Jackson, not running in 1836, was determined to make Van Buren his successor in order to continue the Jackson administration's policies. This conclusion on Jackson's part soon became public. When the "Democratic Convention met in "Baltimore, "Maryland in May, 1835, 18 months before the election, the delegates nominated Van Buren "unanimously. Two names were put forward for the vice-presidential nomination: Representative "Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky, and former senator "William Cabell Rives of Virginia. Southern Democrats, and Van Buren himself, strongly preferred Rives. Jackson, on the other hand, strongly preferred Johnson. Again, Jackson's considerable influence prevailed, however, Johnson received the required two-thirds vote only after New York Senator "Silas Wright prevailed upon non-delegate Edward Rucker to cast the 15 votes of the absent Tennessee delegation in his favor.
On the issue of slavery, Van Buren moved to obtain the support of southerners by assuring them that he opposed abolitionism and supported the maintaining of slavery in states where it had already existed. Regarding the national bank, Van Buren made clear that he opposed rechartering a "national bank. To demonstrate "consistency regarding his opinions on slavery, Van Buren cast the tie-breaking Senate vote in favor of "engrossing a bill to subject "abolitionist mail to state laws, thus ensuring that its circulation would be prohibited in the South.
Martin Van Buren's competitors in the "election of 1836 were three members of the newly established "Whig Party. Still a loose "coalition bound by mutual opposition to Jackson's anti-bank policies but lacking the party unity or organizational strength to field a single ticket or define a coherent platform, the Whigs ran several regional candidates in hopes of sending the election to the House of Representatives, where each state delegation would have one vote and the Whigs would stand a better chance of winning. They were: "Hugh White of Tennessee, "Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and "William Henry Harrison of Indiana. Besides endorsing internal improvements and a national bank, the Whigs tried to tie Democrats to abolitionism and sectional tension, and attacked Jackson for "acts of aggression and usurpation of power."
The Whigs nominated New York "Anti-Mason "Francis Granger and former Democrat "John Tyler of Virginia for vice president. Richard Johnson, Van Buren's running mate, was a hero of the "War of 1812, and claimed to have killed "Tecumseh at the "Battle of the Thames. Since Harrison was campaigning for president as the "hero of "Tippecanoe," Johnson's friends countered with:
Rumpsey, dumpsey, rumpsey dumpsey,
Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh!
Van Buren won the election with 764,198 popular votes, only 50.9 percent of the total, and 170 "electoral votes. Harrison led the Whigs with 73 electoral votes, White receiving 26 and Webster 14. Willie P. Mangum of South Carolina received his state’s 11 electoral votes. His victory resulted from a combination of his own attractive political and personal qualities, Jackson's popularity and endorsement, the organizational power of the Democratic party, and the inability of the Whig Party—at this point—to muster an effective candidate and campaign. Johnson, however, received only 147 electoral votes, 70 more than his closest contender, Francis Granger, but one less than the number required to elect. Virginia's electors had remained loyal to Van Buren, who carried the state by a close margin, but instead, they all "refused to vote for Johnson. By winning the election, Van Buren became the first president to be born after the "United States Declaration of Independence from the "Kingdom of Great Britain.
On February 8, 1837, the U.S. Senate convened, and in accordance with the "Twelfth Amendment chose the vice president from the two top electoral vote recipients, Johnson, and Granger. Johnson won the contingent vote, 33-17, and became the nation's ninth vice president.
White House hostess
For the first half of his presidency, Van Buren, who had been a widower for many years, did not have a specific person fill the role of White House hostess at administration social events, but tried to assume such duties himself. When his eldest son "Abraham Van Buren married "Angelica Singleton in 1838, he quickly acted to install his daughter-in-law as his hostess. She solicited the advice of her distant relative, "Dolly Madison, who had moved back to Washington after her "husband's death, and soon the president's parties livened up. After the 1839 New Year's Eve reception, the Boston Post raved: "[Angelica Van Buren is a] lady of rare accomplishments, very modest yet perfectly easy and graceful in her manners and free and vivacious in her conversation ... universally admired."
As the nation endured a deep economic depression, newspaper coverage of Angelica van Buren's receiving style at receptions, influenced by her heavy reading on European court life (and her naive delight in being received as the Queen of the United States when she visited the royal courts of England and France after her marriage), as well as the anecdotal claim that she intended to re-landscape the "White House grounds to resemble the royal gardens of Europe were used in a political attack on her father-in-law by a Pennsylvania Whig Congressman "Charles Ogle. He referred obliquely to her as part of the presidential "household" in his famous "Gold Spoon Oration. The attack was delivered in Congress and the depiction of the President as living a royal lifestyle was a primary factor in his defeat for re-election.
Panic of 1837
When Van Buren entered office, it was clear that the nation's economic health had taken a turn for the worse and that the prosperity of the early 1830s was over. Two months into his presidency, on May 10, 1837, some important state banks in New York, running out of hard currency reserves, suddenly refused to convert paper money into gold or silver. Other financial institutions throughout the nation quickly followed suit. This "financial crisis would become known as the "Panic of 1837. The Panic was followed by a five-year "depression in which banks failed and "unemployment reached record highs.
Van Buren blamed the economic collapse on what he viewed as greedy American and foreign business and financial institutions, as well as on the over extension of credit by U.S. banks. Whig leaders in Congress blamed the Democrats, along with Andrew Jackson's economic policies, specifically his 1836 "Specie Circular. Cries of "rescind the circular!" went up and former President Jackson sent word to Van Buren asking him not to rescind the order, believing that it had to be given enough time to work. Others, like "Nicholas Biddle, believed that Jackson's "dismantling of the Bank of the United States was directly responsible for the irresponsible creation of paper money by the state banks which had precipitated this crisis.
To deal with the crisis, the Whigs proposed rechartering the "national bank. The president countered by proposing the establishment of an "independent U.S. treasury. Such a system would, he asserted, take the politics out of the nation's money supply: the government would hold all of its money balances in the form of "gold or silver and would be restricted from printing "paper money at will, a measure designed to prevent "inflation. Van Buren announced his proposal in September 1837; but that was too much for state banking interests, and an alliance of conservative Democrats and Whigs prevented it from becoming law until 1840. (The independent treasury lasted only one year; for the Whigs, who won a congressional majority and the presidency in the 1840 elections, promptly repealed the law.)
By the time Congress finally acted, the nation's economy had been mired in a depression for nearly four years; the problems would continue into the early 1840s. More important for Van Buren's immediate future, the depression would be a major issue in his upcoming re-election campaign.
Regarding "Indian removal, in 1838, Van Buren directed General "Winfield Scott to forcibly move all those "Cherokee who had not yet complied with the 1835 "Treaty of New Echota and departed from the "Southeastern United States and moved west (to present day "Oklahoma). The Cherokee were herded violently into internment camps, where they were kept for the summer of 1838. The actual transportation west was delayed by intense heat and drought, but in the fall, the Cherokee reluctantly agreed to transport themselves west. During the Cherokee removal, part of the "Trail of Tears, some 20,000 people were relocated against their will.
In the course of Van Buren's four-year-long presidency, the federal government negotiated 19 treaties with "Indian nations. The administration also contended with the Seminole in Florida, who engaged the "army in a seven-year battle. Known as the "Second Seminole War, the battle began in 1835, during Jackson's presidency. Fighting was not resolved until 1842, after Van Buren had left office. It is regarded as the longest and most costly of the nation's "Indian conflicts.
In 1839, "Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of the "Latter Day Saint movement, visited Van Buren to plead for the U.S. to help roughly 20,000 Mormon settlers of "Independence, Missouri (who were forced from the state during the "1838 Mormon War) there. The Governor of Missouri, "Lilburn Boggs, had issued "an executive order on October 27, 1838, known as the "Extermination Order". It authorized troops to use force against Mormons to "exterminate or drive [them] from the state". In 1839, after moving to Illinois, Smith and his party appealed to members of Congress and to President Van Buren to intercede for the Mormons. According to Smith's grandnephew, Van Buren said to Smith, "Your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you; if I take up for you I shall lose the vote of Missouri".
In a bold step, Van Buren reversed Andrew Jackson's policies and sought peace at home, as well as abroad. Instead of settling a financial dispute between American citizens and the Mexican government by force, Van Buren wanted to seek a diplomatic solution. In an action that upset political leaders of the pro-slavery states, in August 1837, Van Buren denied "Texas' formal request to join the United States, partly to prevent the upset of the slave state/free state balance in the "Missouri Compromise, and partly because he hoped to avoid a possible war with Mexico over Texas annexation.
British North America
British subjects in "Lower Canada (now Quebec) and "Upper Canada (now Ontario) rose in "rebellion in 1837 and 1838, protesting their lack of "responsible government. The rebellion in Lower Canada began in November 1837, and was led by such leaders as "Wolfred Nelson, "Louis-Joseph Papineau and "Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan. The rebellion in Upper Canada began soon afterward, and was led by "William Lyon Mackenzie and "Charles Duncombe.
While the initial insurrection in Upper Canada ended quickly (following the December 7 "Battle of Montgomery's Tavern), many of the rebels fled across the "Niagara River into New York, where Mackenzie began recruiting volunteers in "Buffalo.  On December 13, Mackenzie declared establishment of the "Republic of Canada and put into motion a plan whereby volunteers would invade Upper Canada from "Navy Island on the Canadian side of the Niagara River. Several hundred volunteers traveled to Navy Island in the weeks that followed. They procured the steamboat "Caroline to deliver supplies (food, arms, and cannon shot) to Navy Island from "Fort Schlosser. To deter an imminent invasion, British forces crossed to the American bank of the river, where they burned and sank the ship. In the melee, one American was killed and others wounded. Considerable sentiment arose within the United States to declare war, and a British ship was burned in revenge. Soon afterward, Mackenzie’s "republic" collapsed, and the rebels withdrew into the U.S.; the initial uprising in Lower Canada had by then collapsed as well.
Van Buren, looking to avoid a war with Great Britain, sent General Winfield Scott to the "border with large discretionary powers for its protection and its peace. Scott impressed upon American citizens the need for a peaceful resolution to the crisis, and made it clear that the U.S. government would not support adventuresome Americans attacking the British. Also, in early January 1838, the president proclaimed U.S. neutrality with regard to the Canadian independence issue, a declaration which Congress endorsed by passing a neutrality law designed to discourage the participation of American citizens in foreign conflicts.
Simultaneously, Charles Duncombe and Robert Nelson, helped foment a largely American militia, the "Hunters' Lodge/"Frères chasseurs, which carried out several attacks in Upper Canada between December 1837 and December 1838, collectively known as the "Patriot War. The administration followed through on its enforcement of the Neutrality Act, encouraged the prosecution of filibusters, and actively deterred U.S. citizens from subversive activities abroad. In the long term, the Patriot War contributed to the construction of healthy "Anglo–American and "U.S.–Canadian relationships in the 20th century; it also led, more immediately, to a backlash among citizens regarding the seeming overreach of federal authority, which hurt congressional Democrats in the 1838 midterm elections.
Another crisis surfaced in late 1838, in the disputed territory on the "Maine–"New Brunswick frontier, where Americans were settling on disputed land claimed by the United States and Great Britain. Both American and New Brunswick "lumberjacks cut timber in the disputed territory during the winter of 1838–39. On December 29, New Brunswick lumbermen were spotted cutting down trees on an American’s estate near the "Aroostook River. American woodcutters rushed to stand guard. A shouting match, known as the "Battle of Caribou, ensued.
Tensions quickly boiled over into a near war with both Maine and New Brunswick arresting each others citizens. The crisis seemed ready to turn into an armed conflict. British troops began to gather on the "Saint John River. The American press clamored for war; “Maine and her soil, or BLOOD!” screamed one editorial. “Let the sword be drawn and the scabbard thrown away!” Congress authorized 50,000 troops and a $10 million budget.
To settle the crisis, Van Buren met with the British minister to the United States. They agreed to resolve the border issue diplomatically. Van Buren also sent General Scott to the northern border area, both to show military resolve, and more importantly, to lower the tensions. Scott successfully convinced all sides to submit the border issue to arbitration. The dispute was put to rest a few years later, with the signing of the 1842 "Webster–Ashburton Treaty.
United States v. The Amistad
In the "Amistad case, a "freedom suit that involved international issues and parties, as well as United States law, resulting from the rebellion of Africans on board the Spanish "schooner "La Amistad in 1839, the Van Buren administration supported the "Spanish government's demand that the ship and its cargo (including the Africans) be turned over to them. When a Federal District Court judge ruled that the Africans were legally free and should be transported home, Van Buren had the case appealed to the Supreme Court.
In February 1840, former President (and sitting U.S. Representative from Massachusetts) "John Quincy Adams argued passionately for the Africans' right to freedom. Attorney General "Henry D. Gilpin presented the government’s case. In March 1841, the Supreme Court issued its final verdict: the Amistad Africans were free people and should be allowed to return home. The unique nature of the case, people of color testifying in federal court, and being represented by prominent lawyers, heightened public interest in the saga, as did the participation of former president Adams. The Amistad case drew attention to the personal tragedies of slavery and attracted new support for the growing abolition movement in the North. It also transformed the courts into the principal forum for a national debate on the legal foundations of slavery.
|The Van Buren Cabinet|
|"President||Martin Van Buren||1837–1841|
|"Vice President||"Richard Mentor Johnson||1837–1841|
|"Secretary of State||"John Forsyth||1837–1841|
|"Secretary of Treasury||"Levi Woodbury||1837–1841|
|"Secretary of War||"Joel R. Poinsett||1837–1841|
|"Attorney General||"Benjamin Butler||1837–1838|
|"Henry D. Gilpin||1840–1841|
|"Postmaster General||"Amos Kendall||1837–1840|
|"John M. Niles||1840–1841|
|"Secretary of the Navy||"Mahlon Dickerson||1837–1838|
|"James K. Paulding||1838–1841|
Martin Van Buren announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor", and retained all but one of Jackson's cabinet.
Van Buren appointed two "Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States:
Van Buren also appointed eight other federal judges, all to "United States district courts.
Midterm elections of 1838
The Panic of 1837 loomed large over the "1838 election cycle, as the carryover effects of the economic downturn led to Whig gains in both the U.S. House and Senate. Also, while the Democratic Party retained a majority in both chambers, a split among House Democrats led to Whig Congressman "Robert M. T. Hunter being elected "Speaker of the House for the "26th Congress. Likewise, state elections in 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial economic recovery in 1838 was offset by a second commercial crisis later that year.
Presidential election of 1840
Van Buren easily won renomination for a second term at the "1840 Democratic National Convention, but he and his party faced a difficult "election in 1840. Van Buren's presidency had been a difficult affair, with the U.S. economy mired in a severe downturn, and other divisive issues, such as slavery, western expansion, and tensions with Great Britain, providing opportunities for Van Buren's political opponents—and even some of his fellow Democrats—to criticize his actions. Although Van Buren's renomination was never in doubt, Democratic strategists began to question the wisdom of keeping Johnson on the ticket. Even former president Jackson conceded that Johnson was a liability and insisted on former House Speaker "James K. Polk of Tennessee as Van Buren's new running mate. With William Henry Harrison, Johnson's former commander and comrade-in-arms and the "Hero of Tippecanoe," emerging as a likely "Whig presidential contender, Van Buren was reluctant to drop the Democrats' own hero from the ticket. The convention decided to allow state Democratic Party leaders to select the vice-presidential candidates for their states.
The Whigs did select Harrison as their nominee, and presented him to the nation as the antithesis of the president, whom they derided as ineffective, corrupt, and effete. Van Buren was blamed for the hard economic times, and ridiculed as Martin Van Ruin. Van Buren's rather elegant personal style was also an easy target for Whig attacks, such as the "Gold Spoon Oration.
Van Buren remained optimistic about his chances for reelection until October 1840, by which time it became unlikely that he would defeat Harrison. An astonishing 80 percent of eligible voters went to the polls on election day. Harrison won by a popular vote of 1,275,612 to 1,130,033, and an electoral vote margin of 234 to 60. Additionally, Whigs won majorities for the first time in both the U.S. House and the Senate.
A "linguistic legacy of the 1840 campaign was attributed to Van Buren himself, the expression ""OK." Although some language experts attribute OK to other proposed origins, including words from the "Choctaw or "Wolof languages, and others to an abbreviation of "oll korrect," misspellings attributed to Andrew Jackson, the prevailing opinion is that it derives from "Old Kinderhook," one of the many nicknames for Van Buren. The first recorded use of "OK" in the sense of approval dates back to 1839 when a newspaper referred to a Democratic meeting of "the roarers, the butt-enders, ringtails and OKs," adding, "the allusion was probably to those who put their OK on the nomination of Van Buren."
On the expiration of his term, Van Buren returned to his estate, "Lindenwald in Kinderhook, where he planned his return to the White House. He seemed likely to be nominated by the Democrats in 1844, but in April of that year a Van Buren letter to "William H. Hammett was made public. In it, Van Buren opposed the immediate annexation of "Texas, but said that he would support annexation once the state of war between Texas and "Mexico was resolved. Van Buren's opposition to immediate annexation cost him the support of pro-slavery Democrats; he began the "Democratic National Convention with a majority of the delegates, but with no southern support he could not reach the two-thirds threshold required for nomination. His name was withdrawn after eight ballots, and a "dark horse, "James K. Polk, received the nomination and went on to "win the presidency. After taking office, Polk used "George Bancroft as an intermediary to offer Van Buren the ambassadorship to London. Van Buren declined, partly because he was upset with Polk over the treatment the Van Buren delegates had received at the 1844 convention, and partly because he was content in his retirement.
While in the "State Senate Van Buren voted for a resolution instructing New York's members of Congress to vote against the admission of "Missouri as a "slave state. However, despite these antislavery views, during his term of office there was no ambiguity about his position on the abolition of slavery. He actually considered slavery immoral, but sanctioned by the Constitution. Consequently, Van Buren believed he had no choice but to oppose any attempt on the part of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia against the wishes of the slave-holding States, and to resist the slightest interference with it in the states where it existed.
After leaving the White House, Van Buren grew increasingly opposed to slavery, and his earlier views about its constitutional standing gave way over time to acceptance of anti-slavery positions including opposing slavery's expansion into newly organized western states. "In 1848, he was nominated for President by two minor parties, first by the ""Barnburner" faction of the Democratic Party in New York, then by the "Free Soil Party, with whom the "Barnburners" coalesced. The Barnburners and Free Soilers opposed Democratic nominee "Lewis Cass, who opposed the "Wilmot Proviso and was otherwise seen as friendly to slavery. In addition, Van Buren, who had been denied the 1844 nomination by Cass supporters despite having begun the convention with a majority of delegates, may have run in order to exact a measure of revenge by denying Cass the presidency. Van Buren won no electoral votes, but finished second to "Whig nominee "Zachary Taylor in New York, taking enough votes from Cass to give the state—and perhaps the election—to Taylor.
Unlike many anti-slavery Democrats of the 1840s and 1850s, who later joined the "Republican Party, Van Buren and most of his followers remained in the Democratic fold, including his son "John Van Buren and "Samuel J. Tilden, who later served as Governor of New York and was the Democratic nominee for "President in 1876. Van Buren supported "Franklin Pierce for President in 1852, and "James Buchanan in 1856, though he later opposed the Buchanan administration's efforts to accommodate the southern states when they threatened secession.
"In the election of 1860, he supported "Stephen A. Douglas, the candidate of northern Democrats, and helped create a "fusion ticket in New York of Democratic "electors pledged to both Douglas and "John C. Breckinridge, but "Abraham Lincoln carried New York and every northern state except "New Jersey. Once the "American Civil War began, Van Buren made public his support for the "Union, and supported "Abraham Lincoln's efforts to prevent the southern states from seceding. In April, 1861 former President Pierce wrote to the other living former Presidents and asked them to consider meeting in order to use their stature and influence to propose a negotiated end to the war. Pierce asked Van Buren to use his role as the senior living ex-President to issue a formal call. Van Buren's reply suggested that Buchanan should be the one to call the meeting, since he was the former President who had served most recently, or that Pierce should issue the call himself if he strongly believed in the merit of his proposal. Neither Buchanan or Pierce was willing to make Pierce's proposal public, and nothing more resulted from it.
Van Buren's health began to fail later in 1861, and he was bedridden with pneumonia during the fall and winter of 1861–62. He did not recover, and died of bronchial "asthma and "heart failure at his Lindenwald estate in Kinderhook at 2:00 a.m. on July 24, 1862, at the age of 79. He is buried in the "Kinderhook Reformed Dutch Church Cemetery, as are his wife Hannah, his parents, and his son Martin Van Buren, Jr.
Counties are named for Martin Van Buren in "Michigan, "Iowa, "Arkansas, and "Tennessee. "Cass County, Missouri was originally named for Van Buren, and was renamed in 1849 to honor "Lewis Cass because Missouri allowed slavery, and Van Buren had opposed slavery as the presidential candidate of the Free Soil Party in 1848.
Cities and towns
Cities and towns named for Van Buren include:
- "Van Buren, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Clay County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Brown County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Monroe County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Grant County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Pulaski County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Fountain County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, LaGrange County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Madison County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Kosciusko County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Daviess County, Indiana
- "Van Buren Township, Shelby County, Indiana
- In addition, Van Buren Township in "LaPorte County, Indiana was later merged with "Noble Township.
- Van Buren, "Anderson County The small community was abandoned due to the construction and flooding of Taylorsville Lake from 1974 to 1983.
- "Van Buren Charter Township, Michigan
- Also, "Martin, Michigan (Allegan County), and the now-defunct village of Martinsville in "Sumpter Township were named for him.
- "Van Buren (a village in "Hancock County)
- "Van Buren Township, Shelby County, Ohio. This township started to be populated by white settlers in the early 1830s. It was incorporated in 1835, and its government organized in 1841.
- "Van Buren Township, Putnam County, Ohio. Originally part of "Blanchard Township, it was surveyed in 1821, became home to its first white settlers in 1835, and was organized in 1843.
- "Van Buren Township, Darke County, Ohio
- "Van Buren Township, Hancock County, Ohio
- "Van Buren, "Hardeman County (unincorporated) Established in 1831, this unincorporated populated area is located at the intersection of Van Buren and Lake Hardeman Roads, and shares a "ZIP code with "Hickory Valley.
- "Van Buren, "Grant County In 1841 this unincorporated area was combined with unincorporated areas named for "Lafayette and "Osceola to form the incorporated town of "Potosi.
"Van Buren State Park and "Van Buren Trail State Park in Michigan, and Ohio's "Van Buren State Park and its Van Buren Lake are named for him.
"Mount Van Buren on the "Palmer Land portion of "Antarctica was named for Martin Van Buren.
Van Buren Island in the "St. Lawrence River, part of the "Thousand Islands, sits at latitude 44.404339N, 75.892119W. Though named for the U.S. President, this island is in Canadian waters.
"USS Van Buren, a "United States Navy schooner in service from 1839 to 1847 was also named for Martin Van Buren.
- "Martin Van Buren High School, "Queens Village, New York
- Martin Van Buren Elementary School, located on Van Buren Street in "Indio, California.
In popular culture
- During the "1988 presidential campaign, "George H. W. Bush, a "Yale University graduate and member of the "Skull and Bones secret society, was attempting to become the first incumbent Vice President to win election to the presidency since Van Buren. In the comic strip "Doonesbury artist "Garry Trudeau depicted members of Skull and Bones as attempting to rob Van Buren's grave, apparently intending to use the relics in a ritual that would aid Bush in the election.
- On the television show "Seinfeld, the episode ""The Van Buren Boys" is about a fictional "street gang that admires Van Buren and bases its rituals and symbols on him, including the hand sign of eight fingers pointing up. Eight fingers signifies Van Buren, the eighth President.
- Martin Van Buren was portrayed by "Nigel Hawthorne in the "1997 film "Amistad. The film depicts the controversy and legal battle surrounding the status of slaves who in 1839 rebelled against their transporters on "La Amistad slave ship.
- In Episode 1 Season 2 of "Veep ('Midterms'), Vice President Selina Meyer is told that a colleague's office is opposite the picture of 'Fat Wolverine'. In the next scene the picture is revealed to be of Martin Van Buren.
- In an early scene of the film "Two Faces of January, the main characters – American expatriates in "Athens – encounter an American tourist and discover that she is a Van Buren descendant. They then argue over whether Martin Van Buren was the seventh or eighth President.
- The USS Van Buren is a fictional Navy aircraft carrier named for President Van Buren which has appeared in the television show "NCIS: Los Angeles.
- During the "2016 presidential campaign, a #FeeltheBuren "hashtag was created on "Twitter as a parody of "Bernie Sanders' #FeeltheBern campaign slogan.
- "American election campaigns in the 19th century
- "Charlotte Dupuy, slave who worked for Van Buren at "Decatur House, while her suit for freedom against "Henry Clay proceeded
- "List of Presidents of the United States
- "List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- "U.S. Presidents on U.S. postage stamps
- "Martin Van Buren: Life in Brief". Miller Center of Public Affairs University of Virginia. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- McCullough, Noah (2006). The Essential Book of Presidential Trivia. Random House. p. 44.
- Cole 1984, p. 4
- "Martin Van Buren". Herbert Hoover Presidential Library-Museum Office of Presidential Libraries U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- "Martin van Buren [1782-1862]". Albany, New York: New Netherland Institute. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Cole 1984, pp. 3, 9.
- Widner 2005, pp. 153–165.
- Navarro, Robert; Navarro, Espy M. (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris. p. 75. "ISBN "978-1-4257-0473-5.
- Roberts, James A. (1898). New York in the Revolution as Colony and State. Albany, NY: Brandow Printing Company. p. 109.
- Kane, Joseph Nathan (1998). Presidential Fact Book. Random House. p. 53. "ISBN "978-0-375-70244-0.
- Foss, William O. (2005). Childhoods of the American Presidents. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishing. p. 45. "ISBN "978-0-7864-2382-8.
- Collier, Edward Augustus (1914). A History of Old Kinderhook from Aboriginal Days to the Present Time. New York, NY: Knickerbocker Press. p. 551.
- "Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989: Kinderhook Dutch Reformed Church Baptism Entry, Marytje Van Alen". Ancestry.com. Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, LLC. August 20, 1768. (subscription required (. ))
- The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. 82–83. New York, NY: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 1951. p. 148.
- "Baptism record, Johannes Van Alen: U.S. Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639–2000". Ancestry.com. Ancestry.com, Inc. August 15, 1770. Retrieved January 14, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
- Irelan, John Robert (1887). History of the Life, Administration and Times of Martin Van Buren. Chicago, IL: Fairbanks and Palmer. p. 605.
- Navarro, Bob (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corp. p. 75.
- Brooke 2010, p. 481.
- Mosley, Charles; Brogan, Hugh (1993). American Presidential Families. Gloucestershire, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing. p. 314. "ISBN "978-0-0289-7305-0.
- Terry, R. M. (1885). Civil list of Columbia County, and official hand-book, 1786–1886. Hudson, NY: J. W. Prentiss. p. 113.
- Mackenzie, William Lyon (1846). The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren. Boston: Cooke & Co. p. 20.
- "Death notice, Jane Van Buren". The Weekly Standard. Raleigh, NC. July 18, 1838. p. 3.
- Collier, Edward Augustus (1914). A History of Old Kinderhook from Aboriginal Days to the Present Time. New York, NY: Knickerbocker Press. pp. 230, 390, 427, 547, 551.
- Miller, Peyton Farrell (1904). A Group of Great Lawyers of Columbia County, New York. New York, NY: De Vinne Press. p. 181.
- "Death notice, Abraham A. Van Buren". The New Yorker. New York, NY. November 5, 1836. p. 111.
- "Martin Van Buren, 1782–1862". Historical Society of the New York Courts. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Cole 1984, p. 14.
- Brooke 2010, p. 230.
- Sidey, Hugh (1999). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association. p. 23.
- Henretta, James A.; Edwards, Rebecca; Hinderaker, Eric; Self, Robert O. (2015). America: a Concise History, Combined Volume. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 290. "ISBN "978-1-4576-4862-5.
- Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2008). Martin Van Buren: The Little Magician. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. p. 10. "ISBN "978-1-60456-773-1.
- Koenig, Louis William (1960). The Invisible Presidency. New York, NY: Rinehart & Company. p. 89.
- Foss, William O. (2005). Childhoods of the American Presidents. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 46.
- Fleming, Thomas J. (1999). Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America. Basic Books. p. 213.
- Henry, William Smith (1925). History of the Cabinet of the United States of America. Industrial Printing Company. p. 88.
- Van Buren, Martin (1920). Fitzpatrick, John Clement, ed. The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren, Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 14.
- Lazo, Caroline Evensen (2005). Martin Van Buren. Lerner Publications Company. p. 14.
- Matuz, Roger (2012). The Presidents Fact Book. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. p. 152.
- Silbey 2002, p. 27.
- McGeehan, John R. (2007). The Everything American History Book. Adams Media. p. 295.
- Brooke 2010, p. 283.
- Mackenzie, William Lyon (1846). The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren. Cooke & Company. pp. 21–22.
- Wilson, James Grant (1898). The Presidents of the United States 1789–1897. D. Appleton and Company. pp. 169–170.
- Shepard, Edward Morse (1896). American Statesman: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. p. 44.
- Weed, Thurlow; Parsons, John D. (1879). Civil List and Forms of Government of the Colony and State of New York. Weed, Parsons & Company. p. 345.
- Hannings, Bud (2012). The War of 1812: A Complete Chronology with Biographies of 63 General Officers. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. p. 327. "ISBN "978-0-7864-6385-5.
- Vile, John R. (2001). Great American Lawyers: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC_CLIO. p. 689. "ISBN "9781576072028.
- Eisenhower, John S. D. (1997). Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 100–101. "ISBN "978-0-8061-3128-3.
- Nowlan, Robert A. (2012). The American Presidents, Washington to Tyler: What They Did, What They Said, What Was Said About Them, with Full Source Notes. McFarland Publishing. p. 315.
- University of the State of New York Board of Regents (1845). Instructions from the Regents of the University to the Several Academies Subject to Their Visitation, Prescribing the Requisites and Forms of Academic Reports, &c. Albany, NY: C. Van Benthuysen & Co. p. 108.
- "Martin Van Buren". "The White House. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Keyssar, Alexander (2000). The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. Basic Books. p. 55.
- Van Buren 1867, pp. 103–114
- Derthick 1999, p. 102.
- Navarro, Bob (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Xlibris. p. 78. "ISBN "1-4257-0473-5.
- Van Buren, Martin, author; West, Elizabeth Howard, editor (1910). Calendar of the papers of Martin Van Buren. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 72.
- Dodd, William Edward (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin & Company. p. 76.
- Holland, William M. (1836). The Life and Political Opinions of Martin Van Buren. Belknap & Hammersley. pp. 269–273.
- Krabbendam, Hans, editor (2009). Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations: 1609–2009. State University of New York Press. p. 251.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 44.
- Shea, M. V., editor-in-chief (1920). The World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 10. W. F. Quarrie & Co. p. 6026.
- Stoddard, William Osborn (1887). Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. Frederick A. Stokes. p. 284.
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 111.
- Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2008). Martin Van Buren: The Little Magician. Nova Science Publishers. p. 51.
- Shepard, Edward M. (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin & Company. p. 138.
- Ayers, William L. (2009). American Passages: A History of the United States. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. p. 284.
- Richter, William L. (2006). The A to Z of the Old South. Scarecrow Press. p. 335.
- Force, Peter (1840). The Northern Man With Southern Principles, and the Southern Man With American Principles: Gen. William H. Harrison and Martin Van Buren, Esq. p. 27.
- Martin Van Buren to "Thomas Ritchie, January 13, 1827.
- Remini, Robert V. (2002). John Quincy Adams: The American Presidents Series: The 6th President, 1825–1829. Henry Holt & Co. p. 127.
- Benjamin, Gerald (2012). The Oxford Handbook of New York State Government and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 322.
- Neu, Irene D. (1960). Erastus Corning: Merchant and Financier, 1794–1872. Cornell University Press. p. 91.
- The Annals of Albany published by Joel Munsell (Albany, 1855; p. 183)
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 195.
- Rutgers College (1840). Catalogue of the Officers and Alumni of Rutgers College, New-Brunswick, New-Jersey. New Brunswick, NJ: John Terhune's Press. p. 20.
- The Missionary Society of the Reformed Dutch Church (August 1, 1829). "Religious Intelligence: Domestic". The Magazine of the Reformed Dutch Church. New York, NY: William Mercein. p. 153.
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 203.
- "Martin Van Buren". Biographies of the Secretaries of State. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Kincade, Vance Robert (2000). Heirs Apparent: Solving the Vice Presidential Dilemma. Praeger Publishers. p. 49.
- Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File, Inc. p. 79.
- Heller III, J. Roderick (2010). Democracy's Lawyer: Felix Grundy of the Old Southwest. Louisiana State University Press. p. 177.
- Cheathem, Mark Renfred; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). Jacksonian and Antebellum Age: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 30.
- Manweller, Mathew. Chronology of the U.S. Presidency. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 232. "ISBN "978-1-59884-645-4.
- "Andrew Jackson: The Petticoat Affair — Scandal in Jackon's White House". HistoryNet.com. World History Group. June 12, 2006. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Cheathem, Mark R. (2015). Andrew Jackson and the Rise of the Democrats: A Reference Guide. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 131. "ISBN "978-1-61069-406-3.
- Watson, Robert P. (2012). Affairs of State: The Untold History of Presidential Love, Sex, and Scandal, 1789–1900. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 196. "ISBN "978-1-4422-1834-5.
- Watson, Harry L. (2006). Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America. New York, NY: Hill & Wang. p. 125. "ISBN "978-0-8090-6547-9.
- Corps, Terry (2009). The A to Z of the Jacksonian Era and Manifest Destiny. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 116. "ISBN "978-0-8108-6850-2.
- Manweller, Mathew (2012). Chronology of the U.S. Presidency. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 246. "ISBN "978-1-59884-646-1.
- Shepard, Edward Shepard (1899). American Statesmen: Martin Van Buren. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. p. 224.
- Polk, James Knox (1886). Correspondence of James K. Polk: January-June 1845. University of Tennessee Press. p. 357.
- Remini, Robert V. (1991). Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 380.
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 124. "ISBN "978-0-691-04715-7.
- Risjord, Norman K. (2001). Representative Americans: The Romantics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 42.
- Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. Oxford University Press. p. 378.
- Blumenthal, Sidney (2016). A Self-Made Man: The Political Life of Abraham Lincoln. I. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 123. "ISBN "978-1-4767-7725-2.
- Tyler, Lyon Gardiner (1884). The Letters and Times of the Tylers. 1. Richmond, VA: Whittet & Shepperson. p. 439.
- Haynes, Stan M. (2012). The First American Political Conventions: Transforming Presidential Nominations, 1832–1872. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 81–82.
- Leeper, Clare D'Artois (2012). Louisiana Place Names: Popular, Unusual, and Forgotten Stories of Towns, Cities, Plantations, Bayous, and even some Cemeteries. Louisiana State University Press. p. 256.
- Murrin, John (2009). Liberty, Equality, Power: Enhanced Concise Edition. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 327.
- Holland, William M. (1836). The Life and Political Opinions of Martin Van Buren, Vice President of the United States. Belknap & Hammersley. p. 344.
- Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File, Inc. p. 81.
- Remini, Robert V. (1984). Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Democracy, 1833–1845, Volume 3. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 107–108.
- Hall, Kermit L. (2000). A Nation of States: Federalism at the Bar of the Supreme Court. Routledge. p. 300.
- Smith, William Henry (1925). History of the Cabinet of the United States of America. Industrial Printing Company. p. 96.
- MacNeil, Neil; Baker, Richard A. (2013). The American Senate: An Insider's History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 283. "ISBN "978-0-19-536761-4.
- Navarro, Bob (2006). The Era of Change: Executives and Events in a Period of Rapid Expansion. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 77–78.
- Boller, Paul F. (1996). Presidential Anecdotes. Oxford University Press. p. 87.
- Bathory, Peter Dennis (2001). Friends and Citizens: Essays in Honor of Wilson Carey McWilliams. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 91.
- Irelan, John Robert (1887). "History of the Life, Administration and Times of Martin Van Buren, Eighth President of the United States". Chicago: Fairbanks and Palmer Publishing Company. p. 230. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Richard Mentor Johnson, 9th Vice President (1837-1841)". Washington, D.C.: United States Senate, Office of the Historian. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. Oxford University Press. pp. 508–509.
- Nowlan, Robert A. The American Presidents, Washington to Tyler: What They Did, What They Said, What Was Said About Them, With Full Source Notes. McFarland Books. p. 319.
- "Martin Van Buren, 8th Vice President (1833–1837)". Washington, D.C.: United States Senate, Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Nelson, Michael (2013). Guide to the Presidency and the Executive Branch. CQ Press. p. 1962.
- "Presidential Elections". history.com. A+E Networks. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "Morison, Samuel Eliot (1965). The Oxford History of the American People. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 454.
- "Martin Van Buren: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Blake, Aaron (August 3, 2016). "How a 'faithless elector' in Georgia could cost Donald Trump an electoral college vote". "The Washington Post.
- Bomboy, Scott (December 19, 2016). "The one election where Faithless Electors made a difference". Constitution Daily. Philadelphia: The National Constitution Center. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Caroli, Betty Boyd (2003). First Ladies. Oxford University Press. p. 41. "ISBN "0-19-5-16676-0. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Van Buren's Presidential Hostess". America's Story. Library of Congress. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- Anthony, Carl (September 24, 2014). "First Ladies Never Married to Presidents: Angelica Van Buren". National First Ladies Library. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Martin Van Buren: Domestic affairs". Miller Center of Public Affairs University of Virginia. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). "America's promise: a concise history of the United States". Rowman & Littlefield. p.210. "ISBN 0742511898
- Seigenthaler, John; Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. (2004). James K Polk. Macmillen. pp. 58–60. "ISBN "978-0-8050-6942-6.
- Lansford, Tom; Woods, Thomas E., eds. (2008). Exploring American History: From Colonial Times to 1877. 10. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1046. "ISBN "978-0-7614-7758-7.
- "Morison, Samuel Eliot (1965). The Oxford History of the American People. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 456.
- Gouge, William A.; Dorfman, Joseph (2007). A Short History of Money and Banking. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig Van Mises Institute. p. 22.
- Sturgis, Amy H. (2006). The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal. Greenwood. p. 39. "ISBN "978-0313336584.
- Anderson, William (1991). Cherokee Removal: Before and After. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. "ISBN "0820312541.
- "History.com". History.com. A&E Television Networks. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- Landry, Alysa Landry (February 23, 2016). "Martin Van Buren: The Force Behind the Trail of Tears". Verona, New York: Indian Country Media Network. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- Hauptman, Laurence M. (1999). Conspiracy of Interests: Iroquois Dispossession and the Rise of New York State. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 196. "ISBN "0-8156-0547-1.
- Missall, John; Missall, Mary Lou (2016). "History of the Seminole Wars". Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Lancaster, Jane F. (1994). Removal Aftershock: The Seminoles' Struggles to Survive in the West, 1836-1866. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. p. 18. "ISBN "0-87049-845-2.
- "Extermination Order". LDS FAQ. Retrieved 22 August 2005.
- Boggs, Extermination Order
- "Smith, Joseph Fielding (1946–1949). "Church History and Modern Revelation". 4. Deseret: 167–173.
- Ann Eliza Young; John Bartholomew Gough; Mary Ashton Rice Livermore (1876). Wife no. 19, or, the story of a life of bondage. p. 55.
- Conlin, Joseph (2014). The American Past: A Survey of American History. Boston: Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. p. 330. "ISBN "978-1-133-94653-3.
- Freidel, Frank (1999). Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association. p. 23. "ISBN "978-0-912308-72-2.
- "Eisenhower, John S. D. (1997). Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 178. "ISBN "0-8061-3128-4.
- Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis, eds. (2000). The Reader's Companion to the American Presidency. New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 113. "ISBN "0-395-78889-7.
- "Martin Van Buren: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center of Public Affairs University of Virginia. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Ross, Robert Budd (1890). "The Patriot War". The Detroit Evening News, revised for the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. pp. 11–12. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Lacroix, Patrick (2016). "Choosing Peace and Order: National Security and Sovereignty in a North American Borderland, 1837–42". The International History Review. 38 (5): 943–960.
- "1837- Aroostook War". Historycentral. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- "The High Comedy of the Bloodless Aroostook War". Stonington, Maine: New England Historical Society. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- United States v. The Amistad, Findlaw, accessed 30 March 2013
- Kidder, David S.; Oppenheim, Noah D. (2007). The Intellectual Devotional: American History; Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently about Our Nation's Past. TID Volumes, LLC. p. 122. "ISBN "978-1-59486-744-6.
- "Amistad Story". Amistad: Seeking Freedom in Connecticut. National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "A Brief Narrative". Teaching and Civic Outreach Resources Amistad: The Federal Courts and the Challenge to Slavery — Historical Background and Documents. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789-Present". www.senate.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- "Federal Judicial Center: Search by Nominating President; Martin Van Buren". Federal Judicial Center. Federal Judicial Center Foundation. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present". United States Senate. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "A Mob in Search of a Speaker". House.gov. US House of Representatives. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Leonard, Gerald (2002). The Invention of Party Politics: Federalism, Popular Sovereignty, and Constitutional Development in Jacksonian Illinois. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. p. 177. "ISBN "978-0-8078-2744-4.
- Churella, Albert J. (2013). The Pennsylvania Railroad: Building an Empire, 1846-1917. 1. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 69.
- "Democratic National Political Conventions 1832-2008". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Atkins, Jonathan (2016). From Confederation to Nation: The Early American Republic, 1789-1848. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 218. "ISBN "978-1-138-91621-0.
- Bradley, Elizabeth L. Knickerbocker: The Myth behind New York. New Brusnwick, NJ: Rivergate Books. pp. 70–71. "ISBN "978-0-8135-4516-5.
- Faber, Harold (November 10, 1991). "Sunday Outing; House Where the Legacy Of Van Buren Lives On". "The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Howard, Jacqueline (November 11, 2014). "OK, So Here's The Real Story Of Where 'OK' Comes From". Huffington Post. New York, NY.
- Lederer, Richard; McCullagh, Caroline (2012). American Trivia. Gibbs Smith. pp. 49–50.
- Polk, James K.; Cutler, Wayne (1996). Correspondence of James K. Polk: Volume IX (January-June 1845). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. p. 124. "ISBN "0-87049-947-5.
- Polk, James K.; Cutler, Wayne (1993). Correspondence of James K. Polk: Volume VIII (September-December 1844). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. p. 66. "ISBN "0-87049-777-4.
- Moore, John Trotwood; Foster, Austin Powers (1923). Tennessee: The Volunteer State, 1769–1923. S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 422.
- Walker, Dale L. (1999). Bear Flag Rising: The Conquest of California, 1846. New York: Forge: Tom Doherty Associates, LLC. p. 56. "ISBN "0-312-86685-2.
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton University Press. p. 405.
- Cole, p. 405
- Robin Santos Doak (2003). "The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery". Compass Point Books. p.22. "ISBN 0-7565-0256-X
- Singer, Alan J. (2008). New York and Slavery: Time to Teach the Truth. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 80. "ISBN "978-0-7914-7509-6.
- "Martin Van Buren, First Inaugural, March 4, 1837 | AMDOCS: Documents for the Study of American History". Vlib.us. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
I must go into the Presidential chair with the inflexible and uncompromising opponent of every attempt on the part of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia against the wishes of the slaveholding States, and also with a determination equally decided to resist the slightest interference with it in the States where it exists.
- Ferrell, Claudine L. (2006). The Abolitionist Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 88. "ISBN "0-313-33180-4.
- Current, Richard N. (1996). The Civil War Era, 1848–1873: History of Wisconsin. Stevens, WI: Worsalla Publishing Company. p. 202. "ISBN "0-87020-122-0.
- Reichley, James (1992). The Life of the Parties: A History of American Political Parties. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 86. "ISBN "0-7425-0888-9.
- Manweller, Mathew. Chronology of the U.S. Presidency in 4 Volumes, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 271. "ISBN "978-1-59884-645-4.
- Stebbins, Homer Adolph (1913). A Political History of the State of New York, 1865–1869. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. p. 49.
- Federal Writers' Project (1940). New York City Guide. Albany, NY: New York State Historical Association. p. 415.
- Whittier, John Greenleaf (1975). The Letters of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume II: 1828–1845. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 195. "ISBN "0-674-52830-1.
- Frémont, Jessie Benton (1993). The Letters of Jessie Benton Frémont. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 96. "ISBN "0-252-01942-3.
- Macy, Jesse (1900). Political Parties in the United States, 1846–1861. New York, NY: The MacMillan Company. p. 300.
- Widmer, Ted (2005). Martin Van Buren: The American Presidents Series: The 8th President, 1837–1841. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. p. 164. "ISBN "0-8050-6922-4.
- Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 425. "ISBN "0-691-04715-4.
- Dunlap, Leslie Whittaker (1988). Our Vice-Presidents and Second Ladies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. p. 50.
- Butler, William Allen (1862). Martin Van Buren: Lawyer, Statesman and Man. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Company. p. 5.
- Lamb, Brian & the C-SPAN staff (2000). Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?: A Tour of Presidential Gravesites. Washington, DC: National Cable Satellite Corporation. "ISBN "1-881846-07-5.
- Martin Van Buren at "Find a Grave
- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 309.
- Webber, A. L. (1908). History and Directory of Cass County, Missouri. The Cass County Leader. pp. 43–45.
- "Van Buren: Historic City on the Arkansas". Van Buren, Arkansas: Historic Sites & Points of Interest. ExploreSouthernHistory.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
- Chamberlain, E. (1849). The Indiana Gazetteer: Or Topographical Dictionary of the State of Indiana. Chapman's and Spann's Power Press. p. 406.
- History of LaPorte County, Indiana: And History of Indiana. Chas. C. Chapman. 1880. p. 442.
- Roberts, Nelson Commins; Moorhead, Samuel W. (1914). Story of Lee County, Iowa, Volume 1. S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 107.
- Laughlin, Robert W. M.; Jurgensen, Melissa C. (2007). Kentucky's Covered Bridges. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 57. "ISBN "978-0-7385-4404-5.
- Environmental Impact Statement: Taylorsville Lake Protection Project, Salt River Basin, Spencer County. Louisville, KY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1978. pp. 2–29, 4–42.
- Leeper, Clare D'Artois (2012). Louisiana Place Names. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. p. 256. "ISBN "978-0-8071-4738-2.
- Hamilton, William Baillie (1996). Place Names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 132.
- Romig, Walter (1973). Michigan Place Names. Wayne State University Press. pp. 355, 569.
- Michigan Place Names, pp. 355, 569.
- Glines, Karen; O'Donnell, Billyo (2008). Painting Missouri: The Counties en Plein Air. University of Missouri Press. p. 36.
- Upham, Warren (1920). Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, Volume XVII: Minnesota Geographic Names. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 491.
- "Van Buren: Itawamba County's Old River Port Town Revisited". Itawamba History Review. Itawamba Historical Society. May 27, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
- "Town of Van Buren Clerk Archival Records Listing". Historical Records, Onondaga County Clerk. Onondaga County, New York. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
- Mangus, Michael; Herman, Jennifer L. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Ohio, Volume 1. St. Clair Shores, Michigan: Somerset Publishing. p. 562. "ISBN "978-0-04-309564-5.
- History of Shelby County, Ohio. Philadelphia, PA: R. Sutton & Co. 1883. p. 252.
- Kinder, George D. (1915). History of Putnam County, Ohio. Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen & Company. p. 162.
- Wilson, Frazer E. (1914). History of Darke County, Ohio. Milford, Ohio: Hobart Publishing Company. p. 591.
- Brown, R. C. (1886). History of Hancock County, Ohio. Warner, Beers & Co. p. 498.
- Morris, Eastin (1834). The Tennessee Gazetteer, Or Topographical Dictionary. Nashville, TN: W. Hasell Hunt & Co. p. 166.
- "U.S. ZIP Codes: Hickory Valley, TN". www.zip-codes.me. US Zip Codes ME. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- Wisconsin Legislature (1841). Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin Passed at Madison by the Legislative Assembly. Madison, WI: W. W. Wyman. pp. 83–90.
- Romig, Walter (1986). Michigan Place Names. Wayne State University Press. p. 569.
- Mann, Kelly L. (October 14, 2002). "Van Buren County trails are havens for nature lovers". St. Joseph (Michigan) Herald Palladium.
- "Van Buren State Park". www.stateparks.com. StateParks.com. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Geographical Names: Van Buren, Mount: Antarctica". Geographical Names. ITA - Information Technology Associates. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "Google Maps". Google.com. Menlo Park, CA: Google, Inc. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- "Van Buren I". History Central. MultiEducator, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "Welcome to Martin Van Buren High School". Martin Van Buren High School. New York City Department of Education. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Welcome page". Martin Van Buren Elementary School. Desert Sands Unified School District. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Widmer, Ted (2005). The American Presidents Series: Martin Van Buren, The 8th President, 1837–1841. Henry Holt and Company, LLC. p. 170.
- Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2008). Martin Van Buren: The Little Magician. Nova Science Publishers. p. 1.
- "The Van Buren Boys". Seinfeld Scripts. SeinfeldScripts.com. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- "Stephen Spielberg's "Amistad" (1997)". University of Missouri-Kansas City. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
- Grinspan, Jon (November 4, 2014). "Every US President's Style, Ranked". Racked.com. New York, NY: Vox Media, Inc.
- "Every US President's Style, Ranked"
- The Two Faces of January at the "Internet Movie Database
- "ONTD Original: The Two Faces of January aka the View From My Bed". Oh No They Didn't. November 9, 2014.
- "Season 4 - Episode 10 - Free Ride". NCIS: Los Angeles. CBS. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- "#feeltheBuren". Twitter.com. San Francisco, CA: Twitter, Inc. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- "Brooke, John L. (2010). Columbia Rising: Civil Life on the Upper Hudson from the Revolution to the Age of Jackson. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. "ISBN "978-0-8078-3323-0.
- "Cole, Donald B. (1984). Martin Van Buren and the American Political System. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. "ISBN "978-0-691-04715-7.
- "Remini, Robert V. (1959). Martin Van Buren and the Making of the Democratic Party. New York: Columbia University Press. "ISBN "0231022883.
- Shepard, Edward M. (1899) . Martin Van Buren (Kindle ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin and Co. "ISBN "0-7425-2243-1. "OCLC 396967.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2002). Martin Van Buren and the Emergence of American Popular Politics. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. "ISBN "978-0-7425-2243-5.
- "Widner, Edward L. (2005). Martin Van Buren. The American Presidents (Kindle ed.). New York: Times Books. "ISBN "978-0-8050-6922-8.
- Wilson, Major L. (1984). The Presidency of Martin Van Buren. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "978-0-7006-0238-4.
Books by Van Buren
These were published posthumously:
- Van Buren, Martin (1867). "Van Buren, Abraham; "Van Buren, John, eds. Inquiry into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States. New York: Hurd and Houghton. "ISBN "1-4181-2924-0.
- Van Buren, Martin (1920). Fitzpatrick, John Clement, ed. The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren. Annual Report Of The American Historical Association For The Year 1918. II. Washington D.C.: Govt. Print. Off. "ISBN "0-678-00531-1.
Books about Van Buren
- "Alexander, Holmes (1935). The American Talleyrand: Martin Van Buren.
- Curtis, James C. (1970). The Fox at Bay: Martin Van Buren and the Presidency, 1837–1841. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. "ISBN "978-0-8131-1214-5.
- Derthick, Martha (13 June 1999). Dilemmas of Scale in America's Federal Democracy. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-64039-8. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Gammon, Samuel Rhea (1922). The Presidential Campaign of 1832. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
- Henretta, James A. (2004). "Martin Van Buren". In "Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 103–114. "ISBN "0-618-38273-9.
- Holt, Michael F. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-505544-3.
- Lynch, Denis Tilden (1929). An Epoch and a Man: Martin Van Buren and His Times. New York: H. Liveright.
- Niven, John (1983). Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-503238-3.
- "Schouler, James (1889). History of the United States of America: 1831–1847. Democrats and Whigs. 4. Washington, D.C.: W. H. Morrison.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2009). Party Over Section: The Rough and Ready Presidential Election of 1848. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "978-0-7006-1640-4.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2014). A Companion to the Antebellum Presidents 1837–1861. Wiley. pp. 109–154.
- Martin Van Buren: A Resource Guide at the "Library of Congress
- The Papers of Martin Van Buren at "Cumberland University
- United States Congress. "Martin Van Buren (id: V000009)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Martin Van Buren at "Find a Grave
- Martin Van Buren at the "White House
- American President: Martin Van Buren (1782–1862) at the "Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia
- Inaugural Address (March 4, 1837), at the Miller Center
- Martin Van Buren National Historic Site (Lindenwald), "National Park Service
- "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren", from "C-SPAN's "American Presidents: Life Portraits, May 3, 1999
- Works by Martin Van Buren at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Martin Van Buren at "Internet Archive