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Megaloptera
Temporal range: Permian–Recent
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""Sialis spPCCA20050708-9036A.jpg
"Alderfly of the "genus "Sialis
"Scientific classification "e
Kingdom: "Animalia
Clade: "Euarthropoda
Class: "Insecta
(unranked): "Endopterygota
Order: Megaloptera
"Latreille, 1802
"Families

"Corydalidae
"Sialidae
and see text

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Corydalus cornutus - "MHNT

Megaloptera is an "order of "insects. It contains the "alderflies, "dobsonflies and "fishflies, and there are about 300 known "species.

The order's name comes from "Ancient Greek, from mega- (μέγα-) "large" + pteryx (πτέρυξ) "wing", in reference to the large, clumsy wings of these insects. Megaloptera are relatively unknown insects across much of their range, due to the adults' short lives, the "aquatic larvae's often-high tolerance of "pollution (so they are not often encountered by swimmers etc.), and the generally "crepuscular or "nocturnal habits. However, in the "Americas the dobsonflies are rather well-known, as their males have tusk-like mandibles. These, while formidable in appearance, are relatively harmless to humans and other animals; much like a "peacock's feathers, they serve mainly to impress females. However, the mandibles are also used to hold females during mating, and some male dobsonflies spar with each other in courtship displays, trying to flip each other over with their long mandibles.["citation needed] Dobsonfly larvae, commonly called hellgrammites, are often used for "angling "bait in "North America.

The Megaloptera were formerly considered part of a group then called Neuroptera, together with "lacewings and "snakeflies, but these are now generally considered to be separate orders, with Neuroptera referring to the lacewings and relatives (which were formerly called Planipennia). The former Neuroptera, particularly the lacewing group, are nonetheless very closely related to each other, and the new name for this group is "Neuropterida.[1] This is either placed at "superorder rank, with the "Endopterygota—of which they are part—becoming an unranked "clade above it, or the Endopterygota are maintained as a superorder, with an unranked Neuropterida being a part of them. Within the endopterygotes, the closest living relatives of the neuropteridan clade are the "beetles.

In July 2014, an as-yet unclassified specimen was discovered with a wingspan of 21 centimetres (8.3 in), making it the largest aquatic insect in the world.[2]

Contents

Anatomy and life cycle[edit]

Adult megalopterans closely resemble the lacewings, except for the presence of a pleated region on their hind wings, helping them to fold over the abdomen. They have strong mandibles and "mouthparts apparently adapted for chewing, although many species do not eat as adults. They have large "compound eyes, and, in some species, also have "ocelli. The wings are large and subequal.[3]

The female may lay up to 3,000 eggs in a single mass, placing them on vegetation overhanging water. Megaloptera undergo the most rudimentary form of "complete metamorphosis among the insects. There are fewer differences between the larval and adult forms of Megaloptera than in any other order of "holometabolous insects, and their aquatic "larvae dwell in fresh water, around which the adults also live. The larvae are "carnivorous, and are known to feed on small invertebrates, such as crustaceans, clams, worms and other insects. They possess strong jaws that they use to capture their prey. They have large heads and elongated bodies. The abdomen bears a number of fine tactile filaments, which, in some species, may include "gills. The final segment of the abdomen bears either a pair of "prolegs, or a single, tail-like appendage.[3]

The larvae grow slowly, taking anywhere from 1 to 5 years to reach the last larval stage. When they reach maturity, the larvae crawl out onto land to "pupate in damp soil or under logs. Unusually, the pupa is fully motile, with large mandibles that it can use to defend itself against predators. The short-lived adults emerge from the pupa to mate - many species never feed as adults, living only a few days or hours.[3]

Evolution[edit]

Apart from the two living "families, there are a few prehistoric "taxa in the Megaloptera, only known from "fossils. Some of these occupy a more "basal position:[4]

The Megaloptera are monophyletic and are a sister clade of the "Neuroptera.[7] Within the Megaloptera, Corydalinae and "Chauliodinae are sister clades. The divergence time estimation suggests that the stem lineage of Neuropterida and "Coleoptera separated in the Early "Permian

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Also called "Neuropteroidea", though the ending "-oidea" is normally used for "superfamilies. See references in Haaramo (2008).
  2. ^ Jonathan O'Callaghan (24 July 2014). "The stuff of nightmares! New species of insect discovered in China - and it has a wingspan of more than EIGHT INCHES". "Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. pp. 441–443. "ISBN "0-19-510033-6. 
  4. ^ See references in Haaramo (2008)
  5. ^ Engel & Grimaldi (2007)
  6. ^ Shcherbakov DE (2013) Permian ancestors of Hymenoptera and Raphidioptera. ZooKeys 358: 45–67. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.358.6289
  7. ^ Wang Y, Liu X, Winterton SL, Yang D (2012) The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera. PLoS One 7(10):e47302. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047302

References[edit]

"" Data related to Megaloptera at Wikispecies

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