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Main article: "Israeli legislative election, 1977

On 17 May 1977 the Likud, headed by Begin, won the "Knesset elections by a landslide, becoming the biggest party in the "Knesset. Popularly known as the Mahapakh ("upheaval"), the election results had seismic ramifications as for the first time in Israeli history a party other than the Alignment/Mapai was in a position to form a government, effectively ending the left's hitherto unrivalled domination over Israeli politics. Likud's electoral victory signified a fundamental restructuring of Israeli society in which the founding socialist Ashkenazi elite was being replaced by a coalition representing marginalized "Mizrahi and Jewish-religious communities, promoting a socially conservative and "economically liberal agenda.

Begin and "Moshe Dayan exit from an aircraft at "Andrews Air Force Base, "Maryland, United States

The Likud campaign leading up to the election centered on Begin's personality. Demonized by the Alignment as "totalitarian and extremist, his self-portrayal as a humble and pious leader struck a chord with many who felt abandoned by the ruling party's ideology. In the predominantly Jewish "Mizrahi working class urban neighborhoods and peripheral towns, the Likud won overwhelming majorities, while disillusionment with the Alignment's corruption prompted many middle and upper class voters to support the newly founded "centrist "Democratic Movement for Change ("Dash") headed by "Yigael Yadin. Dash won 15 seats out of 120, largely at the expense of the Alignment, which was led by "Shimon Peres and had shrunk from 51 to 32 seats. Well aware of his momentous achievement and employing his trademark sense for drama, when speaking that night in the Likud headquarters Begin quoted from the "Gettysburg Address and the "Torah, referring to his victory as a 'turning point in the history of the Jewish people'.

With 43 seats, the Likud still required the support of other parties in order to reach a parliamentary majority that would enable it to form a government under "Israel's proportionate representation parliamentary system. Though able to form a narrow coalition with smaller Jewish religious and "ultra-orthodox parties, Begin also sought support from centrist elements in the Knesset to provide his government with greater public legitimacy. He controversially offered the foreign affairs portfolio to "Moshe Dayan, a former "IDF Chief of Staff and "Defense Minister, and a prominent Alignment politician identified with the old establishment. Begin was sworn in as "Prime Minister of Israel on 20 June 1977. Dash eventually joined his government several months later, thus providing it with the broad support of almost two thirds of the Knesset. While Prime Minister, "Yehuda Avner served as Begin's speech writer.

Socioeconomic policies[edit]

As Prime Minister, Begin presided over various reforms in the domestic field. Tuition fees for secondary education were eliminated and compulsory education was extended to the tenth grade,[42] while new social programmes were introduced such as long-term care insurance[43] and a national income support system.[44] A "ban on color television that had been imposed to enforce social equality was abolished, and the minimum age for a driver's license was lowered to 17.[45] Another government program initiated, named "Project Renewal", was aimed at rehabilitating impoverished towns and neighborhoods. Inhabited mainly by "Sephardi and "Mizrahi immigrants and their descendants, these areas were characterized by slum conditions and substandard housing. The project was a joint effort between the Israeli government, "Jewish Agency, and Jewish communities worldwide, which provided much of the funding for it. The program was directly administered through the Prime Minister's Office until 1981, when Begin's government transferred responsibility to the Ministry of Housing.

Extensive work was done to eliminate slum conditions in these areas, and to improve the general quality of life. Physical infrastructure such as roads, sewage and drainage systems, and street lighting was upgraded, tens of thousands of housing units were renovated and expanded, and hundreds of public service facilities such as community centers, early childhood development centers, day centers for the elderly, playgrounds, and educational and healthcare facilities were built or renovated. By 1983, the program had touched over 450,000 people in 82 towns and neighborhoods. The program continued past Begin's premiership, and switched towards other vulnerable populations. Project Renewal is still being implemented today for at-risk communities in Israel.[46]

Begin's economic policies sought to liberalize Israel's "socialist economy towards a more free-market approach, and he appointed "Simha Erlich as Finance Minister. Erlich unveiled a new economic policy that became known as the "economic transformation". Under the new plan, the exchange rate would from then on be determined by market forces rather than the government, subsidies for many consumer products were cancelled, "foreign exchange controls were eased, the "VAT tax was raised while the travel tax was cancelled, and customs duties were lowered to encourage imports of more products. The plan generated some improvement; cheap and high-quality imported products began to fill consumer shelves, the business sector benefited greatly, and the stock market recorded rising share prices. However, the program did not improve the lives of the Israeli people as Begin had hoped. The combination of the increased VAT, the end of subsidies, and a rise in the U.S. dollar exchange rate set off a wave of inflation and price increases. In particular, the fact that government spending was not significantly reduced in tandem with the liberalization program triggered a massive bout of inflation. On July 17, 1978, the Israeli cabinet met to discuss rising inflation, but Begin, declaring that "you cannot manage economics over the housewife's back", halted all proposals. In the end, the government decided not to take any actions and allow inflation to ride its course. Begin and his other ministers did not internalize the full meaning of the liberalization plan. As a result, he blocked attempts by Erlich to lower government spending and government plans to privatize public-sector enterprises out of fear of harming the weaker sectors of society, allowing the privatization of only eighteen government companies during his six-year tenure.[45][47] In 1983, shortly before Begin's resignation, a major "financial crisis hit Israel after the stocks of the country's four largest banks collapsed and were subsequently nationalized by the state. Inflation would continue rapidly rising past Begin's tenure, and was only brought under control after the "1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan, which among other things greatly curbed government spending, was introduced. The years of rampant inflation devastated the economic power of the powerful "Histadrut labor federation and the "kibbutzim, which would help Israel's approach towards a free-market economy.[45]

Begin's government has been credited with starting a trend that would move Israel towards a capitalist economy that would see the rise of a consumer culture and a pursuit of wealth and higher living standards, replacing a culture that scorned capitalism and valued social, as well as government restrictions to enforce equality.[45]

In terms of social justice, however, the legacy of the Begin Government was arguably a questionable one. In 1980, the state Social Security Institute estimated that from 1977 to 1980 the number of babies born in poverty doubled, while there had been a 300% increase in the number of families with four to five children below the poverty line. Additionally, the number of families with more than five children below the poverty line went up by 400,% while child poverty estimates suggested that from 1977 to 1981 the number of children living below the poverty line had risen from 3.8% to 8.4%,[48] while officials at the National Institute of Insurance estimated that the incidence of poverty had doubled during Begin’s five years in office.[49]

Camp David accords[edit]

Egyptian President "Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during a joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President "Jimmy Carter announced the results of the "Camp David Accords, 18 September 1978.

In 1978 Begin, aided by Foreign Minister "Moshe Dayan and Defense Minister "Ezer Weizman, came to Washington and Camp David to negotiate the "Camp David Accords, leading to the 1979 "Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty with Egyptian President, "Anwar Sadat. Before going to Washington to meet President Carter, Begin visited Rabbi "Menachem M. Schneerson for his advice.[50] Under the terms of the treaty, brokered by US President, "Jimmy Carter, Israel was to hand over the "Sinai Peninsula in its entirety to Egypt. The peace treaty with Egypt was a watershed moment in Middle Eastern history, as it was the first time an "Arab state recognized Israel's legitimacy whereas Israel effectively accepted the "land for peace principle as blueprint for resolving the "Arab–Israeli conflict. Given Egypt’s prominent position within the "Arab World, especially as Israel's biggest and most powerful enemy, the treaty had far reaching strategic and "geopolitical implications.

Almost overnight, Begin's public image of an irresponsible nationalist radical was transformed into that of a statesman of historic proportions. This image was reinforced by international recognition which culminated with him being awarded, together with Sadat, the "Nobel Peace Prize in 1978.

Yet while establishing Begin as a leader with broad public appeal, the peace treaty with Egypt was met with fierce criticism within his own Likud party. His devout followers found it difficult to reconcile Begin's history as a keen promoter of the "Greater Israel agenda with his willingness to relinquish occupied territory. Agreeing to the removal of "Israeli settlements from the Sinai was perceived by many as a clear departure from Likud's "Revisionist ideology. Several prominent Likud members, most notably "Yitzhak Shamir, objected to the treaty and abstained when it was ratified with an overwhelming majority in the Knesset, achieved only thanks to support from the opposition. A small group of hardliners within Likud, associated with "Gush Emunim Jewish settlement movement, eventually decided to split and form the "Tehiya party in 1979. They led the Movement for Stopping the Withdrawal from Sinai, violently clashing with IDF soldiers during the forceful eviction of "Yamit settlement in April 1982. Despite the traumatic scenes from Yamit, political support for the treaty did not diminish and the Sinai was handed over to Egypt in 1982.

Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages "Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of "chess at "Camp David, 1978

Begin was less resolute in implementing the section of the Camp David Accord calling for "Palestinian self-rule in the "West Bank and "Gaza Strip. He appointed "Agriculture Minister "Ariel Sharon to implement a large scale expansion of Jewish settlements in the "Israeli-occupied territories, a policy intended to make future territorial concessions in these areas effectively impossible. Begin refocused Israeli settlement strategy from populating peripheral areas in accordance with the "Allon Plan, to building Jewish settlements in areas of Biblical and historic significance. When the settlement of "Elon Moreh was established on the outskirts of "Nablus in 1979, following years of campaigning by Gush Emunim, Begin declared that there are "many more Elon Morehs to come." During his term dozens of new settlements were built, and Jewish population in the West Bank and Gaza more than quadrupled.[51]

Bombing Iraqi nuclear reactor[edit]

Operation Opera and "Begin Doctrine

Begin took "Saddam Hussein's "anti-Zionist threats seriously and therefore took aim at "Iraq, which was building a "nuclear reactor named Osirak or Tammuz 1 with "French and "Italian assistance. When Begin took office, preparations were intensified. Begin authorized the construction of a full-scale model of the Iraqi reactor which Israeli pilots could practice bombing.[52] Israel attempted to negotiate with France and Italy to cut off assistance and with the United States to obtain assurances that the program would be halted. The negotiations failed. Begin considered the diplomatic option fruitless, and worried that prolonging the attack would lead to a fatal inability to act in response to the perceived threat.

The decision to attack was hotly contested within Begin's government.[53] However, in October 1980, the "Mossad informed Begin that the reactor would be fueled and operational by June 1981. This assessment was aided by reconnaissance photos supplied by the United States, and the "Israeli cabinet voted to approve an attack.[54] In June 1981, Begin ordered the destruction of the reactor. On 7 June 1981, the "Israeli Air Force destroyed the reactor in a successful long-range operation called "Operation Opera.[55] Soon after, the government and Begin expounded on what came to be known as the "Begin Doctrine: "On no account shall we permit an enemy to develop "weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against the people of Israel." Begin explicitly stated the strike was not an anomaly, but instead called the event “a precedent for every future government in Israel”; it remains a feature of Israeli security planning policy.[56] Many foreign governments, including the United States, condemned the operation, and the "United Nations Security Council unanimously passed "Resolution 487 condemning it. The Israeli left-wing opposition criticized it also at the time, but mainly for its timing relative to domestic elections only three weeks later, when Likud was reelected.[57] The new government "annexed the Golan Heights and banned the "national airline from flying on "Shabbat.[58]

Lebanon invasion[edit]

1982 Lebanon War

On 6 June 1982, Begin’s government authorized the "Israel Defense Forces "invasion of Lebanon, in response to the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, "Shlomo Argov. The objective of Operation Peace for Galilee was to force the "PLO out of rocket range of Israel's northern border. Begin was hoping for a short and limited Israeli involvement that would destroy the PLO’s political and military infrastructure in southern Lebanon, effectively reshaping the balance of Lebanese power in favor of the Christian Militias who were allied with Israel. Nevertheless, fighting soon escalated into war with Palestinian and Lebanese militias, as well as the Syrian military, and the IDF progressed as far as "Beirut, well beyond the 40 km limit initially authorized by the government. Israeli forces were successful in driving the PLO out of Lebanon and forcing its leadership to relocate to Tunisia, but the war ultimately failed to achieve its political goals of bringing security to Israel’s northern border and creating stability in Lebanon. Begin referred to the invasion as an inevitable act of survival, often comparing "Yasser Arafat to "Hitler.

Sabra and Shatila massacre[edit]

Public dissatisfaction reached a peak in September 1982, after the "Sabra and Shatila Massacre. Hundreds of thousands gathered in "Tel Aviv in what was one of the biggest public demonstrations in Israeli history. The "Kahan Commission, appointed to investigate the events, issued its report on February 9, 1983, found the government indirectly responsible for the massacre but that Defense Minister "Ariel Sharon "bears personal responsibility." The commission recommended that Sharon be removed from office and never serve in any future Israeli government. Initially, Sharon attempted to remain in office and Begin refused to fire him. But Sharon resigned as Defense Minister after the death of "Emil Grunzweig, who was killed by a grenade tossed into a crowd of demonstrators leaving a "Peace Now organized march, which also injured ten others, including the son of an Israeli cabinet minister. Sharon remained in the cabinet as a minister without portfolio. Public pressure on Begin to resign increased.[59]

Begin’s disoriented appearance on national television while visiting the "Beaufort battle site raised concerns that he was being misinformed about the war’s progress. Asking Sharon whether PLO fighters had ‘machine guns’, Begin seemed out of touch with the nature and scale of the military campaign he had authorized. Almost a decade later, "Haaretz reporter Uzi Benziman published a series of articles accusing Sharon of intentionally deceiving Begin about the operation’s initial objectives, and continuously misleading him as the war progressed. Sharon sued both the newspaper and Benziman for "libel in 1991. The trial lasted 11 years, with one of the highlights being the deposition of Begin's son, "Benny, in favor of the defendants. Sharon lost the case.[60]

Argentine journalist Hernan Dobry has alleged that during this time Begin also ordered an airlift of weapons to Argentina during the "Falklands War, because he still hated the British decades after fighting them in the 1940s, and wanted to avenge the hanging of his friend "Dov Gruner.[61] However the weapons arrived after the war had already ended.[62]

Retirement from public life[edit]

After Begin's wife Aliza died in November 1982 while he was away on an official visit to Washington DC, he was thrown into a deep depression. Begin also became disappointed by the war in Lebanon because he had hoped to sign a peace treaty with the government President "Bashir Gemayel, who was assassinated. Instead, there were mounting Israeli casualties, and protesters outside his office maintained a constant vigil with a sign showing the number of Israeli soldiers killed in Lebanon, which was constantly updated. Begin also continued to be plagued by the ill health and occasional hospitalizations that he had endured for years. In August 1983, he resigned, telling his colleagues that "I cannot go on any longer", and handed over the reins of the office of Prime Minister to his old comrade-in-arms "Yitzhak Shamir, who had been the leader of the "Lehi resistance to the British.

Begin subsequently retired to an apartment overlooking the "Jerusalem Forest and spent the rest of his life in seclusion. He would rarely leave his apartment, and then usually to visit his wife's grave-site to say the traditional "Kaddish "prayer for the departed. His seclusion was watched over by his children and his lifetime personal secretary Yechiel Kadishai, who monitored all official requests for meetings. Begin would meet almost no one other than close friends or family. After a year, he changed his telephone number due to journalists constantly calling him. He was cared for by his daughter Leah and a housekeeper. According to Kadishai, Begin spent most of his days reading and watching movies, and would start and finish a book almost every day. He also kept up with world events by continuing his lifelong habit of listening to the "BBC every morning, which had begun during his underground days, and maintaining a subscription to several newspapers. Begin retained some political influence in the Likud party, which he used to influence it behind the scenes.[63][64][65]


Commemorative plaque in memory of Menachem Begin in "Brest, "Belarus; he was born in the city
Plaque in memory of Menachem Begin at the Auditorium Maximum, "University of Warsaw, where he studied law

On 3 March 1992, Begin suffered a severe heart attack in his apartment, and was rushed to "Ichilov Hospital, where he was put in the "intensive care unit. Begin arrived there unconscious and paralyzed on the left side of his body. His condition slightly improved following treatment, and he regained consciousness after 20 hours. For the next six days, Begin remained in serious condition. Begin was too frail to overcome the effects of the heart attack, and his condition began to rapidly deteriorate on 9 March at about 3:15 AM. An emergency team of doctors and nurses attempted to resuscitate his failing heart. His children were notified of his condition and immediately rushed to his side. Begin died at 3:30 AM. His death was announced an hour and a half later. Shortly before 6:00 AM, the hospital rabbi arrived at his bedside to say the "Kaddish prayer.[66][67]

Begin's funeral took place in "Jerusalem that afternoon. His coffin was carried four kilometers from the "Sanhedria Funeral Parlor to "Mount of Olives in a funeral procession attended by thousands of people.[68] In accordance with his wishes, Begin was given a simple Jewish burial ceremony and buried on the Mount of Olives in the "Jewish Cemetery there. He had asked to be buried there instead of "Mount Herzl, where most Israeli leaders are laid to rest, because he wanted to be buried beside his wife Aliza, as well as "Meir Feinstein of "Irgun and "Moshe Barazani of "Lehi, who committed suicide in jail while awaiting execution by the British.[69] An estimated 75,000 mourners were present at the funeral. Prime Minister "Yitzhak Shamir, President "Chaim Herzog, all cabinet ministers present in Israel, Supreme Court justices, Knesset members from most parties and a number of foreign ambassadors attended the funeral. Former members of the Irgun High Command served as pallbearers.[70]

Begin in fiction and on film[edit]

A slightly fictionalized Menachem Begin appeared in the first edition of "Land of Black Gold,[71] but was removed from subsequent editions.[72] He appears in the film "Waltz with Bashir, the "techno-thriller novel "The Fifth Horseman by "Larry Collins and "Dominique Lapierre, and the "science fiction novel "Worldwar: Volume 4: "Striking the Balance by "Harry Turtledove.

Begin was played by "David Opatoshu in the 1977 TV film "Raid on Entebbe and by "Barry Morse in the 1983 miniseries "Sadat.

"Chris Claremont, longtime writer of the "X-Men comic book, has said that Begin reminds him of the character "Magneto.[73]

In ""The Last Temptation of Homer", "Bart Simpson is prescribed square, black-rimmed eyeglasses for his lazy eye, and the doctor tries to comfort him by saying that "Menachem Begin wore a pair just like them."

A stage play, "Mr. Begin", written by Gabriel Emanuel and starring actor Dani Shteg, opened at the Menahem Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem in July, 2013.

Published work[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Menachem Begin: A model for leadership
  2. ^ John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, at 102 (Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2007).
  3. ^ Gwertzman, Bernard. Christian Militiamen Accused of a Massacre in Beirut Camps; U.S. Says the Toll is at Least 300. The New York Times. 19 September 1982.
  4. ^ Thompson, Ian. Primo Levi: A Life. 2004, page 436.
  5. ^ Menachem Begin Biography
  6. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (19 November 1984). "Books Of The Times". The New York Times. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1990 p.71
  9. ^ "Anita Shapira Begin on the Couch, Haaretz Books, in Hebrew
  10. ^ Begin's Legacy / The man who transformed Israel
  11. ^ Haber, Eitan (1978). Menahem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte. 
  12. ^ a b menachem begin
  13. ^ Lehr Wagner, Heather: Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin: negotiating peace in the Middle East
  14. ^ "Haber, Eitan (1978). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte Press. "ISBN "0-440-05553-9. 
  15. ^ Sources differ on how Begin left Anders' Army. Many indicate that he was discharged, e.g.:
    • Eitan Haber (1979). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. Dell Publishing Company. p. 136. "ISBN 978-0-440-16107-3. "A while later Anders's Chief of Staff, General Ukolitzky, did agree to the release of six Jewish soldiers to go to the United States on a campaign to get the Jewish community to help the remnants of European Jewry. The Chief of Staff, who was well acquainted with Dr. Kahan, invited him to his office for a drink. There were a number of senior officers present, and Kahan realized that this was a farewell party for Ukolitzky. 'I'm leaving here on a mission, and my colleagues are throwing a party but the last document I signed was an approval of release for Menahem Begin.'"
    • Bernard Reich (1990) Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa Greenwood Publishing Group. "ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5. p. 72. "In 1942 he arrived in Palestine as a soldier in General Anders's (Polish) army. Begin was discharged from the army in December 1943."
    • Harry Hurwitz (2004). Begin: His Life, Words and Deeds. Gefen Publishing House. "ISBN 978-965-229-324-4. p. 9. "His friends urged him to desert the Anders Army, but he refused to do any such dishonourable thing and waited until, as a result of negotiations, he was discharged and permitted to enter Eretz Israel, then under British mandatory rule".
    • "Biography – White Nights". Menachem Begin Heritage Center. Retrieved 16 January 2012. "Many of the new recruits deserted the army upon their arrival, but Begin decidedly refused to follow suit. 'I swore allegiance to the Polish army – I will not desert,' he resolutely told his friends when he was reunited with them on Jewish soil. Begin served in the Polish army for about a year and a half with the rank of corporal... At the initiative of Aryeh Ben-Eliezer and with the help of Mark Kahan, negotiations began with the Polish army regarding the release of five Jewish soldiers from the army, including Begin, in return for which the members of the IZL delegation would lobby in Washington for the Polish forces. The negotiations lasted many weeks until they finally met with success: The Polish commander announced the release of four of the soldiers. Fortunately, Begin was among them."
    Others give differing views, e.g.:
    • Amos Perlmutter (1987). The Life and Times of Menachem Begin Doubleday. "ISBN 978-0-385-18926-2. p. 134. "In the Ben Eliezer-Mark Kahan version, Begin received a complete, honorable release from the Anders Army. The truth is that he only received a one-year leave of absence, a kind of extended furlough, in order to enable him to join an Anders Army Jewish delegation which would go to the United States seeking help for the Polish government-in-exile. The delegation never materialized, mainly due to British opposition. Begin, however, never received an order to return to the ranks of the Army."
    • "Stefan Korboński (2000). "ROZDZIAŁ IV: ŻYDZI W CZASIE OKUPACJI". "Kapral Menachem Begin podejmując decyzję, czy zostać czy walczyć z faszystami, stwierdził: "Armia, której mundur noszę i której składałem przysięgę wojskową, walczy ze śmiertelnym wrogiem narodu żydowskiego, faszystowskimi Niemcami. Nie można opuścić takiej armii, nawet po to, aby walczyć o wolność we własnym kraju... Na prośbę Irgunu Drymmer zwrócił się do Generała Tokarzewskiego z sugestią, aby zwolnił Menachema Begina za aktywną służbę, ponieważ jest on potrzebny organizacjom żydowskim. Jako były przywódca Podziemia w pełni rozumiał on co się dzieje, a ponieważ sprzyjał celom, do których osiągnięcia dążyło żydowska konspiracja, generał dał Beginowi urlop na czas nieokreślony."
  16. ^ a b c d e Bell, Bowyer J.: Terror out of Zion (1976)
  17. ^ "Yehuda Bauer, From Diplomacy to Resistance: A history of Jewish Palestine, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1970 p.325.
  18. ^ Hoffman, Bruce: Anonymous Soldiers (2015)
  19. ^ Charters, David A.: The British Army and Jewish Insurgency in Palestine, 1945–47 (1989), p. 63
  20. ^ "Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, Henry Holt and Co. 2000, p. 490
  21. ^ In his book ‘The Revolt’ (1951), Begin outlines the history of the Irgun’s fight against British rule.
  22. ^ Begin's Speech on Saturday 15 May 1948
  23. ^ Silver, Eric (1984) Begin: A Biography. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, "ISBN 0-297-78399-8. Page 107.
  24. ^ Morris, 1948, p272: "Altogether eighteen men died in the clashes, most of them IZL". Katz, Days of Fire (an Irgun memoir), p247: 16 Irgun, 2 Hagana. Perliger, Jewish Terrorism in Israel, p27: 16 Irgun and 2 Hagana.
  25. ^ Koestler, Arthur (First published 1949) Promise and Fulfilment – Palestine 1917–1949 "ISBN 0-333-35152-5. Page 249 : "About forty people had been killed in the fighting on the beaches, on board the ship, or while trying to swim ashore."
  26. ^ Netanyahu, Benjamin (1993) A Place among the Nations – Israel and the World. British Library catalogue number 0593 034465. Page 444. "eighty-two members of the Irgun were killed."
  27. ^ Aryeh Kaplan, This is the Way it Was at Palyam site
  28. ^ Menahem Begin (1913–1992)
  29. ^ Schuster, Ruth (December 4, 2014). "'This Day in Jewish History / N.Y. Times publishes letter by Einstein, other Jews accusing Menachem Begin of fascism". Haaretz. 
  30. ^ "The Gun and the Olive Branch" p 472-473, David Hirst, quotes Lilienthal, Alfred M., The Zionist Connection, What Price Peace?, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1978, pp.350–3Albert Einstein joined other distinguished citizens in chiding these `Americans of national repute' for honoring a man whose party was `closely akin in its organization, methods, political philosophy and social appeal to the Nazi and Fascist parties'. See text at and image here [1]. Verified 5 December 2007.
  31. ^ "Einstein had already publicly denounced the "Revisionists in 1939; at the same time Rabbi "Stephen Wise denounced the movement as, "Fascism in "Yiddish or "Hebrew." See Rosen, Robert N., Saving the Jews: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust, Thunder's Mouth Press, New York, 2006, p. 318.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Colin Shindler (2002). The Land Beyond Promise: Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream. I. B. Tauris. pp. xviii,45, 57, 87. 
  34. ^ By George["dead link]
  35. ^ [See his Speech (Hebrew)]
  36. ^ Menachem Begin plotted assassination attempt to kill German chancellor, Luke Harding, "The Guardian, 15 June 2006
  37. ^ Nachman Ben-Yehuda, Political Assassinations by Jews: A Rhetorical Device for Justice, SUNY Press, New York, 1993
  38. ^ Report Says Begin Was Behind Adenauer Letter Bomb, Deutsche Welle, 13 June 2006
  39. ^ Sudite: I sent the bomb on Begin's order, in Hebrew
  40. ^ "Newsweek 30 May 1977, The Zealot,

    But he quit in 1970 when Prime Minister Golda Meir, under pressure from Washington, renewed a cease-fire with Egypt along the Suez Canal.

  41. ^ "William B. Quandt, Peace Process, American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967, p194, ff
  42. ^ Policy Implementation of Social Welfare in the 1980s By Frederick A. Lazin. Google Books.
  43. ^ Old Age, Disability, and Survivors
  44. ^ Public Policy in Israel By David Nachmias and Gila Menachem. Google Books.
  45. ^ a b c d For better or worse, Begin’s legacy is embedded in Israel's economy
  46. ^ Project Renewal
  47. ^ Shilon, Avi: Menachem Begin: A Life
  48. ^ Discord in Zion: Conflict Between Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in Israel G. N. Giladi, 1990. Google Books.
  49. ^ Data and Policy Change: The Fragility of Data in the Policy Context
  50. ^ Begin Visits New York Before Camp David on "YouTube
  51. ^ According to data published by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, and collated by [[Peace Now]]], the number of settlers in the West Bank grew from 5000 in the early seventies to more than 20000 in 1983 Archived 2 September 2010 at the "Wayback Machine.
  52. ^ Simons, Geoff: Iraq: From Summer to Saddam. St. Martin's Press, 1996, p. 320
  53. ^
  54. ^ Striking first: Preemptive and preventive attack in U.S. national security – Karl P. Mueller
  55. ^ "Avner, Yehuda (2010). The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership. The Toby Press. pp. 551–563. "ISBN "978-1-59264-278-6. 
  56. ^ Country Profiles -Israel, "Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) updated May 2014
  57. ^ Perry, Dan. Israel and the Quest for Permanence. McFarland & Co Inc., 1999. p. 46.
  58. ^ "El-Al, Israel's Airline". Gates of Jewish Heritage. Archived from the original on 2001-02-22. 
  59. ^ "Schiff, Ze'ev; "Ehud, Yaari (1984). Israel's Lebanon War. "Simon & Schuster. "ISBN "0-671-47991-1. 
  60. ^ Breaking the silence of cowards Haaretz, 23 August 2002. Retrieved 26 April 2007
  61. ^ "'A deep-rooted hatred of the British': How Israelis 'armed junta' in Falklands conflict". Daily Mail. London. 20 April 2011. 
  62. ^
  63. ^ Begin is a recluse 3 years after retirement
  64. ^ Menachem Begin in seclusion, but still wields influence
  65. ^ Menachem Begin stays in seclusion 2 years after quitting as Israeli PM
  66. ^ Hurwitz, pp. 238–239
  67. ^ Menachem Begin
  68. ^ Sedan, Gil (10 March 1992). "Menachem Begin is Laid to Rest in Simple Mount of Olives Ceremony". "Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 7 October 2012.  (subscription required)
  69. ^ The good jailer – Israel News|Haaretz Daily Newspaper
  70. ^ Hurwitz p. 239
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^ Foege, Alec. "The X-Men Files". New York Magazine. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Official sites[edit]

Miscellaneous links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
new party
"Leader of the Herut party
Succeeded by
Likud party
Preceded by
new party
"Leader of the Likud party
Succeeded by
"Yitzhak Shamir
) )