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State of Michigan
""Flag of Michigan ""State seal of Michigan
"Flag "Seal
"Nickname(s): "The Great Lake(s) State",[1] "The Wolverine State", "The Mitten State", "Water (Winter) Wonderland"
"Motto(s): "Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice
(English: "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you")
""Map of the United States with Michigan highlighted
"Official language None ("English, de facto)
"Spoken languages English 91.11%
"Spanish 2.93%
"Arabic 1.04%
Other 4.92%
"Demonym Michigander, Michiganian, Yooper (for residents of the Upper Peninsula)[2]
"Capital "Lansing
"Largest city "Detroit
"Largest metro "Metro Detroit
Area "Ranked 11th
 • Total 96,716 sq mi
(250,493 km2)
 • Width 386[3] miles (621 km)
 • Length 456[3] miles (734 km)
 • % water 41.5
 • Latitude 41° 41' N to 48° 18' N
 • Longitude 82° 7' W to 90° 25' W
Population "Ranked 10th
 • Total 9,928,300 (2016 est.)[4]
 • "Density 174/sq mi  (67.1/km2)
"Ranked 17th
 • "Median household income $54,203 [5] (31st)
"Elevation
 • Highest point "Mount Arvon[6][a]
1,979 ft (603 m)
 • Mean 900 ft  (270 m)
 • Lowest point "Lake Erie[6][a]
571 ft (174 m)
Before statehood "Michigan Territory
"Admission to Union January 26, 1837 (26th)
"Governor "Rick Snyder ("R)
"Lieutenant Governor "Brian Calley ("R)
"Legislature "Michigan Legislature
 • "Upper house "Senate
 • "Lower house "House of Representatives
"U.S. Senators
"U.S. House delegation 9 Republicans
5 Democrats ("list)
"Time zones  
 • most of state "Eastern: "UTC "−5/"−4
 • 4 "U.P. counties ("Gogebic, "Iron, "Dickinson, and "Menominee) "Central: "UTC "−6/"−5
"ISO 3166 "US-MI
Abbreviations "MI, "Mich.
Website www.michigan.gov
"Michigan state symbols
Living insignia
"Bird "American robin (Turdus migratorius)
"Fish "Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
"Flower "Apple blossom (Malus domestica)
Wildflower: "Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris)
"Mammal Unofficial: "Wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus)
Game animal: "White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
"Reptile "Painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
"Tree "Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
Inanimate insignia
"Fossil "Mastodon (Mammut americanum)
"Gemstone "Isle Royale greenstone
"Rock "Petoskey stone
"Soil "Kalkaska sand
"Song ""My Michigan" Archived December 18, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.
"State route marker
""Michigan state route marker
"State quarter
""Michigan quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
"Lists of United States state symbols

Michigan ("/ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ (""About this sound listen)) is a "state in the "Great Lakes and "Midwestern regions of the "United States.

The state's name, Michigan, is of "French origins (from the "Ojibwe word) mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake".[3][7] Michigan is the "tenth most populous of the "50 United States, with the "11th most extensive total area, and the largest state by total area east of the "Mississippi River.[b]

Michigan's capital is "Lansing, and its largest city is "Detroit.

Michigan is the only state to consist of two "peninsulas. The "Lower Peninsula, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is often noted to be shaped like a "mitten. The "Upper Peninsula (often referred to as "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the "Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins "Lake Huron to "Lake Michigan. The two peninsulas are connected by the "Mackinac Bridge. The state has the longest "freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five "Great Lakes, plus "Lake Saint Clair.[8] As a result, it is one of the leading U.S. states for "recreational boating.[9]

Michigan also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds.[10] A person in the state is never more than six miles (9.7 km) from a natural water source or more than 85 miles (137 km) from a Great Lakes shoreline.[11]

The area was first settled by "Native American tribes and later colonized by French explorers in the 17th century and became part of "New France. After France's defeat in the "French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule, and was ceded to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the "American Revolutionary War. The area was part of the larger "Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the "Indiana Territory. In 1805, the "Michigan Territory was formed, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union as the 26th state. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular "immigrant destination.

Although Michigan has come to develop a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. "automotive industry, being home to the country's "three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all within the "Detroit metropolitan area). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of "manufacturing, services, and "high-tech industry.

Contents

History[edit]

When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were "Algonquian peoples, which include the "Anishinaabe groups of "Ojibwe (called "Chippewa" in French), "Odaawaa/Odawa (Ottawa), and the "Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi). The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the "Council of Three Fires. The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest.

The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and "northern and "central Michigan, and also inhabited "Ontario, northern "Wisconsin, southern "Manitoba, and northern and north-central "Minnesota. The Ottawa lived primarily south of the "Straits of Mackinac in northern, "western and "southern Michigan, but also in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin, while the Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin and southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the "Mascouten, the "Menominee, the "Miami, the "Sac (or Sauk), and the "Fox, and the non-Algonquian "Wyandot, who are better known by their French name, the Huron.

17th century[edit]

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Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht

French "voyageurs and "coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of "Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père "Jacques Marquette established "Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions.[12][13] Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at "Saint Ignace and "Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with relatively few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, "Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built "Fort Miami at present-day "St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present day city of "Niles.

18th century[edit]

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Approximate area of Michigan highlighted in "Guillaume de L'Isle's 1718 map

In 1701, French explorer and army officer "Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded "Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the "Detroit River, between lakes "Saint Clair and "Erie. Cadillac had convinced "King Louis XIV's chief minister, "Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage "British aspirations.

The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one "arpent[14][15] (about 0.85 acres (3,400 m2), the equivalent of just under 200 feet (61 m) per side) and named it "Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in the Michigan wilderness. The town quickly became a major "fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne (Church of Saint Ann) was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation continues to be active today. Cadillac later departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716. French attempts to consolidate the fur trade led to the "Fox Wars involving the "Meskwaki (Fox) and their allies versus the French and their Native allies.

At the same time, the French strengthened "Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-18th century, the French also occupied forts at present-day "Niles and Sault Ste. Marie, though most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by Europeans. France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to 800 people in 1765, the largest city between Montreal and New Orleans.[16]

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The "Province of Quebec in 1774

From 1660 until the end of French rule, Michigan was part of the Royal Province of "New France.[c] In 1760, "Montreal fell to the British forces ending the "French and Indian War (1754–1763). Under the 1763 "Treaty of Paris, Michigan and the rest of New France east of the Mississippi River passed to Great Britain.[17] After the "Quebec Act was passed in 1774, Michigan became part of the British "Province of Quebec. By 1778, Detroit's population was up to 2,144 and it was the third largest city in Quebec.[18]

During the "American Revolutionary War, Detroit was an important British supply center. Most of the inhabitants were French-Canadians or Native Americans, many of whom had been allied with the French. Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the 1783 "Treaty of Paris, the British retained control of Detroit and Michigan after the "American Revolution. When Quebec split into Lower and Upper Canada in 1791, Michigan was part of "Kent County, Upper Canada. It held its first democratic elections in August 1792 to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark (now "Niagara-on-the-Lake).[19]

Under terms negotiated in the 1794 "Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and "Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

19th century[edit]

During the "War of 1812, "Michigan Territory (effectively consisting of Detroit and the surrounding area) was surrendered after a nearly bloodless "siege in 1812. An attempt to retake Detroit resulted in a severe American defeat in the "River Raisin Massacre. This battle is still the bloodiest ever fought in the state and had the highest number of American casualties of any battle in the war. Ultimately, Michigan was recaptured by Americans in 1813 after the "Battle of Lake Erie. An invasion of Canada which culminated in the "Battle of the Thames was then launched from Michigan. The more northern areas were held by the British until the peace treaty restored the old boundaries. A number of forts, including "Fort Wayne were built in Michigan during the 19th century out of fears of renewed fighting with Britain.

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"Lumbering "pines in the late 1800s

The population grew slowly until the opening in 1825 of the "Erie Canal connecting the Great Lakes and the Hudson River and New York City. The new route brought a large influx of settlers, who became farmers and merchants and shipped out grain, lumber, and iron ore. By the 1830s, Michigan had 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply and qualify for statehood.

A Constitutional Convention of Assent, led by "Gershom Mott Williams, was held to lead the territory to statehood.[20] In October 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although "Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with "Ohio known as the "Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to "Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837. The Upper Peninsula proved to be a rich source of lumber, iron, and copper. Michigan led the nation in lumber production from the 1850s to the 1880s. "Railroads became a major engine of growth from the 1850s onward, with "Detroit the chief hub.

A second wave of French Canadian immigrants settled in Michigan during the late 19th to early 20th century, particularly in lumbering areas in counties on the Lake Huron side of the Lower Peninsula, such as the Saginaw Valley, Alpena, and Cheboygan counties as well as throughout the Upper Peninsula with large concentrations in Escanaba and the "Keweenaw Peninsula.[21]

The first statewide meeting of the "Republican Party took place July 6, 1854, in "Jackson, Michigan, where the party adopted its platform. The state was heavily Republican until the 1930s. Michigan made "a significant contribution to the "Union in the "American Civil War and sent more than forty regiments of volunteers to the federal armies.

Modernizers and boosters set up systems for public education, including founding the "University of Michigan (1817; moved to Ann Arbor in 1837), for a classical academic education; and Michigan State Normal School, (1849) now "Eastern Michigan University, for the training of teachers. In 1899, it became the first normal college in the nation to offer a four-year curriculum. Michigan Agricultural College (1855), now "Michigan State University in East Lansing, was founded as the pioneer land-grant college, a model for those authorized under the Morrill Act (1862). Many other private colleges were founded as well, and the smaller cities formed high schools late in the century.[22]

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

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B-24s under construction at Ford's "Willow Run line, 1942

Michigan's economy underwent a transformation at the turn of the 20th century. Many individuals, including "Ransom E. Olds, "John and "Horace Dodge, "Henry Leland, "David Dunbar Buick, "Henry Joy, "Charles King, and "Henry Ford, provided the concentration of engineering know-how and technological enthusiasm to start the "birth of the automotive industry.[23] Ford's development of the moving "assembly line in "Highland Park marked the beginning of a new era in transportation. Like the "steamship and railroad, it was a far-reaching development. More than the forms of public transportation, the automobile transformed private life. It became the major industry of Detroit and Michigan, and permanently altered the socio-economic life of the United States and much of the world.

With the growth, the auto industry created jobs in Detroit that attracted immigrants from Europe and migrants from across the United States, including those from the "South. By 1920, Detroit was the fourth-largest city in the US. Residential housing was in short supply, and it took years for the market to catch up with the population boom. By the 1930s, so many immigrants had arrived that more than 30 languages were spoken in the public schools, and "ethnic communities celebrated in annual heritage festivals. Over the years immigrants and migrants contributed greatly to Detroit's diverse urban culture, including popular music trends, such as the influential "Motown Sound of the 1960s led by a variety of individual singers and groups.

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"Skyscrapers in downtown Detroit

"Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also an important center of manufacturing. Since 1838, the city has also been noted for its furniture industry and is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies. Grand Rapids is home to a number of major companies including "Steelcase, "Amway, and "Meijer. Grand Rapids is also an important center for "GE Aviation Systems.

Michigan held its first "United States presidential primary election in 1910. With its rapid growth in industry, it was an important center of union industry-wide organizing, such as the rise of the "United Auto Workers.

In 1920 "WWJ (AM) in Detroit became the first radio station in the United States to regularly broadcast commercial programs. Throughout that decade, some of the country's largest and most ornate "skyscrapers were built in the city. Particularly noteworthy are the "Fisher Building, "Cadillac Place, and the "Guardian Building, each of which is a "National Historic Landmark (NHL).

In 1927 a school bombing took place in "Clinton County; the "Bath School disaster, which resulted in the deaths of 38 schoolchildren, constitutes the deadliest mass murder in a school in U.S. history.

Michigan manufactured 10.9 percent of total United States military armaments produced during "World War II, ranking second (behind "New York) among the 48 states.[24]

Detroit continued to expand through the 1950s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. After "World War II, housing was developed in suburban areas outside city cores; newly constructed U.S. "Interstate Highways allowed commuters to navigate the region more easily. Modern advances in the auto industry have led to increased automation, high tech industry, and increased suburban growth since 1960.

Michigan is the leading auto-producing state in the US, with the industry primarily located throughout the "Midwestern United States, "Ontario, Canada, and the Southern United States.[25] With almost ten million residents, Michigan is a large and influential state, ranking tenth in population among the fifty states. Detroit is the centrally located metropolitan area of the "Great Lakes Megalopolis and the second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. linking the "Great Lakes system.

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Biomedical Science Research Building at the UM Medical School supports the "Michigan Life Sciences Corridor.

The "Metro Detroit area in "Southeast Michigan is the state's largest metropolitan area (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and the eleventh largest in the USA. The "Grand Rapids metropolitan area in "Western Michigan is the state's fastest-growing metro area, with over 1.3 million residents as of 2006. "Metro Detroit receives more than 15 million visitors each year. Michigan has many popular tourist destinations, including areas such as "Frankenmuth in "The Thumb, and "Traverse City on the "Grand Traverse Bay in "Northern Michigan. Tourists spend about $17 billion annually in Michigan supporting 193,000 jobs.[26]

Michigan typically ranks third or fourth in overall "Research & development (R&D) expenditures in the US.[27][28] The state's leading research institutions include the "University of Michigan, "Michigan State University and "Wayne State University which are important partners in the state's economy and the state's "University Research Corridor.[29] Michigan's public universities attract more than $1.5 B in research and development grants each year.[30] Agriculture also serves a significant role, making the state a leading grower of fruit in the US, including blueberries, cherries, apples, grapes and peaches.[31]

Government[edit]

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"Michigan State Capitol in Lansing
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Michigan State Capitol Muses
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"Michigan Supreme Court at the Hall of Justice

State government[edit]

Michigan is governed as a republic, with three "branches of government: the "executive branch consisting of the "Governor of Michigan and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the "legislative branch consisting of the "House of Representatives and "Senate; and the "judicial branch. The "Michigan Constitution allows for the direct participation of the electorate by statutory "initiative and "referendum, "recall, and constitutional initiative and "referral (Article II, § 9,[32] defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution"). "Lansing is the "state capital and is home to all three branches of state government.

The "governor and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The current governor is "Rick Snyder. Michigan has two official "Governor's Residences; one is in Lansing, and the other is at "Mackinac Island. The other constitutionally elected executive officers are the "lieutenant governor, who is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, the "secretary of state, and the "attorney general. The lieutenant governor presides over the "Senate, but only voting when ties occur, and is also a member of the cabinet. The secretary of state is the chief elections officer and is charged with running many licensure programs including motor vehicles, all of which are done through the branch offices of the secretary of state.

The "Michigan Legislature consists of a 38-member Senate and 110-member "House of Representatives. Members of both houses of the legislature are elected through "first past the post elections by single-member electoral districts of near-equal population that often have boundaries which coincide with county and municipal lines. Senators serve four-year terms concurrent to those of the governor, while representatives serve two-year terms. The "Michigan State Capitol was dedicated in 1879 and has hosted the executive and legislative branches of the state ever since.

The Michigan judiciary consists of two courts with primary jurisdiction (the Circuit Courts and the District Courts), one intermediate level appellate court (the "Michigan Court of Appeals), and the "Michigan Supreme Court. There are several administrative courts and specialized courts. District courts are trial courts of "limited jurisdiction, handling most traffic violations, small claims, "misdemeanors, and civil suits where the amount contended is below $25,000. District courts are often responsible for handling the preliminary examination and for setting bail in felony cases. District court judges are elected to terms of six years. In a few locations, municipal courts have been retained to the exclusion of the establishment of district courts. There are 57 circuit courts in the State of Michigan, which have "original jurisdiction over all civil suits where the amount contended in the case exceeds $25,000 and all criminal cases involving "felonies. Circuit courts are also the only trial courts in the State of Michigan which possess the power to issue "equitable remedies. Circuit courts have "appellate jurisdiction from district and municipal courts, as well as from decisions and decrees of state agencies. Most counties have their own circuit court, but sparsely populated counties often share them. Circuit court judges are elected to terms of six years. State appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years, but vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor. There are four divisions of the Court of Appeals, being located in Detroit, "Grand Rapids, "Lansing, and "Marquette. Cases are heard by the Court of Appeals by panels of three judges, who examine the application of the law and not the facts of the case, unless there has been grievous error pertaining to questions of fact. The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in narrow circumstances, but holds appellate jurisdiction over the entire state judicial system.

Law[edit]

Michigan has had four "constitutions, the first of which was ratified on October 5 and 6, 1835.[33] There were also constitutions from 1850 and 1908, in addition to the current constitution from 1963. The current document has a preamble, 11 articles, and one section consisting of a schedule and temporary provisions. Michigan, like every U.S. state except "Louisiana, has a "common law legal system.

Politics[edit]

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"Michigan Governor "Rick Snyder (R) (2011–present)
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"Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Voters in the state elect candidates from both major parties. Economic issues are important in Michigan elections.

The three-term Republican Governor "John Engler (1991–2003) preceded the former two-term Democratic Governor "Jennifer Granholm (2003–2011). The state has elected successive Republican "attorneys general twice since 2003. The "Republican Party currently holds a majority in both the House and Senate of the "Michigan Legislature. Michigan supported the election of Republican Presidents "Ronald Reagan, "George H. W. Bush, and "Donald Trump. The current Governor Rick Snyder (2011–present) is a "Republican.

In contrast, the state supported Democratic candidates in each presidential election from 1992 to 2012. In 2012, "Barack Obama carried the state over "Mitt Romney, winning Michigan's 16 electoral votes with 54% of the vote. Michigan's two U.S. Senators are both Democrats, while Republicans hold nine of the state's fourteen "US House seats. Michigan's current senior U.S. Senator "Debbie Stabenow, a Democrat, has served since 2001 after narrowly beating former Republican U.S. Senator "Spencer Abraham in the 2000 elections. Democratic U.S. Senator "Gary Peters was elected in 2014, beating former Republican Michigan Secretary of State "Terri Lynn Land. Congressman "Fred Upton, a Republican, serves as Chairman of the "US House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Congresswoman "Debbie Dingell, a Democrat, became the first person to succeed a living spouse when she replaced former "Dean of the House of Representatives "John Dingell in 2015.

Republican strongholds of the state include rural areas of "Western and "Northern Michigan, the "Grand Rapids metropolitan area, and "Livingston County. Areas of Democratic strength include "Wayne County, home to "Detroit, "Washtenaw County ("Ann Arbor), "Ingham County ("Lansing), and "Genesee County ("Flint). Much of suburban Detroit—which includes parts of "Oakland, "Macomb, and Wayne counties—is politically competitive between the two parties.

Historically, the first county-level meeting of the "Republican Party took place in "Jackson on July 6, 1854,[34] and the party thereafter dominated Michigan until the "Great Depression. In the "1912 election, Michigan was one of the six states to support progressive Republican and third-party candidate "Theodore Roosevelt for president after he lost the Republican nomination to "William Howard Taft.

Michigan remained fairly reliably Republican at the presidential level for much of the 20th century. It was part of Greater New England, the northern tier of states settled chiefly by migrants from New England who carried their culture with them. The state was one of only a handful to back "Wendell Willkie over "Franklin Roosevelt in "1940, and supported "Thomas E. Dewey in his losing bid against "Harry S. Truman in "1948. Michigan went to the Democrats in presidential elections during the 1960s, and voted for the Republican candidate in every election from 1972 to 1988. Between 1992 and 2012 it supported the Democrats; early on in 2016, it was pegged as a "swing state, and was won very narrowly by the G.O.P. candidate, "Donald Trump.

Michigan was the home of "Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States. He was born in Nebraska and moved as an infant to Grand Rapids and grew up there.[35][36] The "Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, and the "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library is located on the campus of his alma mater, the "University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

In 1846 Michigan became the first state in the Union, as well as the first English-speaking government in the world,[37][38] "to abolish the death penalty. Historian "David Chardavoyne has suggested that the movement to abolish capital punishment in Michigan grew as a result of enmity toward the state's neighbor, Canada. Under British rule, it made public executions a regular practice.

Michigan has recognized and performed same-sex marriages since June 26, 2015, following the Supreme Court ruling in "Obergefell v. Hodges.[39] Previously, such unions were prohibited under "a 2004 state constitutional amendment.[40]

Michigan has approved plans to expand "Medicaid coverage in 2014 to adults with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level (approximately $15,500 for a single adult in 2014).[41]

Administrative divisions[edit]

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Michigan welcome sign

State government is decentralized among three tiers—statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 "counties in Michigan.

Cities, "state universities, and villages are vested with "home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything that is not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule and are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.

There are two types of "township in Michigan: general law township and charter. "Charter township status was created by the Legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water and sewer department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers.

Geography[edit]

Michigan consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90°30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac. The "45th parallel north runs through the state—marked by highway signs and the Polar-Equator Trail[42]—along a line including "Mission Point Light near "Traverse City, the towns of "Gaylord and "Alpena in the Lower Peninsula and "Menominee in the Upper Peninsula. With the exception of two small areas that are drained by the "Mississippi River by way of the "Wisconsin River in the Upper Peninsula and by way of the "Kankakee-"Illinois River in the Lower Peninsula, Michigan is drained by the "Great Lakes-"St. Lawrence watershed and is the only state with the majority of its land thus drained.

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View of "Sleeping Bear Dunes

The Great Lakes that border Michigan from east to west are "Lake Erie, "Lake Huron, "Lake Michigan and "Lake Superior. It has more public golf courses, registered boats, and "lighthouses than any other state. The state is bounded on the south by the states of "Ohio and "Indiana, sharing land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with "Illinois and "Wisconsin in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the "Menominee and "Montreal Rivers; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin and "Minnesota to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north and east.

The heavily forested "Upper Peninsula is relatively mountainous in the west. The "Porcupine Mountains, which are part of one of the oldest mountain chains in the world,[43] rise to an altitude of almost 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point, in the "Huron Mountains northwest of Marquette, is "Mount Arvon at 1,979 feet (603 m). The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined but has fewer than 330,000 inhabitants. They are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers"), and their speech (the ""Yooper dialect") has been heavily influenced by the numerous "Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the lumbering and "mining boom of the late 19th century.

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The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area

The "Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten and many residents hold up a hand to depict where they are from.[44] It is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km) from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial "moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 m), or one of several points nearby in the vicinity of "Cadillac. The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 m).

The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas makes for a long distance between the ends of the state. "Ironwood, in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies 630 highway miles (1,015 km) from "Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula from Michigan's political and population centers makes the U.P. culturally and economically distinct. Occasionally U.P. residents have called for "secession from Michigan and establishment as a new state to be called ""Superior".

A feature of Michigan that gives it the distinct shape of a mitten is "the Thumb. This peninsula projects out into Lake Huron and the "Saginaw Bay. The geography of the Thumb is mainly flat with a few rolling hills. Other peninsulas of Michigan include the "Keweenaw Peninsula, making up the "Copper Country region of the state. The "Leelanau Peninsula lies in the "Northern Lower Michigan region. See Also "Michigan Regions

Numerous lakes and "marshes mark both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw Bay, "Whitefish Bay, and the Big and "Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula. The "Grand and "Little Traverse, "Thunder, and "Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has the second longest shoreline of any state—3,288 miles (5,292 km),[45] including 1,056 miles (1,699 km) of island shoreline.[46]

""
""
Michigan map, including territorial waters

The state has "numerous large islands, the principal ones being the "North Manitou and "South Manitou, "Beaver, and "Fox groups in Lake Michigan; "Isle Royale and "Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, "Bois Blanc, and "Mackinac islands in Lake Huron; and "Neebish, "Sugar, and "Drummond islands in "St. Mary's River. Michigan has about 150 "lighthouses, the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See "Lighthouses in the United States.

The "state's rivers are generally small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the "Detroit River, "St. Marys River, and "St. Clair River which connect the Great Lakes; the "Au Sable, "Cheboygan, and "Saginaw, which flow into Lake Huron; the "Ontonagon, and "Tahquamenon, which flow into Lake Superior; and the "St. Joseph, "Kalamazoo, "Grand, "Muskegon, "Manistee, and "Escanaba, which flow into Lake Michigan. The state has 11,037 inland lakes—totaling 1,305 square miles (3,380 km2) of inland water—in addition to 38,575 square miles (99,910 km2) of Great Lakes waters. No point in Michigan is more than six miles (9.7 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes.[47]

The state is home to a number of areas maintained by the "National Park Service including: "Isle Royale National Park, located in Lake Superior, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Other national "protected areas in the state include: "Keweenaw National Historical Park, "Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, "Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, "Huron National Forest, "Manistee National Forest, "Hiawatha National Forest, "Ottawa National Forest and "Father Marquette National Memorial. The largest section of the "North Country National Scenic Trail passes through Michigan.

With 78 "state parks, 19 state recreation areas, and 6 "state forests, Michigan has the largest state park and "state forest system of any state. These parks and forests include "Holland State Park, "Mackinac Island State Park, "Au Sable State Forest, and "Mackinaw State Forest.

Climate[edit]

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""
Köppen climate types in Michigan
"Detroit, MI (L.P.)
Climate chart ("explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.2
 
 
32
21
 
 
1.4
 
 
35
22
 
 
1.8
 
 
45
29
 
 
2.2
 
 
58
40
 
 
3.7
 
 
70
50
 
 
2.6
 
 
79
61
 
 
2.5
 
 
84
66
 
 
2.4
 
 
82
64
 
 
2.6
 
 
74
56
 
 
2.5
 
 
61
45
 
 
2.5
 
 
49
36
 
 
2
 
 
37
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: [48]
"Marquette, MI (U.P.)
Climate chart ("explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.8
 
 
26
13
 
 
1.3
 
 
29
14
 
 
2
 
 
37
22
 
 
2.3
 
 
48
32
 
 
2.6
 
 
60
41
 
 
2.7
 
 
69
51
 
 
2.6
 
 
75
57
 
 
2.6
 
 
75
58
 
 
3.3
 
 
67
51
 
 
3.1
 
 
55
40
 
 
2.6
 
 
41
29
 
 
2
 
 
30
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: [49]

Michigan has a "continental climate, although there are two distinct regions. The southern and central parts of the Lower Peninsula (south of "Saginaw Bay and from the Grand Rapids area southward) have a warmer climate ("Köppen climate classification Dfa) with hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of Lower Peninsula and the entire Upper Peninsula has a more severe climate (Köppen Dfb), with warm, but shorter summers and longer, cold to very cold winters. Some parts of the state average high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the winter through the middle of February the state is frequently subjected to heavy "lake-effect snow. The state averages from 30–40 inches (76–102 cm) of precipitation annually, however some areas in the northern lower peninsula and the upper peninsula average almost 160" of snowfall per year.[50] Michigan's highest recorded temperature is 112 °F (44 °C) at "Mio on July 13, 1936, and the coldest recorded temperature is −51 °F (−46 °C) at "Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934.[51]

The entire state averages 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. These can be severe, especially in the southern part of the state. The state averages 17 "tornadoes per year, which are more common in the extreme southern portion of the state. Portions of the southern border have been almost as vulnerable historically as states further west and in "Tornado Alley. For this reason, many communities in the very southern portions of the state are equipped with tornado sirens to warn residents of approaching tornadoes. Farther north, in Central Michigan, Northern Michigan, and the Upper Peninsula, tornadoes are rare.[52][53]

Geology[edit]

The geological formation of the state is greatly varied, with the "Michigan Basin being the most major formation. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula (being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula exhibits Lower "Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of "Canada. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula contains coal measures and rocks of the "Pennsylvanian period. "Devonian and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state.

Michigan rarely experiences "earthquakes, thus far mostly smaller ones that do not cause significant damage. A 4.6-magnitude earthquake struck in August 1947. More recently, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake occurred on Saturday, May 2, 2015, shortly after noon, about 5 miles south of "Galesburg, Michigan (9 miles southeast of "Kalamazoo) in central Michigan, about 140 miles west of Detroit, according to the Colorado-based "U.S. Geological Survey's "National Earthquake Information Center. No major damage or injuries were reported, according to Governor "Rick Snyder's office.[54]

Demographics[edit]

""
""
Michigan population distribution
Historical population
Census Pop.
"1800 3,757
"1810 4,762 26.8%
"1820 7,452 56.5%
"1830 28,004 275.8%
"1840 212,267 658.0%
"1850 397,654 87.3%
"1860 749,113 88.4%
"1870 1,184,059 58.1%
"1880 1,636,937 38.2%
"1890 2,093,890 27.9%
"1900 2,420,982 15.6%
"1910 2,810,173 16.1%
"1920 3,668,412 30.5%
"1930 4,842,325 32.0%
"1940 5,256,106 8.5%
"1950 6,371,766 21.2%
"1960 7,823,194 22.8%
"1970 8,875,083 13.4%
"1980 9,262,078 4.4%
"1990 9,295,297 0.4%
"2000 9,938,444 6.9%
"2010 9,883,640 −0.6%
Est. 2016 9,928,300 0.5%
Sources: 1910–2010[55][56]
2015 estimate[57]

Population[edit]

The "United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Michigan was 9,928,300 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 0.45% from 9,883,635 recorded at the "2010 United States Census.[57]

The "center of population of Michigan is located in "Shiawassee County, in the southeastern corner of the "civil township of "Bennington, which is located northwest of the village of "Morrice.[58]

As of the 2010 "American Community Survey for the U.S. Census, the state had a foreign-born population of 592,212, or 6.0% of the total. Michigan has the largest "Dutch, "Finnish, and "Macedonian populations in the United States.

The "2010 Census reported:

In the same year "Hispanics or Latinos (of any race) made up 4.4% of the population.

Michigan Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1970[59] 1990[59] 2000[60] 2010[61]
"White 88.3% 83.4% 80.1% 79.0%
"Black 11.2% 13.9% 14.2% 14.2%
"Asian 0.2% 1.1% 1.8% 2.4%
"Native 0.2% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6%
"Native Hawaiian and
"other Pacific Islander
"Other race 0.2% 0.9% 1.3% 1.5%
"Two or more races 1.9% 2.3%
Fifteen Largest Ancestries in Michigan (2013)[62]
Ancestry Percent
"German 20.6%
"Irish 11.0%
"English 9.0%
"Polish 8.4%
"American 6.0%
"Dutch 4.6%
"Italian 4.6%
"French 4.2%
"Scottish 2.1%
"Arab 1.8%
"French-Canadian 1.7%
"Swedish 1.4%
"Hungarian 0.9%
"Norwegian 0.8%
"Russian 0.8%
"Scotch-Irish 0.7%
""
""
Map showing the largest ancestry group in each county (2008)

The large majority of Michigan's population is Caucasian. "Americans of European descent live throughout Michigan and most of Metro Detroit. Large European American groups include those of "German, "British, "Irish, "Polish and "Belgian ancestry. People of "Scandinavian descent, and those of "Finnish ancestry, have a notable presence in the Upper Peninsula. Western Michigan is known for the "Dutch heritage of many residents (the highest concentration of any state), especially in "Holland and metropolitan Grand Rapids.

African-Americans, who came to Detroit and other northern cities in the "Great Migration of the early 20th century, form a majority of the population of the city of Detroit and of other cities, including Flint and "Benton Harbor.

As of 2007 about 300,000 people in "Southeastern Michigan trace their descent from the Middle East.[63] "Dearborn has a sizeable "Arab community, with many "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac, and "Lebanese who immigrated for jobs in the auto industry in the 1920s along with more recent "Yemenis and "Iraqis.[64]

As of 2007, almost 8,000 "Hmong people lived in the State of Michigan, about double their 1999 presence in the state.[65] As of 2007 most lived in northeastern Detroit, but they had been increasingly moving to Pontiac and Warren.[66] By 2015 the number of Hmong in the Detroit city limits had significantly declined.[67] "Lansing hosts a statewide Hmong New Year Festival.[66] The Hmong community also had a prominent portrayal in the 2008 film "Gran Torino, which was set in "Detroit.

As of 2015, 80% of Michigan's Japanese population lived in the counties of Macomb, Oakland, Washtenaw, and Wayne in the Detroit and Ann Arbor areas.[68] As of April 2013, the largest Japanese national population is in "Novi, with 2,666 Japanese residents, and the next largest populations are respectively in "Ann Arbor, "West Bloomfield Township, "Farmington Hills, and "Battle Creek. The state has 481 Japanese employment facilities providing 35,554 local jobs. 391 of them are in Southeast Michigan, providing 20,816 jobs, and the 90 in other regions in the state provide 14,738 jobs. The Japanese Direct Investment Survey of the "Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit stated that over 2,208 additional Japanese residents were employed in the State of Michigan as of October 1, 2012, than in 2011.[69] During the 1990s the Japanese population of Michigan experienced an increase, and many Japanese people with children moved to particular areas for their proximity to Japanese grocery stores and high-performing schools.[68]

A person from Michigan is called a "Michigander or Michiganian;[70] also at times, but rarely, a "Michiganite".[71] Residents of the Upper Peninsula are sometimes referred to as "Yoopers" (a phonetic pronunciation of "U.P.ers"), and Upper Peninsula residents sometimes refer to those from the Lower Peninsula as "trolls" because they live below the "bridge.[72][73][74]

Birth data[edit]

As of 2011, 34.3% of Michigan's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[75]

Note: Percentages in the table can exceed 100% as Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
"Race 2013[76] 2014[77] 2015[78]
"White: 85,994 (75.7%) 87,070 (76.1%) 85,838 (75.7%)
> "Non-Hispanic White 79,107 (69.7%) 80,304 (70.2%) 78,960 (69.7%)
"Black 22,645 (20.0%) 22,237 (19.4%) 22,394 (19.8%)
"Asian 4,136 (3.6%) 4,284 (3.7%) 4,294 (3.8%)
"Native 714 (0.6%) 784 (0.7%) 786 (0.7%)
"Hispanic (of any race) 7,318 (6.4%) 7,352 (6.4%) 7,431 (6.5%)
Total Michigan 113,489 (100%) 114,375 (100%) 113,312 (100%)

Languages[edit]

Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Michigan
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[79]
"Spanish 2.93%
"Arabic 1.04%
"German 0.44%
"Chinese (including "Mandarin) 0.36%
"French 0.31%
"Polish 0.29%
"Syriac languages (such as "Modern Aramaic and "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic) 0.25%
"Italian 0.21%
"Albanian 0.19%
"Hindi, "Tagalog, "Vietnamese, "Japanese, and "Korean (tied) 0.16%

As of 2010, 91.11% (8,507,947) of Michigan residents age five and older spoke only "English at home, while 2.93% (273,981) spoke "Spanish, 1.04% (97,559) "Arabic, 0.44% (41,189) "German, 0.36% (33,648) "Chinese (which includes "Mandarin), 0.31% (28,891) "French, 0.29% (27,019) "Polish, and "Syriac languages (such as "Modern Aramaic and "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic) was spoken as a "main language by 0.25% (23,420) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.89% (830,281) of Michigan's population age 5 and older spoke a "mother language other than English.[79]

Religion[edit]

The Roman Catholic Church has six dioceses and one archdiocese in Michigan; "Gaylord, "Grand Rapids, "Kalamazoo, "Lansing, "Marquette, "Saginaw and "Detroit.[80] The Roman Catholic Church is the largest denomination by number of adherents, according to the "Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) 2010 survey, with 1,717,296 adherents.[81] The Roman Catholic Church was the only organized religion in Michigan until the 19th century, reflecting the territory's French colonial roots. Detroit's Saint Anne's parish, established in 1701 by "Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, is the second-oldest Roman Catholic parish in the United States.[82] On March 8, 1833, the Holy See formally established a diocese in the Michigan territory, which included all of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Dakotas east of the Mississippi River. When Michigan became a state in 1837, the boundary of the Diocese of Detroit was redrawn to coincide with that of the State; the other dioceses were later carved out from the Diocese of Detroit but remain part of the "Ecclesiastical Province of Detroit.[83]

In 2010, the largest Protestant denominations were the "United Methodist Church with 228,521 adherents; followed by the "Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 219,618; and the "Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 120,598 adherents. The "Christian Reformed Church in North America had almost 100,000 members and over 230 congregations in Michigan.[84] The "Reformed Church in America had 76,000 members and 154 congregations in the state.[85] In the same survey, Jewish adherents in the state of Michigan were estimated at 44,382, and Muslims at 120,351.[86] The "Lutheran Church was introduced by "German and "Scandinavian immigrants; Lutheranism is the second largest religious denomination in the state. The first Jewish synagogue in the state was "Temple Beth El, founded by twelve German Jewish families in Detroit in 1850.[87] In West Michigan, Dutch immigrants fled from the specter of religious persecution and famine in the Netherlands around 1850 and settled in and around what is now Holland, Michigan, establishing a "colony" on American soil that fervently held onto Calvinist doctrine that established a significant presence of Reformed churches.[88] Islam was introduced by immigrants from the Near East during the 20th century.[89] Michigan is home to the largest mosque in North America, the "Islamic Center of America in Dearborn. "Battle Creek, Michigan is also the birthplace of the "Seventh-day Adventist Church, which was founded on May 21, 1863.[90][91]

Religious affiliation in Michigan (2014)[92]
Affiliation % of Michigan population
"Christianity 70 70
 
"Protestant 51 51
 
"Evangelical Protestant 25 25
 
"Mainline Protestant 18 18
 
"Black Protestant 8 8
 
"Roman Catholic 18 18
 
"Mormon 0.5 0.5
 
"Jehovah's Witnesses 1 1
 
"Orthodox 0.5 0.5
 
Other Christianity 1 1
 
"Judaism 1 1
 
"Buddhism 1 1
 
"Islam 1 1
 
"Hinduism 0.5 0.5
 
Other Faiths 1 1
 
"Unaffiliated 24 24
 
Don't Know / No Answer 1 1
 
Total 100 100
 

Economy[edit]

""
""
Michigan is the center of the American automotive industry. Pictured is the "Ford Shelby GT500 at the "North American International Auto Show in Detroit. The GT500 is manufactured in Ford's "Flat Rock, Michigan, assembly plant.

The U.S. Economic Development Administration estimated Michigan's 2014 gross state product to be $417.306 billion, ranking 13th out of the 50 states.[93] According to the "Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of October 2015, the state's "seasonally adjusted unemployment rate is estimated at 5.0%.[94][95]

Top publicly traded
companies in Michigan

according to revenues
with State and U.S. rankings
State Corporation US
1 "General Motors 6
2 "Ford 9
3 "Dow 48
4 "Whirlpool 148
5 "Lear 174
6 "TRW Automotive 175
7 "Penske Automotive 177
8 "Kellogg 210
9 "DTE Energy 245
10 "Ally 295
11 "Stryker 300
12 "Autoliv 312
13 "Masco 334
14 "Visteon 344
15 "BorgWarner 347
16 "SpartanNash 359
17 "CMS Energy 383
18 "Auto-Owners 425
19 "Con-way 456
20 "Kelly Services 471
21 "Meritor 641
22 "American Axle 657
23 "Cooper-Standard Automotive 707
24 "Steelcase 759
25 "WABCO 785
26 "Wolverine World Wide 806
27 "Metaldyne Performance 812
28 "Universal Forest 821
29 Diplomat Pharmacy 946
30 "Tower International 956
Further information:
"List of Michigan companies

Source: Fortune[96]

Products and services include automobiles, food products, information technology, aerospace, military equipment, furniture, and mining of copper and iron ore. Michigan is the third leading grower of "Christmas trees with 60,520 acres (245 km2) of land dedicated to Christmas tree farming.[97][98] The beverage "Vernors was invented in Michigan in 1866, sharing the title of oldest soft drink with "Hires Root Beer. "Faygo was founded in Detroit on November 4, 1907. Two of the top four pizza chains were founded in Michigan and are headquartered there: "Domino's Pizza by "Tom Monaghan and "Little Caesars Pizza by "Mike Ilitch. Michigan became the 24th "Right to Work state in U.S. in 2012.

Since 2009, GM, Ford and Chrysler have managed a significant reorganization of their benefit funds structure after a volatile stock market which followed the "September 11 attacks and "early 2000s recession impacted their respective U.S. pension and benefit funds ("OPEB).[99][100] General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler reached agreements with the "United Auto Workers Union to transfer the liabilities for their respective health care and benefit funds to a 501(c)(9) "Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA). Manufacturing in the state grew 6.6% from 2001 to 2006,[101] but the high speculative price of oil became a factor for the U.S. auto industry during the "economic crisis of 2008 impacting industry revenues. In 2009, GM and Chrysler emerged from "Chapter 11 restructurings with financing provided in part by the U.S. and Canadian governments.[102][103] GM began its "initial public offering (IPO) of stock in 2010.[104] For 2010, the Big Three domestic automakers have reported significant profits indicating the beginning of rebound.[105][106][107][108]

As of 2002, Michigan ranked fourth in the U.S. in high tech employment with 568,000 high tech workers, which includes 70,000 in the automotive industry.[109] Michigan typically ranks third or fourth in overall "Research & development (R&D) expenditures in the United States.[27][28] Its research and development, which includes automotive, comprises a higher percentage of the state's overall gross domestic product than for any other U.S. state.[110] The state is an important source of engineering job opportunities. The domestic auto industry accounts directly and indirectly for one of every ten jobs in the U.S.[111]

Michigan was second in the U.S. in 2004 for new corporate facilities and expansions. From 1997 to 2004, Michigan was the only state to top the 10,000 mark for the number of major new developments;[25][112] however, the effects of the "late 2000s recession have slowed the state's economy. In 2008, Michigan placed third in a site selection survey among the states for luring new business which measured capital investment and new job creation per one million population.[113] In August 2009, Michigan and Detroit's auto industry received $1.36 B in grants from the U.S. Department of Energy for the manufacture of electric vehicle technologies which is expected to generate 6,800 immediate jobs and employ 40,000 in the state by 2020.[114] From 2007 to 2009, Michigan ranked 3rd in the U.S. for new corporate facilities and expansions.[115][116]

As leading research institutions, the "University of Michigan, "Michigan State University, and "Wayne State University are important partners in the state's economy and its "University Research Corridor.[29] Michigan's public universities attract more than $1.5 B in research and development grants each year.[30] The "National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory is located at Michigan State University. Michigan's workforce is well-educated and highly skilled, making it attractive to companies. It has the third highest number of engineering graduates nationally.[117]

"Detroit Metropolitan Airport is one of the nation's most recently expanded and modernized airports with six major runways, and large aircraft maintenance facilities capable of servicing and repairing a "Boeing 747 and is a major hub for "Delta Air Lines. Michigan's schools and colleges rank among the nation's best. The state has maintained its early commitment to public education. The state's infrastructure gives it a competitive edge; Michigan has 38 "deep water ports.[118] In 2007, Bank of America announced that it would commit $25 billion to community development in Michigan following its acquisition of LaSalle Bank in "Troy.[119]

Michigan led the nation in job creation improvement in 2010.[120]

""A treemap depicting the distribution of Michigan's jobs as percentages of entire workforce
""
Distribution of Michigan's jobs as percentages of entire workforce.

Taxation[edit]

Michigan's personal "income tax is set to a flat rate of 4.25%. In addition, 22 cities impose income taxes; rates are set at 1% for residents and 0.5% for non-residents in all but four cities.[121] Michigan's state "sales tax is 6%, though items such as food and medication are exempted from sales tax. "Property taxes are assessed on the local level, but every property owner's local assessment contributes six "mills (a rate of $6 per $1000 of property value) to the statutory State Education Tax. Property taxes are appealable to local boards of review and need the approval of the local electorate to exceed millage rates prescribed by state law and local charters. In 2011, the state repealed its business tax and replaced it with a 6% corporate income tax which substantially reduced taxes on business.[122][123] Article IX of the Constitution of the State of Michigan also provides limitations on how much the state can tax.

The state also levies a 6% "sales tax within the state and a "Use tax on goods purchased outside the state (that are brought in and used in state).[124] The use tax applies to internet sales/purchases from outside Michigan, and is equivalent to the sales tax.[125]

Agriculture[edit]

""
""
Michigan is the leading U.S. producer of "tart cherries, "blueberries, "pickling cucumbers, "navy beans and "petunias.

A wide variety of commodity crops, fruits, and vegetables are grown in Michigan, making it second only to California among U.S. states in the diversity of its agriculture.[126] The state has 54,800 farms utilizing 10,000,000 acres (40,000 km2) of land which sold $6.49 billion worth of products in 2010.[127] The most valuable agricultural product is milk. Leading crops include corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, sugar beets and potatoes. Livestock in the state included 1 million cattle, 1 million hogs, 78,000 sheep and over 3 million chickens. Livestock products accounted for 38% of the value of agricultural products while crops accounted for the majority.

Michigan is a leading grower of fruit in the U.S., including blueberries, "tart cherries, apples, grapes, and peaches.[31][128] Plums, pears, and strawberries are also grown. These fruits are mainly grown in "West Michigan due to the moderating effect of Lake Michigan on the climate. There is also significant fruit production, especially cherries, but also grapes, apples, and other fruits, in Northwest Michigan along Lake Michigan. Michigan produces "wines, beers and a multitude of processed food products. "Kellogg's cereal is based in Battle Creek, Michigan and processes many locally grown foods. Thornapple Valley, "Ball Park Franks, "Koegel Meat Company, and "Hebrew National sausage companies are all based in Michigan.

Michigan is home to very fertile land in the "Saginaw Valley and ""Thumb" areas. Products grown there include corn, sugar beets, navy beans, and soy beans. Sugar beet harvesting usually begins the first of October. It takes the sugar factories about five months to process the 3.7 million tons of sugarbeets into 485,000 tons of pure, white sugar.[129] Michigan's largest sugar refiner, "Michigan Sugar Company[130] is the largest east of the Mississippi River and the fourth largest in the nation. Michigan Sugar brand names are Pioneer Sugar and the newly incorporated Big Chief Sugar. Potatoes are grown in "Northern Michigan, and corn is dominant in "Central Michigan. Alfalfa, cucumbers, and asparagus are also grown.

Tourism[edit]

Michigan's tourists spend $17.2 billion per year in the state, supporting 193,000 tourism jobs.[131] Michigan's tourism website ranks among the busiest in the nation.[132] Destinations draw vacationers, hunters, and nature enthusiasts from across the United States and Canada. Michigan is fifty percent forest land, much of it quite remote. The forests, lakes and thousands of miles of beaches are top attractions. Event tourism draws large numbers to occasions like the "Tulip Time Festival and the "National Cherry Festival. In 2006, the Michigan State Board of Education mandated that all public schools in the state hold their first day of school after the Labor Day holiday, in accordance with the new Post Labor Day School law. A survey found that 70% of all tourism business comes directly from Michigan residents, and the Michigan Hotel, Motel, & Resort Association claimed that the shorter summer in between school years cut into the annual tourism season in the state.[133]

"Tourism in metropolitan Detroit draws visitors to leading attractions, especially "The Henry Ford, the "Detroit Institute of Arts, the "Detroit Zoo, and to "sports in Detroit. Other museums include the "Detroit Historical Museum, the "Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, museums in the "Cranbrook Educational Community, and the "Arab American National Museum. The metro area offers four major casinos, "MGM Grand Detroit, "Greektown, "Motor City, and "Caesars Windsor in Windsor, Ontario, Canada; moreover, Detroit is the largest American city and metropolitan region to offer casino resorts.[134]

""
""
Lake Michigan beach at "Holland State Park

Hunting and fishing are significant industries in the state. Charter boats are based in many Great Lakes cities to fish for salmon, trout, walleye and perch. Michigan ranks first in the nation in licensed hunters (over one million) who contribute $2 billion annually to its economy. Over three-quarters of a million hunters participate in "white-tailed deer season alone. Many school districts in rural areas of Michigan cancel school on the opening day of firearm deer season, because of attendance concerns.

Michigan's Department of Natural Resources manages the largest dedicated state forest system in the nation. The forest products industry and recreational users contribute $12 billion and 200,000 associated jobs annually to the state's economy. Public hiking and hunting access has also been secured in extensive commercial forests. The state has the highest number of golf courses and registered "snowmobiles in the nation.[135]

The state has numerous "historical markers, which can themselves become the center of a tour.[136] The "Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.[137]

With its position in relation to the Great Lakes and the countless ships that have foundered over the many years in which they have been used as a transport route for people and bulk cargo, Michigan is a world-class scuba diving destination. The "Michigan Underwater Preserves are 11 underwater areas where wrecks are protected for the benefit of sport divers.

Transportation[edit]

Canadian international crossings[edit]

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""
Welcome sign

Michigan has nine international road crossings with "Ontario, Canada:

A second international bridge is currently under consideration between Detroit and Windsor.[138]

Railroads[edit]

Michigan is served by four "Class I railroads: the "Canadian National Railway, the "Canadian Pacific Railway, "CSX Transportation, and the "Norfolk Southern Railway. These are augmented by several dozen "short line railroads. The vast majority of rail service in Michigan is devoted to "freight, with Amtrak and various scenic railroads the exceptions.[139]

"Amtrak passenger rail services the state, connecting many southern and western Michigan cities to Chicago, Illinois. There are plans for "commuter rail for Detroit and its suburbs (see "SEMCOG Commuter Rail).[140][141][142]

Roadways[edit]

Airports[edit]

The "Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, located in the western suburb of "Romulus, was in 2010 the 16th busiest airfield in North America measured by passenger traffic.[143] The "Gerald R. Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids is the next busiest airport in the state, served by eight airlines to 23 destinations. Flint "Bishop International Airport is the third largest airport in the state, served by four airlines to several primary hubs. Smaller regional and local airports are located throughout the state including on several islands. "Cherry Capital Airport is located in "Traverse City.

Large cities, townships, and metropolitan areas[edit]

""
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The Detroit skyline along the "International Riverfront
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The Grand Rapids skyline centered on the "Grand River
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A Lansing sunset
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Downtown Flint as seen from the "Flint River
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The Ann Arbor skyline as seen from "Michigan Stadium
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Southfield Town Center skyline
The 20 largest municipalities in Michigan by "2011 Census estimates[144]
Rank City Population Image
1 "Detroit 706,585
""
""
Map showing largest Michigan municipalities
2 "Grand Rapids 189,815
3 "Warren 134,243
4 "Sterling Heights 129,880
5 "Ann Arbor 114,925
6 "Lansing 114,605
7 "Flint 101,558
8 "Dearborn 97,114
9 "Clinton 96,796
10 "Livonia 95,958
11 "Canton 90,173
12 "Westland 83,239
13 "Troy 81,508
14 "Farmington Hills 80,258
15 "Macomb 79,850
16 "Kalamazoo 74,743
17 "Shelby 73,804
18 "Wyoming 72,833
19 "Southfield 72,201
20 "Waterford 71,707
Largest metropolitan areas in Michigan
Rank Combined Statistical Area Population
1 "Detroit 5,318,744
2 "Grand Rapids 1,379,237
3 "Lansing 534,684
4 "Kalamazoo 524,030
5 "Saginaw 391,569

Other economically significant cities include:

Half of the wealthiest communities in the state are located in "Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Another wealthy community is located just east of the city, in "Grosse Pointe. Only three of these cities are located outside of Metro Detroit. The city of Detroit itself, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of "Michigan locations by per capita income. "Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965, while "Barton Hills is the richest with a per capita income of $110,683.

Education[edit]

Michigan's education system provides services to 1.6 million K-12 students in public schools. More than 124,000 students attend private schools and an uncounted number are home-schooled under certain legal requirements.[145][146] The public school system has a $14.5 billion budget in 2008–2009.[147] Michigan has a number of public universities spread throughout the state and numerous private colleges as well. Michigan State University has the "eighth largest campus population of any U.S. school. Seven of the state's universities—"Central Michigan University, "University of Michigan, "Michigan State University, "Michigan Technological University, "Oakland University, "Wayne State University, and "Western Michigan University—are classified as research universities by the "Carnegie Foundation.[148]

Culture[edit]

Arts[edit]

Music[edit]

Michigan music is known for three music trends: early "punk rock, "Motown/soul music and "techno music. Michigan musicians include "Bill Haley & His Comets, "The Supremes, "The Marvelettes, "The Temptations, "The Four Tops, "Stevie Wonder, "Marvin Gaye "The Prince of Soul", "Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, "Aretha Franklin, "Mary Wells, "Tommy James and the Shondells, "? and the Mysterians, "Al Green, "The Spinners, "Grand Funk Railroad, "The Knack, "Madonna "The Queen of Pop", "Bob Seger, "Ray Parker Jr., "Aaliyah, "Eminem, "Kid Rock, "Jack White, "Big Sean and "Alice Cooper.

Performance arts[edit]

Major theaters in Michigan include the "Fox Theatre, "Music Hall, "Gem Theatre, "Masonic Temple Theatre, the "Detroit Opera House, "Fisher Theatre, "The Fillmore Detroit, "Saint Andrew's Hall, "Majestic Theater, and "Orchestra Hall.

The "Nederlander Organization, the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated in Detroit.[149] "Detroit Symphony Orchestra

"Motown Motion Picture Studios with 535,000 square feet (49,700 m2) produces movies in Detroit and the surrounding area based at the Pontiac Centerpoint Business Campus.[150]

Sports[edit]

Michigan's major-league sports teams include: "Detroit Tigers baseball team, "Detroit Lions "football team, "Detroit Red Wings "ice hockey team, and the "Detroit Pistons men's basketball team. All of Michigan's major league teams play in the Metro Detroit area.

The Pistons played at Detroit's "Cobo Arena until 1978 and at the "Pontiac Silverdome until 1988 when they moved into "The Palace of Auburn Hills. In 2017, the team moved to the newly built "Little Caesars Arena in downtown Detroit. The Detroit Lions played at "Tiger Stadium in Detroit until 1974, then moved to the "Pontiac Silverdome where they played for 27 years between 1975 and 2002 before moving to "Ford Field in Detroit in 2002. The Detroit Tigers played at Tiger Stadium (formerly known as Navin Field and Briggs Stadium) from 1912 to 1999. In 2000 they moved to "Comerica Park. The Red Wings played at "Olympia Stadium before moving to "Joe Louis Arena in 1979. They later moved to Little Caesars Arena to join the Pistons as tenants in 2017. Professional hockey got its start in "Houghton,[151] when the Portage Lakers were formed.["citation needed]

The "Michigan International Speedway is the site of "NASCAR races and Detroit was formerly the site of a Formula One World Championship "Grand Prix race. From 1959 to 1961, "Detroit Dragway hosted the "NHRA's U.S. Nationals.[152] Michigan is home to one of the major canoeing marathons: the 120-mile (190 km) "Au Sable River Canoe Marathon. The "Port Huron to Mackinac Boat Race is also a favorite.

Twenty-time Grand Slam champion "Serena Williams was born in Saginaw. The "2011 World Champion for Women's Artistic Gymnastics, "Jordyn Wieber is from DeWitt. Wieber was also a member of the "gold medal winning team at the London Olympics in 2012.

Collegiate sports in Michigan are popular in addition to professional sports. The state's two largest athletic programs are the "Michigan Wolverines and "Michigan State Spartans, which play in the "NCAA "Big Ten Conference. "Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, home to the Michigan Wolverines football team, is the "largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere and the second-largest stadium worldwide behind "Rungrado May Day Stadium in "Pyongyang, North Korea.

The "Michigan High School Athletic Association features around 300,000 participants.

State symbols and nicknames[edit]

Michigan is, by tradition, known as "The Wolverine State," and the "University of Michigan takes the wolverine as its mascot. The association is well and long established: for example, many Detroiters volunteered to fight during the "American Civil War and "George Armstrong Custer, who led the Michigan Brigade, called them the "Wolverines". The origins of this association are obscure; it may derive from a busy trade in wolverine furs in "Sault Ste. Marie in the 18th century or may recall a disparagement intended to compare early settlers in Michigan with the vicious mammal. Wolverines are, however, extremely rare in Michigan. A sighting in February 2004 near "Ubly was the first confirmed sighting in Michigan in 200 years.[153] The animal was found dead in 2010.[154]

Sister regions[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to "North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  2. ^ i.e., including water that is part of state territory. "Georgia is the largest state by land area east of the Mississippi and Michigan the second-largest.
  3. ^ The Province included the modern states of Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, two-thirds of Georgia, and small parts of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Maine

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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
"Arkansas
"List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 26, 1837 (26th)
Succeeded by
"Florida

"Coordinates: 44°N 85°W / 44°N 85°W / 44; -85

) )