p. 299. "ISBN "0-8203-2346-2.
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- Lentz, Richard (1990). Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King. LSU Press. p. 230. "ISBN "0-8071-2524-5.
- Isserman, Maurice; Kazin, Michael (2000). America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 200. "ISBN "0-19-509190-6. See also: Miller, Keith D. (1998). Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King Jr. and Its Sources. University of Georgia Press. p. 139. "ISBN "0-8203-2013-7.
- Mis, Melody S. (2008). Meet Martin Luther King, Jr. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 20. "ISBN "1-4042-4209-0.
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- Baldwin, Lewis V. (1992). To Make the Wounded Whole: The Cultural Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. Fortress Press. p. 273. "ISBN "0-8006-2543-9.
- Long, Michael G. (2002). Against Us, But for Us: Martin Luther King Jr. and the State. Mercer University Press. p. 199. "ISBN "0-86554-768-8.
- "A Prince of War Exposed". counterpunch.org.
- Dyson, Michael Eric (2008). "Facing Death". April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King Jr.'s death and how it changed America. Basic Civitas Books. "ISBN "978-0-465-00212-2.
- David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross (1986), pp. 440, 445.
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- Harding, James M.; Rosenthal, Cindy (2006). Restaging the Sixties: Radical Theaters and Their Legacies. University of Michigan Press. p. 297. "ISBN "0-472-06954-3.
- Lentz, Richard (1990). Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King. LSU Press. p. 64. "ISBN "0-8071-2524-5.
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- Garner, Joe; Cronkite, Walter; Kurtis, Bill (2002). "We Interrupt This Broadcast: The Events that Stopped Our Lives ... from the Hindenburg Explosion to the Attacks of September 11. Sourcebooks. p. 62. "ISBN "1-57071-974-8.
- Pepper, William (2003). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 159. "ISBN "1-85984-695-5.
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- "Trial Transcript Volume XIV". The King Center. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
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- "Overview". United States Department of Justice Investigation of Recent Allegations Regarding the Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. "U.S. Department of Justice. June 2000. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
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- Sargent, Frederic O. (2004). The Civil Rights Revolution: Events and Leaders, 1955–1968. McFarland. p. 129. "ISBN "0-7864-1914-8.
- Pepper, William (2003). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 182. "ISBN "1-85984-695-5.
- Branch, Taylor (2006). "At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965–68. Simon & Schuster. p. 770. "ISBN "978-0-684-85712-1.
- Goodman, Amy; Gonzalez, Juan (January 15, 2004). "Jesse Jackson On 'Mad Dean Disease', the 2000 Elections and Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King". "Democracy Now!. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- "The History of Fair Housing". U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Ansell, Gwen (2005). Soweto Blues: Jazz, Popular Music, and Politics in South Africa. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 139. "ISBN "0-8264-1753-1.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2007). It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us. Simon & Schuster. p. 137. "ISBN "1-4165-4064-4.
- King 1992, pp. 307–08.
- Peters, William. "A Class Divided: One Friday in April, 1968". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
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- "Nobel Lecture". Nobelprize.org. December 10, 1998. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "King remembered for civil rights achievements". January 18, 1999. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "Interview with John Hume (26 minutes)". August 31, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "The King Center's Mission". "The King Center. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Copeland, Larry (February 1, 2006). "Future of Atlanta's King Center in limbo". USA Today. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- "Chairman's Message: Introduction to the King Center and its Mission". The King Center. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- "Welcome". Higher Ground Productions. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- "The Triple Evils". "The King Center. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Williams, Brandt (January 16, 2005). "What would Martin Luther King do?". "Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- "IBM advertisement". "The Dallas Morning News. January 14, 1985. p. 13A.
- Joseph Leahy, "St. Louis Remains A Stronghold For Dr. King's Dream", News for St. Louis, St. Louis Public Radio, January 20, 2014
- "Proclamation 6401 – Martin Luther King Jr. Federal Holiday". The American Presidency Project. 1992. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Martin Luther King Day". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Goldberg, Carey (May 26, 1999). "Contrarian New Hampshire To Honor Dr. King, at Last". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- "The History of Martin Luther King Day". Infoplease. 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
- "Martin Luther King Day Weekend 2012" (PDF). Episcopal Church. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Church Year and Calendar". St. Bartholomew Lutheran Church. Archived from the original on January 10, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Martin Luther King Peace Committee; Martin Luther King Peace Committee; Newcastle University". ncl.ac.uk.
- Ncl.ac.uk; see also Ward, Brian. "A King in Newcastle; Martin Luther King Jr. And British Race Relations, 1967–1968." The Gerogia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (1995): 599–632.
- "Martin Luther King Jr., Justice Without Violence – April 3, 1957". Mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Why Jesus Called A Man A Fool. Delivered at Mount Pisgah Missionary Baptist Church, Chicago, Illinois, on 27 August 1967.
- "The Huffington Post. 2013. 'A Gift Of Love': Martin Luther King's Sermons From Strength To Love (EXCERPT).
- Farrell, James J. (1997). The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. Routledge. p. 90. "ISBN "0-415-91385-3.
- "Wofford, Harris Llewellyn (1926– )".
- Kahlenberg, Richard D. (1997). "Book Review: Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen". Washington Monthly. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- Enger, Mark and Paul. "When Martin Luther King Jr. gave up his guns".
- Bennett, Scott H. (2003). Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963. Syracuse University Press. p. 217. "ISBN "0-8156-3003-4.
- "Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958)".
- Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1869-1948), King Encyclopedia, Stanford University
- King Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; et al. (2005). The Papers of Martin Luther King Jr., Volume V: Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959 – December 1960 (PDF). University of California Press. p. 231. "ISBN "0-520-24239-4.
- "India Trip (1959)".
- King 1992, p. 13.
- Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford University Press. p. 62. "ISBN "0-19-513674-8.
- Frady 2002, p. 42.
- De Leon, David (1994). Leaders from the 1960s: a biographical sourcebook of American activism. Greenwood Publishing. p. 138. "ISBN "0-313-27414-2.
- Martin Luther King (December 11, 1964). "Nobel Lecture by MLK". The King Center. p. 12.
- King 1992, pp. 135–36.
- King Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; et al. (2005). The Papers of Martin Luther King Jr., Volume V: Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959 – December 1960. University of California Press. pp. 149, 269, 248. "ISBN "0-520-24239-4.
- King, M. L. Morehouse College (Chapter 2 of The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.)
- Reinhold Niebuhr and Contemporary Politics: God and Power
- "Agape". Martin Luther King Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Wang, Lisa. "Martin Luther King Jr.'s Troubled Attitude toward Nonviolent Resistance" (PDF). Exposé. Harvard College Writing Program. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "Nonviolence: The Only Road to Freedom – Teaching American History". teachingamericanhistory.org.
- "Birmingham civil rights activist Colonel Stone Johnson has died (slideshow)". AL.com.
- "Armed Resistance in the Civil Rights Movement: Charles E. Cobb and Danielle L. McGuire on Forgotten History". The American Prospect.
- Lance Hill. "The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 2006), p. 245–250". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- Oates, Stephen B. (December 13, 1993). Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins. p. 159. "ISBN "978-0-06-092473-7.
- King Jr., Martin Luther (2000). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957 – December 1958. University of California Press. p. 364. "ISBN "978-0-520-22231-1.
- Merriner, James L. (March 9, 2003). "Illinois' liberal giant, Paul Douglas". "Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
- King Jr., Martin Luther (2000). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957 – December 1958. University of California Press. p. 84. "ISBN "978-0-520-22231-1.
- King Jr., Martin Luther (1992). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The papers of Martin Luther King Jr. University of California Press. p. 384. "ISBN "978-0-520-07951-9.
- King Jr., Martin Luther; Carson, Clayborne (1998). The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. Hachette Digital. p. 187. "ISBN "978-0-446-52412-4.
- "Mr. Conservative: Barry Goldwater's Opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964". September 18, 2006. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
- Hendricks Jr., Obery M. "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr.".
- Washington 1991.
- Washington 1991, pp. 365–67.
- Washington 1991, pp. 367–68.
- "Quotes". worldpopulationbalance.org. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- "Family Planning – A Special and Urgent Concern". "Planned Parenthood. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Honey, Michael K. (2007). "Standing at the Crossroads". Going down Jericho Road the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign (1 ed.). Norton. "ISBN "978-0-393-04339-6.
Hoover developed a round-the-clock surveillance campaign aimed at destroying King.
- "Church, Frank (April 23, 1976), "Church Committee Book III", Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Case Study, "Church Committee
- "Garrow, David J. (July–August 2002). "The FBI and Martin Luther King". The Atlantic Monthly.
- Ryskind, Allan H. (February 27, 2006). "JFK and RFK Were Right to Wiretap MLK". Human Events. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Kotz 2005.
- Herst 2007, p. 372.
- Christensen, Jen (April 7, 2008). "FBI tracked King's every move". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Glick, Brian (1989). War at Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It. South End Press. p. 77. "ISBN "978-0-89608-349-3.
- The Guardian, September 26, 2013, "Declassified NSA Files Show Agency Spied on Muhammad Ali and MLK Operation Minaret Set Up in 1960s to Monitor Anti-Vietnam Critics, Branded 'Disreputable If Not Outright Illegal' by NSA Itself," The Guardian
- Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. pp. 246–7. "ISBN "0-86554-207-4.
- Kotz 2005, p. 233.
- Kotz 2005, pp. 70–74.
- Woods, Jeff (2004). Black Struggle, Red Scare: Segregation and Anti-communism in the South, 1948–1968. LSU Press. p. 126. "ISBN "0-8071-2926-7. See also: Wannall, Ray (2000). The Real J. Edgar Hoover: For the Record. Turner Publishing. p. 87. "ISBN "1-56311-553-0.
- Washington 1991, p. 362.
- Bruns, Roger (2006). Martin Luther King Jr.: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing. p. 67. "ISBN "0-313-33686-5.
- Kotz 2005, p. 83.
- Gilbert, Alan (1990). Democratic Individuality: A Theory of Moral Progress. Cambridge University Press. p. 435. "ISBN "0-521-38709-4.
- Washington 1991, p. 363.
- Sidey, Hugh (February 10, 1975). "L.B.J., Hoover and Domestic Spying". Time. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the walls came tumbling down: an autobiography. Harper & Row. p. 471. "ISBN "978-0-06-016192-7.
- Abernathy, Ralph David (October 29, 1989). "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down". Booknotes. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. William Morrow & Co. 1986. pp. 375–6.
- Frady 2002, p. 67.
- Raines, Howell (November 30, 1986). "Driven to Martyrdom". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Burnett, Thom (2005). "Conspiracy Encyclopedia. Collins & Brown. p. 58. "ISBN "1-84340-287-4.
- Spragens, William C. (1988). Popular Images of American Presidents. Greenwood Publishing. p. 532. "ISBN "978-0-313-22899-5.
- Gage, Beverly (November 11, 2014). "What an Uncensored Letter to M.L.K. Reveals". "The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- Kotz 2005, p. 247.
- Frady 2002, pp. 158–159.
- Wilson, Sondra K. (1999). In Search of Democracy: The NAACP Writings of James Weldon Johnson, Walter White, and Roy Wilkins (1920–1977). Oxford University Press. p. 466. "ISBN "0-19-511633-X.
- Phillips, Geraldine N. (Summer 1997). "Documenting the Struggle for Racial Equality in the Decade of the Sixties". Prologue. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Polk, Jim (December 29, 2008). "Black In America – Behind the Scenes: 'Eyewitness to Murder: The King Assassination'". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- McKnight, Gerald (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI, and the Poor People's Crusade. Westview Press. p. 76. "ISBN "0-8133-3384-9.
- Martin Luther King Jr.: The FBI Files. Filiquarian Publishing. 2007. pp. 40–2. "ISBN "1-59986-253-0. See also: Polk, James (April 7, 2008). "King conspiracy theories still thrive 40 years later". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2008. and "King's FBI file Part 1 of 2" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012. and "King's FBI file Part 2 of 2" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Knight, Peter (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 408–9. "ISBN "1-57607-812-4.
- Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. InterVarsity Press. p. 79. "ISBN "0-8308-2658-0.
- Wintle, Justin (2001). Makers of Modern Culture: Makers of Culture. Routledge. p. 272. "ISBN "0-415-26583-5.
- Engel, Irving M. "Commemorating Martin Luther King Jr.: Presentation of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- King Jr., Martin Luther. "Commemorating Martin Luther King Jr.: Response to Award of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today". NAACP. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- "Martin Luther King Jr.". "Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- "The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. upon accepting The Planned Parenthood Federation Of America Margaret Sanger Award". "PPFA. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- "SCLC Press Release". SCLC via the King Center. May 16, 1966. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Ward, Brian. "A King in Newcastle; Martin Luther King Jr. And British Race Relations, 1967–1968." The Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (1995): 599–632.
- "Martin Luther King Honorary Ceremony – Congregations – Newcastle University". ncl.ac.uk.
- Gates, Henry Louis; Appiah, Anthony (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books. p. 1348. "ISBN "0-465-00071-1.
- Carter, Jimmy (July 11, 1977). "Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks on Presenting the Medal to Dr. Jonas E. Salk and to Martin Luther King Jr.". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Congressional Gold Medal Recipients (1776 to Present)". Office of the Clerk: U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
- Gallup, George; Gallup Jr., Alec (2000). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1999. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 249. "ISBN "0-8420-2699-1.
- Harpaz, Beth J. (December 27, 1999). "Time Names Einstein as Person of the Century". – via "HighBeam Research (subscription required). Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Reagan voted 'greatest American'". BBC. June 28, 2005. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Alderman, Derek H. (February 13, 2006). "Naming Streets for Martin Luther King Jr.: No Easy Road" (PDF). Landscape and Race in the United States. Routledge Press. Retrieved July 4, 2011.["dead link]
- "King County Was Rededicated For MLK". The Seattle Times. January 18, 1998. Retrieved June 13, 2008. See also: "New logo is an image of civil rights leader". King County. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay Competition Winners Announced". City of Harrisburg. January 19, 2003. Archived from the original on December 7, 2007. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Wax, Emily (August 23, 2011). "Martin Luther King Jr. sites across the globe". "The Washington Post. Lifestyle: Full Coverage: The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- Trescott, Jacqueline (2011-08-23). "Across D.C., statues honor African Americans". "The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- Ramanathan, Levanya, "Pieces of Black History", Washington Post, January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "Washington, DC Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation Breaks Ground On Historic $100 Million Memorial On The National Mall In Washington, D.C.". Washington, DC Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation. November 6, 2006. Archived from the original on June 16, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Tobias, Randall L. (January 18, 2007). "Celebrating the Birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (August 23, 2011). "A Dream Fulfilled, Martin Luther King Memorial Opens". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013.
- "Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial". National Park Service. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Guevara, Brittni (July 26, 2011). "FYIDC: Paying Tribute To Dr. King". Washington Life. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "A monument to MLK will crown Stone Mountain – Political Insider blog".
- "Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial". Downtown Norfolk. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Parker, Stacy (February 1, 2012). "Memorial's story reflects King's vision". "The Virginian Pilot.
- "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on the front of the $20 bill". Usatoday.com. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography. Harper & Row. "ISBN "0-06-016192-2.
- "Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan's Edge: America In the King Years, 1965–1968. Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-684-85712-X.
- Cohen, Adam Seth; Taylor, Elizabeth (2000). Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Back Bay. "ISBN "0-316-83489-0.
- "Frady, Marshall (2002). Martin Luther King Jr.: A Life. Penguin. "ISBN "978-0-14-303648-7.
- "Garrow, David J. (1981). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. Penguin Books. "ISBN "0-14-006486-9.
- Garrow, David. "Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1989). Pulitzer Prize. "ISBN 978-0-06-056692-0
- "James L. Bevel, The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement", a 1984 paper by Randall Kryn, published with a 1988 addendum by Kryn in Prof. "David Garrow's We Shall Overcome, Volume II (Carlson Publishing Company, 1989).
- Glisson, Susan M. (2006). The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement. Rowman & Littlefield. "ISBN "0-7425-4409-5.
- Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edger. Carroll & Graf. "ISBN "0-7867-1982-6.
- Jackson, Thomas F. (2006). From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice. University of Pennsylvania Press. "ISBN "978-0-8122-3969-0.
- King Jr., Martin Luther (1998). Carson, Clayborne, ed. Autobiography. Warner Books. p. 6. "ISBN "0-446-52412-3.
- King Jr., Martin Luther; Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A. (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. University of California Press. "ISBN "0-520-07950-7.
- Kotz, Nick (2005). Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Laws that Changed America. Houghton Mifflin Books. "ISBN "0-618-08825-3.
- Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M.; Patterson, James T. (2006). Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968. Rowman & Littlefield. "ISBN "0-7425-5109-1.
- Robbins, Mary Susannah (2007). Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists. Rowman & Littlefield. "ISBN "0-7425-5914-9.
- Washington, James M. (1991). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins. "ISBN "0-06-064691-8.
- Ayton, Mel (2005). A Racial Crime: James Earl Ray And The Murder Of Martin Luther King Jr. Archebooks Publishing. "ISBN "1-59507-075-3.
- "Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963. Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-671-46097-8.
- Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–1965. Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-684-80819-6.
- "King, Coretta Scott (1993) . My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. Henry Holth & Co. "ISBN "0-8050-2445-X.
- King Jr., Martin Luther (2015). "Cornel West, ed. The Radical King. "Beacon Press. "ISBN "0-8070-1282-3.
- Kirk, John A., ed. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement: Controversies and Debates (2007). pp. 224
- Schulke, Flip; McPhee, Penelope. King Remembered, Foreword by Jesse Jackson (1986). "ISBN 978-1-4039-9654-1
- Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta. Dreams and Nightmares: Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X, and the Struggle for Black Equality. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2012. "ISBN 0-8130-3723-9.
||This section's use of "external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (July 2015) ("Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Martin Luther King Jr. (in the "public domain in Canada)
- Martin Luther King Jr. at "DMOZ
- The King Center
- "Martin Luther King Jr. Collection", Morehouse College, RWWL
- The Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project
- FBI file on Martin Luther King Jr.
- FBI letter sent MLK to convince him to kill himself "Vox, 2015.
- Martin Luther King Jr.'s Nobel Peace Prize, Civil Rights Digital Library
- Works by Martin Luther King Jr. at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Martin Luther King Jr. at "Internet Archive
- Westminster Abbey: Martin Luther King Jr.
- Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. at Buffalo, digital collection of Dr. King's visit and speech in Buffalo, New York on November 9, 1967, from the "University at Buffalo Libraries
- King and Parks at Highlander Folk School. The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks.
Speeches and interviews
- Audio from April 1961 King, "The Church on the Frontier of Racial Tensions", speech at Southern Seminary
- "Martin Luther King Jr. Historic Speeches and Interviews"
- The New Negro, King interviewed by "J. Waites Waring
- "Interview with Dr. Kenneth Clark", PBS
- "Beyond Vietnam" speech text and audio
- King Institute Encyclopedia multimedia
- "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", sermon at the Ebenezer Baptist Church on April 30, 1967 (audio of speech with video 23:31)
- "Walk to Freedom", Detroit, June 23, 1963. Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs. Wayne State University.
- Chiastic outline of Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech
- Digitized images of Jim Curtis photograph collection on Civil Rights in Kentucky, 1964. March on Frankfort led by Martin Luther King Jr. and Jackie Robinson. Housed at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center
|Awards and achievements|
"International Committee of the Red Cross
"League of Red Cross Societies
|"Nobel Peace Prize Laureate