Begin took "Saddam Hussein's "anti-Zionist threats seriously and therefore took aim at "Iraq, which was building a "nuclear reactor named Osirak or Tammuz 1 with "French and "Italian assistance. When Begin took office, preparations were intensified. Begin authorized the construction of a full-scale model of the Iraqi reactor which Israeli pilots could practice bombing. Israel attempted to negotiate with France and Italy to cut off assistance and with the United States to obtain assurances that the program would be halted. The negotiations failed. Begin considered the diplomatic option fruitless, and worried that prolonging the attack would lead to a fatal inability to act in response to the perceived threat.
The decision to attack was hotly contested within Begin's government. However, in October 1980, the "Mossad informed Begin that the reactor would be fueled and operational by June 1981. This assessment was aided by reconnaissance photos supplied by the United States, and the "Israeli cabinet voted to approve an attack. In June 1981, Begin ordered the destruction of the reactor. On 7 June 1981, the "Israeli Air Force destroyed the reactor in a successful long-range operation called "Operation Opera. Soon after, the government and Begin expounded on what came to be known as the "Begin Doctrine: "On no account shall we permit an enemy to develop "weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against the people of Israel." Begin explicitly stated the strike was not an anomaly, but instead called the event “a precedent for every future government in Israel”; it remains a feature of Israeli security planning policy. Many foreign governments, including the United States, condemned the operation, and the "United Nations Security Council unanimously passed "Resolution 487 condemning it. The Israeli left-wing opposition criticized it also at the time, but mainly for its timing relative to domestic elections only three weeks later, when Likud was reelected. The new government "annexed the Golan Heights and banned the "national airline from flying on "Shabbat.
On 6 June 1982, Begin’s government authorized the "Israel Defense Forces "invasion of Lebanon, in response to the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, "Shlomo Argov. The objective of Operation Peace for Galilee was to force the "PLO out of rocket range of Israel's northern border. Begin was hoping for a short and limited Israeli involvement that would destroy the PLO’s political and military infrastructure in southern Lebanon, effectively reshaping the balance of Lebanese power in favor of the Christian Militias who were allied with Israel. Nevertheless, fighting soon escalated into war with Palestinian and Lebanese militias, as well as the Syrian military, and the IDF progressed as far as "Beirut, well beyond the 40 km limit initially authorized by the government. Israeli forces were successful in driving the PLO out of Lebanon and forcing its leadership to relocate to Tunisia, but the war ultimately failed to achieve its political goals of bringing security to Israel’s northern border and creating stability in Lebanon. Begin referred to the invasion as an inevitable act of survival, often comparing "Yasser Arafat to "Hitler.
Sabra and Shatila massacre
Public dissatisfaction reached a peak in September 1982, after the "Sabra and Shatila Massacre. Hundreds of thousands gathered in "Tel Aviv in what was one of the biggest public demonstrations in Israeli history. The "Kahan Commission, appointed to investigate the events, issued its report on February 9, 1983, found the government indirectly responsible for the massacre but that Defense Minister "Ariel Sharon "bears personal responsibility." The commission recommended that Sharon be removed from office and never serve in any future Israeli government. Initially, Sharon attempted to remain in office and Begin refused to fire him. But Sharon resigned as Defense Minister after the death of "Emil Grunzweig, who was killed by a grenade tossed into a crowd of demonstrators leaving a "Peace Now organized march, which also injured ten others, including the son of an Israeli cabinet minister. Sharon remained in the cabinet as a minister without portfolio. Public pressure on Begin to resign increased.
Begin’s disoriented appearance on national television while visiting the "Beaufort battle site raised concerns that he was being misinformed about the war’s progress. Asking Sharon whether PLO fighters had ‘machine guns’, Begin seemed out of touch with the nature and scale of the military campaign he had authorized. Almost a decade later, "Haaretz reporter Uzi Benziman published a series of articles accusing Sharon of intentionally deceiving Begin about the operation’s initial objectives, and continuously misleading him as the war progressed. Sharon sued both the newspaper and Benziman for "libel in 1991. The trial lasted 11 years, with one of the highlights being the deposition of Begin's son, "Benny, in favor of the defendants. Sharon lost the case.
Argentine journalist Hernan Dobry has alleged that during this time Begin also ordered an airlift of weapons to Argentina during the "Falklands War, because he still hated the British decades after fighting them in the 1940s, and wanted to avenge the hanging of his friend "Dov Gruner. However the weapons arrived after the war had already ended.
Retirement from public life
After Begin's wife Aliza died in November 1982 while he was away on an official visit to Washington DC, he was thrown into a deep depression. Begin also became disappointed by the war in Lebanon because he had hoped to sign a peace treaty with the government President "Bashir Gemayel, who was assassinated. Instead, there were mounting Israeli casualties, and protesters outside his office maintained a constant vigil with a sign showing the number of Israeli soldiers killed in Lebanon, which was constantly updated. Begin also continued to be plagued by the ill health and occasional hospitalizations that he had endured for years. In August 1983, he resigned, telling his colleagues that "I cannot go on any longer", and handed over the reins of the office of Prime Minister to his old comrade-in-arms "Yitzhak Shamir, who had been the leader of the "Lehi resistance to the British.
Begin subsequently retired to an apartment overlooking the "Jerusalem Forest and spent the rest of his life in seclusion. He would rarely leave his apartment, and then usually to visit his wife's grave-site to say the traditional "Kaddish "prayer for the departed. His seclusion was watched over by his children and his lifetime personal secretary Yechiel Kadishai, who monitored all official requests for meetings. Begin would meet almost no one other than close friends or family. After a year, he changed his telephone number due to journalists constantly calling him. He was cared for by his daughter Leah and a housekeeper. According to Kadishai, Begin spent most of his days reading and watching movies, and would start and finish a book almost every day. He also kept up with world events by continuing his lifelong habit of listening to the "BBC every morning, which had begun during his underground days, and maintaining a subscription to several newspapers. Begin retained some political influence in the Likud party, which he used to influence it behind the scenes.
On 3 March 1992, Begin suffered a severe heart attack in his apartment, and was rushed to "Ichilov Hospital, where he was put in the "intensive care unit. Begin arrived there unconscious and paralyzed on the left side of his body. His condition slightly improved following treatment, and he regained consciousness after 20 hours. For the next six days, Begin remained in serious condition. Begin was too frail to overcome the effects of the heart attack, and his condition began to rapidly deteriorate on 9 March at about 3:15 AM. An emergency team of doctors and nurses attempted to resuscitate his failing heart. His children were notified of his condition and immediately rushed to his side. Begin died at 3:30 AM. His death was announced an hour and a half later. Shortly before 6:00 AM, the hospital rabbi arrived at his bedside to say the "Kaddish prayer.
Begin's funeral took place in "Jerusalem that afternoon. His coffin was carried four kilometers from the "Sanhedria Funeral Parlor to "Mount of Olives in a funeral procession attended by thousands of people. In accordance with his wishes, Begin was given a simple Jewish burial ceremony and buried on the Mount of Olives in the "Jewish Cemetery there. He had asked to be buried there instead of "Mount Herzl, where most Israeli leaders are laid to rest, because he wanted to be buried beside his wife Aliza, as well as "Meir Feinstein of "Irgun and "Moshe Barazani of "Lehi, who committed suicide in jail while awaiting execution by the British. An estimated 75,000 mourners were present at the funeral. Prime Minister "Yitzhak Shamir, President "Chaim Herzog, all cabinet ministers present in Israel, Supreme Court justices, Knesset members from most parties and a number of foreign ambassadors attended the funeral. Former members of the Irgun High Command served as pallbearers.
Begin in fiction and on film
A slightly fictionalized Menachem Begin appeared in the first edition of "Land of Black Gold, but was removed from subsequent editions. He appears in the film "Waltz with Bashir, the "techno-thriller novel "The Fifth Horseman by "Larry Collins and "Dominique Lapierre, and the "science fiction novel "Worldwar: Volume 4: "Striking the Balance by "Harry Turtledove.
Begin was played by "David Opatoshu in the 1977 TV film "Raid on Entebbe and by "Barry Morse in the 1983 miniseries "Sadat.
"Chris Claremont, longtime writer of the "X-Men comic book, has said that Begin reminds him of the character "Magneto.
In ""The Last Temptation of Homer", "Bart Simpson is prescribed square, black-rimmed eyeglasses for his lazy eye, and the doctor tries to comfort him by saying that "Menachem Begin wore a pair just like them."
A stage play, "Mr. Begin", written by Gabriel Emanuel and starring actor Dani Shteg, opened at the Menahem Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem in July, 2013.
- "The Revolt ("ISBN 0-8402-1370-0)
- "White Nights: The Story of a Prisoner in Russia ("ISBN 0-06-010289-6)
- Menachem Begin: A model for leadership
- John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, at 102 (Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2007).
- Gwertzman, Bernard. Christian Militiamen Accused of a Massacre in Beirut Camps; U.S. Says the Toll is at Least 300. The New York Times. 19 September 1982.
- Thompson, Ian. Primo Levi: A Life. 2004, page 436.
- Menachem Begin Biography
- Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (19 November 1984). "Books Of The Times". The New York Times.
- Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1990 p.71
- "Anita Shapira Begin on the Couch, Haaretz Books, in Hebrew
- Begin's Legacy / The man who transformed Israel
- Haber, Eitan (1978). Menahem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte.
- menachem begin
- Lehr Wagner, Heather: Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin: negotiating peace in the Middle East
- "Haber, Eitan (1978). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte Press. "ISBN "0-440-05553-9.
- Sources differ on how Begin left Anders' Army. Many indicate that he was discharged, e.g.:
- Eitan Haber (1979). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. Dell Publishing Company. p. 136. "ISBN 978-0-440-16107-3. "A while later Anders's Chief of Staff, General Ukolitzky, did agree to the release of six Jewish soldiers to go to the United States on a campaign to get the Jewish community to help the remnants of European Jewry. The Chief of Staff, who was well acquainted with Dr. Kahan, invited him to his office for a drink. There were a number of senior officers present, and Kahan realized that this was a farewell party for Ukolitzky. 'I'm leaving here on a mission, and my colleagues are throwing a party but the last document I signed was an approval of release for Menahem Begin.'"
- Bernard Reich (1990) Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa Greenwood Publishing Group. "ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5. p. 72. "In 1942 he arrived in Palestine as a soldier in General Anders's (Polish) army. Begin was discharged from the army in December 1943."
- Harry Hurwitz (2004). Begin: His Life, Words and Deeds. Gefen Publishing House. "ISBN 978-965-229-324-4. p. 9. "His friends urged him to desert the Anders Army, but he refused to do any such dishonourable thing and waited until, as a result of negotiations, he was discharged and permitted to enter Eretz Israel, then under British mandatory rule".
- "Biography – White Nights". Menachem Begin Heritage Center. Retrieved 16 January 2012. "Many of the new recruits deserted the army upon their arrival, but Begin decidedly refused to follow suit. 'I swore allegiance to the Polish army – I will not desert,' he resolutely told his friends when he was reunited with them on Jewish soil. Begin served in the Polish army for about a year and a half with the rank of corporal... At the initiative of Aryeh Ben-Eliezer and with the help of Mark Kahan, negotiations began with the Polish army regarding the release of five Jewish soldiers from the army, including Begin, in return for which the members of the IZL delegation would lobby in Washington for the Polish forces. The negotiations lasted many weeks until they finally met with success: The Polish commander announced the release of four of the soldiers. Fortunately, Begin was among them."
- Amos Perlmutter (1987). The Life and Times of Menachem Begin Doubleday. "ISBN 978-0-385-18926-2. p. 134. "In the Ben Eliezer-Mark Kahan version, Begin received a complete, honorable release from the Anders Army. The truth is that he only received a one-year leave of absence, a kind of extended furlough, in order to enable him to join an Anders Army Jewish delegation which would go to the United States seeking help for the Polish government-in-exile. The delegation never materialized, mainly due to British opposition. Begin, however, never received an order to return to the ranks of the Army."
- "Stefan Korboński (2000). "ROZDZIAŁ IV: ŻYDZI W CZASIE OKUPACJI". "Kapral Menachem Begin podejmując decyzję, czy zostać czy walczyć z faszystami, stwierdził: "Armia, której mundur noszę i której składałem przysięgę wojskową, walczy ze śmiertelnym wrogiem narodu żydowskiego, faszystowskimi Niemcami. Nie można opuścić takiej armii, nawet po to, aby walczyć o wolność we własnym kraju... Na prośbę Irgunu Drymmer zwrócił się do Generała Tokarzewskiego z sugestią, aby zwolnił Menachema Begina za aktywną służbę, ponieważ jest on potrzebny organizacjom żydowskim. Jako były przywódca Podziemia w pełni rozumiał on co się dzieje, a ponieważ sprzyjał celom, do których osiągnięcia dążyło żydowska konspiracja, generał dał Beginowi urlop na czas nieokreślony."
- Bell, Bowyer J.: Terror out of Zion (1976)
- "Yehuda Bauer, From Diplomacy to Resistance: A history of Jewish Palestine, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1970 p.325.
- Hoffman, Bruce: Anonymous Soldiers (2015)
- Charters, David A.: The British Army and Jewish Insurgency in Palestine, 1945–47 (1989), p. 63
- "Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, Henry Holt and Co. 2000, p. 490
- In his book ‘The Revolt’ (1951), Begin outlines the history of the Irgun’s fight against British rule.
- Begin's Speech on Saturday 15 May 1948
- Silver, Eric (1984) Begin: A Biography. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, "ISBN 0-297-78399-8. Page 107.
- Morris, 1948, p272: "Altogether eighteen men died in the clashes, most of them IZL". Katz, Days of Fire (an Irgun memoir), p247: 16 Irgun, 2 Hagana. Perliger, Jewish Terrorism in Israel, p27: 16 Irgun and 2 Hagana.
- Koestler, Arthur (First published 1949) Promise and Fulfilment – Palestine 1917–1949 "ISBN 0-333-35152-5. Page 249 : "About forty people had been killed in the fighting on the beaches, on board the ship, or while trying to swim ashore."
- Netanyahu, Benjamin (1993) A Place among the Nations – Israel and the World. British Library catalogue number 0593 034465. Page 444. "eighty-two members of the Irgun were killed."
- Aryeh Kaplan, This is the Way it Was at Palyam site
- Menahem Begin (1913–1992)
- Schuster, Ruth (December 4, 2014). "'This Day in Jewish History / N.Y. Times publishes letter by Einstein, other Jews accusing Menachem Begin of fascism". Haaretz.
- "The Gun and the Olive Branch" p 472-473, David Hirst, quotes Lilienthal, Alfred M., The Zionist Connection, What Price Peace?, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1978, pp.350–3 – Albert Einstein joined other distinguished citizens in chiding these `Americans of national repute' for honoring a man whose party was `closely akin in its organization, methods, political philosophy and social appeal to the Nazi and Fascist parties'. See text at Harvard.edu and image here . Verified 5 December 2007.
- "Einstein had already publicly denounced the "Revisionists in 1939; at the same time Rabbi "Stephen Wise denounced the movement as, "Fascism in "Yiddish or "Hebrew." See Rosen, Robert N., Saving the Jews: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust, Thunder's Mouth Press, New York, 2006, p. 318.
- Colin Shindler (2002). The Land Beyond Promise: Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream. I. B. Tauris. pp. xviii,45, 57, 87.
- By George["dead link]
- [See his Speech (Hebrew) http://lib.cet.ac.il/Pages/item.asp?item=7188]
- Menachem Begin plotted assassination attempt to kill German chancellor, Luke Harding, "The Guardian, 15 June 2006
- Nachman Ben-Yehuda, Political Assassinations by Jews: A Rhetorical Device for Justice, SUNY Press, New York, 1993
- Report Says Begin Was Behind Adenauer Letter Bomb, Deutsche Welle, 13 June 2006
- Sudite: I sent the bomb on Begin's order, in Hebrew
- "Newsweek 30 May 1977, The Zealot,
But he quit in 1970 when Prime Minister Golda Meir, under pressure from Washington, renewed a cease-fire with Egypt along the Suez Canal.
- "William B. Quandt, Peace Process, American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967, p194, ff
- Policy Implementation of Social Welfare in the 1980s By Frederick A. Lazin. Google Books.
- Old Age, Disability, and Survivors
- Public Policy in Israel By David Nachmias and Gila Menachem. Google Books.
- For better or worse, Begin’s legacy is embedded in Israel's economy
- Project Renewal
- Shilon, Avi: Menachem Begin: A Life
- Discord in Zion: Conflict Between Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in Israel G. N. Giladi, 1990. Google Books.
- Data and Policy Change: The Fragility of Data in the Policy Context
- on "YouTube
- According to data published by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, and collated by [[Peace Now]]], the number of settlers in the West Bank grew from 5000 in the early seventies to more than 20000 in 1983 Archived 2 September 2010 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Simons, Geoff: Iraq: From Summer to Saddam. St. Martin's Press, 1996, p. 320
- Striking first: Preemptive and preventive attack in U.S. national security – Karl P. Mueller
- "Avner, Yehuda (2010). The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership. The Toby Press. pp. 551–563. "ISBN "978-1-59264-278-6.
- Country Profiles -Israel, "Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) updated May 2014
- Perry, Dan. Israel and the Quest for Permanence. McFarland & Co Inc., 1999. p. 46.
- "El-Al, Israel's Airline". Gates of Jewish Heritage. Archived from the original on 2001-02-22.
- "Schiff, Ze'ev; "Ehud, Yaari (1984). Israel's Lebanon War. "Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-671-47991-1.
- Breaking the silence of cowards Haaretz, 23 August 2002. Retrieved 26 April 2007
- "'A deep-rooted hatred of the British': How Israelis 'armed junta' in Falklands conflict". Daily Mail. London. 20 April 2011.
- Begin is a recluse 3 years after retirement
- Menachem Begin in seclusion, but still wields influence
- Menachem Begin stays in seclusion 2 years after quitting as Israeli PM
- Hurwitz, pp. 238–239
- Menachem Begin
- Sedan, Gil (10 March 1992). "Menachem Begin is Laid to Rest in Simple Mount of Olives Ceremony". "Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 7 October 2012. (subscription required)
- The good jailer – Israel News|Haaretz Daily Newspaper
- Hurwitz p. 239
- Foege, Alec. "The X-Men Files". New York Magazine. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- "Avner, Yehuda (2010). "The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership. "Toby Press. "ISBN "978-1-59264-278-6. "OCLC 758724969.
- Ilan Peleg, Begin’s foreign policy, 1977–1983 : Israel’s move to the right, Greenwood Press, 1987
- Eric Silver, Begin: The Haunted Prophet, Random House, 1984
- Sasson Sofer, Begin: an anatomy of leadership, Basil Blackwell, 1988
- Avi Shilon, Begin , 1913–1992, 2007
- Frank Gervasi, The life and times of Menahem Begin : rebel to statesman, Putnam, 1979
- Harry Hurwitz, Yisrael Medad, "Peace in the Making", "Gefen Publishing House, 2010
- "Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel's Soul, Nextbook, 2014
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- The Menachem Begin Heritage Center
- PM Sharon's Address at the Opening Ceremony for the Begin Heritage Centre Building, 16 June 2004.
- Menachem Begin – The Sixth Prime Minister at the Official Site of the [Israeli] Prime Minister's Office.
- Menachem Begin on the Knesset website.
- The Camp David Accords
- The Bombing of the King David Hotel
- Irgun webpage
- 1948 Letter of some Eminent Jews to New York Times
- The Begin Biography at the "Nobel Foundation website.
- Bodies of murdered Clifford Martin and Marvyn Paice
- Menachem Begin Noble Peace Prize Speech at JInsider History Moment.
- Menachem Begin Memorial Dedication in Brest, Belarus
- (Russian) About the future Begin Monument in Brest, Belarus, "Vecherniy Brest, Brest, Belarus.
- (Russian) Unveiling of the Begin Monument in Brest, Belarus (October 31, 2013), Vecherniy Brest, Brest, Belarus.
- Prime Minister Menachem Begin on justice and the rule of law: selected documents on the 20th anniversary of his death at the "Israel State Archives (Prime Minister's Office).
- "Menachem Begin: A New Israel", Video Lecture by "Henry Abramson.
- Prime Minister Menachem Begin on justice and the rule of law: selected documents on the 20th anniversary of his death on Israel State Archives website
|Party political offices|
|"Leader of the Herut party
|"Leader of the Likud party