The largest German city by administrative borders is "Berlin, while "Rhine-Ruhr is the largest metropolitan area (with more than 10 million people). The importance of a city is measured with three groups of indicators, also called metropolitan functions: The decision making and control function, the innovation and competition function, and the gateway function. These functions are seen as key domains for metropolitan regions in developing their performance.
In spatial planning, a metropolis is usually observed within its regional context, thus the focus is mainly set on the metropolitan regions. These regions can be mono central or multi central. Eleven metropolitan regions have been defined due to these indicators: "Berlin-Brandenburg, "Bremen-Oldenburg, "Dresden-Halle-Leipzig, "Frankfurt-Rhine-Main, "Hamburg, "Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg, "Munich, "Nuremberg, "Rhine-Neckar, "Rhine-Ruhr (with "Cologne/Bonn), and "Stuttgart.
As of January 1, 2015, there are 14 "metropolitan cities" in Italy. "Rome, "Milan, "Naples and other big cores have taken in urban zones from their surrounding areas and merged them into the new entities, which have been home for one out of three Italians. The "provinces remained in the parts of the country not belonging to any Città Metropolitana.
The Union of Polish Metropoles ("Polish: Unia Metropolii Polskich), established in 1990, is an organization of the largest cities in the country. Currently twelve cities are members of the organization, of which 11 have more than a quarter-million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan area in Poland, if ranked solely by the number of inhabitants, is the "Silesian Metropolis (in fact a "metroplex), with around 3 million inhabitants (5 million inhabitants in the "Silesian metropolitan area), followed by "Warsaw, with 1.7 million inhabitants in the city proper and 2.7 million in the "Warsaw metropolitan area. The "Silesian Metropolis is an initiative of recent years attempting to unite a large "conurbation into one official urban unit. Other Polish metropoles are "Kraków, "Łódź, "Wrocław, "Poznań, "Tricity, "Szczecin and "Bydgoszcz.
Spain has around 15 metropolitan areas with a population greater than 500,000 people. The largest metropoles with populations greater than a million people are Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Sevilla.
In Turkey the metropolitan cities are described as "büyükşehir". There are 30 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey now. The largest by far is "İstanbul, followed by "Ankara, "İzmir and "Bursa.
In the UK, the term the Metropolis was used to refer to "London, or the "London conurbation. The term is retained by the London police force, the "Metropolitan Police Service (the "Met"). The chief officer of the Metropolitan Police is formally known as the "Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Since 1974 six "conurbations (outside London) have been known as "metropolitan counties, each divided into "metropolitan districts. Other conurbations in the United Kingdom are also sometimes considered to be metropolitan areas, most notably the "West Midlands (centred on the city of "Birmingham), "West Yorkshire (centred on the city of "Leeds), "Greater Manchester and "Greater Glasgow which make up the most densely populated areas in the British Isles outside London.
"Statistics Canada defines a "census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000. Canada's largest metropoles are "Toronto, "Montreal and "Vancouver.
In Mexico, the term metropolis is used to refer to an urban area of economic, political, and cultural importance. "Mexico City represents all three factors as it is the country's capital and financial center. Other metropolis are "Monterrey and "Guadalajara, both metropolitan areas population over 4,000,000 inhabitants.
In the "United States, an "incorporated area or group of areas having a population more than 50,000 is required to have a "metropolitan planning organization in order to facilitate major infrastructure projects and to ensure financial solvency. Thus, a population of 50,000 or greater has been used as a "de facto standard to define a metropolis in the United States. A similar definition is used by the "United States Census Bureau. The bureau defines a "metropolitan statistical area as "at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants." The six largest metropolitan cities in the USA are "New York City, "Los Angeles, "Chicago, "Dallas, "Houston, and "Philadelphia, with New York City being the largest.
The "Government of Australia defines a metropolitan area as any statistical division or district with a population of more than 100,000. According to this definition, there are at least 16 metropolitan areas in Australia, including every state capital. By population the largest of these metropolitan areas is "Sydney, New South Wales (urban area population at 2013 Census of 4,757,083) and the smallest is "Darwin, Northern Territory (Urban area population at 2011 census of 103,016).
In Argentina, "Buenos Aires is the principal metropolis with a population of around fifteen and a half million. "The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America. Buenos Aires is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina. Its port is one of the busiest in South America. Buenos Aires is sometimes referred to as the "Paris of South America". The city has the busiest live theatre industry in Latin America, with scores of theaters and productions, as well as the largest amount of theatres in the world. There are more than 300 active theatres in Buenos Aires. The number of cultural festivals with more than 10 sites and 5 years of existence also places the city as 2nd worldwide, after "Edinburgh.
In Brazil, "São Paulo is the principal metropolis with over 20 million inhabitants. In the larger cities, such as São Paulo and "Rio de Janeiro (6.3 million), "favelas (slums) grew over decades as people migrated from rural areas in order to find work. The term used in "Brazilian Portuguese for a metropolitan area is Região Metropolitana. Others metropoles in Brazil that feature over one million inhabitants include: "Belém, "Belo Horizonte, "Campinas, "Curitiba, "Florianópolis, "Fortaleza, "Goiânia, "João Pessoa, "Manaus, "Porto Alegre, "Recife etc.
In Colombia, "Bogotá is the main metropolis with over 13 million inhabitants by its Metropolitan Area which includes boroughs like "Soacha, "Mosquera, "Cota and "Chía. The second metropolis in Colombia is "Medellín which has boroughs too like "Envigado, "Itagüi, "La Estrella and "Sabaneta. This metropolitan area is known by having the first and only "Metro in Colombia, the "Medellín Metro. "Bogotá has the "Transmilenio, a Rapid Transit Metro-bus system.
Metropolis as a mainland area
In France, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands metropolis (métropole (Fr.) / metrópole (Port.) / metrópoli (Spa.) / metropool (Dutch)) designates the mainland part of a country near or on the European continent; in the case of France, this would mean France without its "overseas departments. For Portugal and Spain during the "Spanish Empire and "Portuguese Empire period, the term was used to designate Portugal or Spain except its colonies (the Ultramar). In France métropole is also used to refer to large agglomerations.
- Other city types
- Planning theories
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|""||"Wikisource has the text of the "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Metropolis.|
- Census.gov, "U.S. Census Bureau, About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistics
- MetroForum.com, forum dedicated to discussions on metropolis
- Blog.ar2com.de, a podcast with a worldwide analysis of megacities (focus Latin America)
- E-geopolis.eu: research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France
- See "Ronald Daus´s bibliography, researcher at the "Free University of Berlin