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Mid-Atlantic Region
""States most commonly included in the Mid-Atlantic are shaded in dark red, while states included in other regions as well are shaded in pink
States most commonly included in the Mid-Atlantic are shaded in dark red, while states included in other regions as well are shaded in pink
Composition
Metropolitan areas
Largest city "New York City
Area
 • Total 191,308.5 sq mi (495,487 km2)
Population (2008 est.)[1]
 • Total 57,303,316
 • Density 300/sq mi (120/km2)
"GDP[2]
 • Total $2.962 trillion (2007)

The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between "New England and the "South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region usually includes "New York, "New Jersey, "Pennsylvania, "Delaware, "Maryland, "Washington, D.C., "Virginia, and "West Virginia.[3][4] The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American "culture, "commerce, "trade, and "industry.[5]

In the late 19th century, it was called "the typically American" region by "Frederick Jackson Turner. Religious pluralism and ethnic diversity have been important elements of Mid-Atlantic society from its settlement by "Dutch, "Swedes, "English Catholics, and "Quakers through to the period of English rule, and beyond to the current day. After the "American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the "historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, "Washington, D.C.

In the early part of the 19th century, "New York and "Pennsylvania overtook "Virginia as the most populous states and the "New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of "German, "Irish, "Italian, "Jewish, "Polish, and other "immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as "New York City, "Newark, "Philadelphia, "Baltimore, and "Washington, D.C., but also interior cities such as "Pittsburgh, "Albany, and "Buffalo.

New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and "headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of "modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.

The "Northeast Corridor and "Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous "sprawl of "suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the "Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of "finance, "media, communications, "education, medicine, and technology.

The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 "highest-income counties in the nation based on "median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on "per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 "highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income.

Contents

Defining the Mid-Atlantic[edit]

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A "USGS Fact Sheet interpretation of the Mid-Atlantic.[6]
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An 1897 map displays an inclusive definition of the Mid-Atlantic region.

There are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic, and has at times included any state from New York to South Carolina.[7] Most commonly included is the Mid-Atlantic states as defined by the "Census Bureau--"New Jersey, "New York, and "Pennsylvania—along with the "Civil War border states of "Delaware, "Maryland, "Washington, D.C., and "West Virginia. Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to be the area centered on the "Washington metropolitan area, including "Maryland, "Virginia, "Delaware, and "West Virginia.[8] Since the "1910 census, the Mid-Atlantic Census Division has included New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, which combined with the "New England Division, comprised the "Northeast Census Region.[9] A "United States Geological Survey publication describes the Mid-Atlantic Region as all of Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, along with the parts of New Jersey, New York, and "North Carolina that "drain into the "Delaware and "Chesapeake Bays and the "Albemarle and "Pamlico Sounds.[10]

West Virginia and Virginia are atypical of this region in several ways. They are the only states to lie primarily within the "Southern American dialect region,[11] and the major religious tradition in both states is Evangelical Christian, 31% in Virginia and 36% in West Virginia.[12] Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the "Washington, D.C. MSA, the major portion of the state is rural, and there are no major or even large cities.[13]

The "typically American" region[edit]

wrote in 1893 about the important role the Mid-Atlantic or "Middle region" had played in the formation of the national American culture, and defined it as "the typical American region".[14]

History[edit]

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era.

The explorer "Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. "Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1609 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in "Albany in 1614. "Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America seven years earlier in 1607.

From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch "New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey, and for a time, "New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to "Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to "Quakers and the mostly "Anabaptist "Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.

The area that came to be known as the "Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The "New York and New Jersey campaign during the "American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. "Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the "Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the "American Revolution. The same city was the birthplace of the "Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the "United States Constitution in 1787, while the "United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified, and the first "Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution at New York City.

While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with "heavy industry and served as the ""melting pot" of new "immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York City and "Newark on opposite sides of the "Hudson River, "Philadelphia on the "Delaware River, and "Baltimore on the "Chesapeake Bay.

Major cities and urban areas[edit]

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New York City
""
""
""
""
Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan areas[edit]

Largest "Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
MSA 2016 Estimate 2010 Census
1 "New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 20,153,634 19,567,410
2 "Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 6,131,977 5,636,232
3 "Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 6,070,500 5,965,343
4 "Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 2,798,886 2,710,489
5 "Pittsburgh, PA 2,342,299 2,356,285
6 "Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1,726,907 1,676,822
7 "Richmond, VA 1,281,708 1,208,101
8 "Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY 1,132,804 1,135,509
9 "Rochester, NY 1,078,879 1,079,671
10 "Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 881,839 870,716
Top Ten Largest Cities by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
City 2016 Est.
1 "New York, NY 8,537,673
2 "Philadelphia, PA 1,567,872
3 "Washington, D.C. 681,170
4 "Baltimore, MD 614,664
5 "Virginia Beach, VA 425,602
6 "Pittsburgh, PA 303,625
7 "Newark, NJ 281,764
8 "Jersey City, New Jersey 264,152
9 "Buffalo, New York 259,902
10 "Norfolk, Virginia 245,115

State capitals[edit]

Note: The Mid-Atlantic region is also home to the nation's capital, "Washington, D.C..

Politics of the Mid-Atlantic states[edit]

Parties
Nonpartisan "Federalist "Democratic-Republican "National Republican "Democratic "Whig "Know Nothing "Republican "Constitutional Union "Progressive
Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789
Year Delaware Washington, D.C. Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia
"1789 "Washington No election "Washington "Washington Deadlocked "Washington "Washington No election
"1792 "Washington No election "Washington "Washington "Washington "Washington "Washington No election
"1796 "Adams No election "Adams "Adams "Adams "Jefferson "Jefferson No election
"1800 "Adams No election "Jefferson "Adams "Jefferson "Jefferson "Jefferson No election
"1804 "Pinckney No election "Jefferson "Jefferson "Jefferson "Jefferson "Jefferson No election
"1808 "Pinckney No election "Madison "Madison "Madison "Madison "Madison No election
"1812 "Clinton No election "Madison "Clinton "Clinton "Madison "Madison No election
"1816 "King No election "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe No election
"1820 "Monroe No election "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe "Monroe No election
"1824 "Jackson No election "Jackson "Jackson "Adams "Jackson "Crawford No election
"1828 "Adams No election "Adams "Adams "Jackson "Jackson "Jackson No election
"1832 "Clay No election "Clay "Jackson "Jackson "Jackson "Jackson No election
"1836 "Harrison No election "Harrison "Harrison "Van Buren "Van Buren "Van Buren No election
"1840 "Harrison No election "Harrison "Harrison "Harrison "Harrison "Van Buren No election
"1844 "Clay No election "Clay "Clay "Polk "Polk "Polk No election
"1848 "Taylor No election "Taylor "Taylor "Taylor "Taylor "Cass No election
"1852 "Pierce No election "Pierce "Pierce "Pierce "Pierce "Pierce No election
"1856 "Buchanan No election "Fillmore "Buchanan "Frémont "Buchanan "Buchanan No election
"1860 "Breckinridge No election "Breckinridge "Lincoln "Lincoln "Lincoln "Bell No election
"1864 "McClellan No election "Lincoln "McClellan "Lincoln "Lincoln No election "Lincoln
"1868 "Seymour No election "Seymour "Seymour "Seymour "Grant No election "Grant
"1872 "Grant No election "Hendricks "Grant "Grant "Grant "Grant "Grant
"1876 "Tilden No election "Tilden "Tilden "Tilden "Hayes "Tilden "Tilden
"1880 "Hancock No election "Hancock "Hancock "Garfield "Garfield "Hancock "Hancock
"1884 "Cleveland No election "Cleveland "Cleveland "Cleveland "Blaine "Cleveland "Cleveland
"1888 "Cleveland No election "Cleveland "Cleveland "Harrison "Harrison "Cleveland "Cleveland
"1892 "Cleveland No election "Cleveland "Cleveland "Cleveland "Harrison "Cleveland "Cleveland
"1896 "McKinley No election "McKinley "McKinley "McKinley "McKinley "Bryan "McKinley
"1900 "McKinley No election "McKinley "McKinley "McKinley "McKinley "Bryan "McKinley
"1904 "Roosevelt No election "Parker "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Parker "Roosevelt
"1908 "Taft No election "Bryan "Taft "Taft "Taft "Bryan "Taft
"1912 "Wilson No election "Wilson "Wilson "Wilson "Roosevelt "Wilson "Wilson
"1916 "Hughes No election "Wilson "Hughes "Hughes "Hughes "Wilson "Hughes
"1920 "Harding No election "Harding "Harding "Harding "Harding "Cox "Harding
"1924 "Coolidge No election "Coolidge "Coolidge "Coolidge "Coolidge "Davis "Coolidge
"1928 "Hoover No election "Hoover "Hoover "Hoover "Hoover "Hoover "Hoover
"1932 "Hoover No election "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Hoover "Roosevelt "Roosevelt
"1936 "Roosevelt No election "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt
"1940 "Roosevelt No election "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt
"1944 "Roosevelt No election "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt "Roosevelt
"1948 "Dewey No election "Dewey "Dewey "Dewey "Dewey "Truman "Truman
"1952 "Eisenhower No election "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Stevenson
"1956 "Eisenhower No election "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower "Eisenhower
"1960 "Kennedy No election "Kennedy "Kennedy "Kennedy "Kennedy "Nixon "Kennedy
"1964 "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson "Johnson
"1968 "Nixon "Humphrey "Humphrey "Nixon "Humphrey "Humphrey "Nixon "Humphrey
"1972 "Nixon "McGovern "Nixon "Nixon "Nixon "Nixon "Nixon "Nixon
"1976 "Carter "Carter "Carter "Ford "Carter "Carter "Ford "Carter
"1980 "Reagan "Carter "Carter "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan "Carter
"1984 "Reagan "Mondale "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan "Reagan
"1988 "Bush "Dukakis "Bush "Bush "Dukakis "Bush "Bush "Dukakis
"1992 "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Bush "Clinton
"1996 "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Dole "Clinton
"2000 "Gore "Gore "Gore "Gore "Gore "Gore "Bush "Bush
"2004 "Kerry "Kerry "Kerry "Kerry "Kerry "Kerry "Bush "Bush
"2008 "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "McCain
"2012 "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Obama "Romney
"2016 "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Clinton "Trump "Clinton "Trump
Year Delaware Washington, D.C. Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia

Culture[edit]

Sports[edit]

The Mid-Atlantic is home to several professional sports franchises in "major leagues:

In addition, the "Major League Soccer features four Mid-Atlantic teams: "D.C. United, "New York City FC, "New York Red Bulls and "Philadelphia Union, as well as two "WNBA teams: "New York Liberty and "Washington Mystics.

Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the "Barclays, "Quicken Loans National and "Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The "US Open, held at New York City, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas "Washington Open is part of the "ATP World Tour 500 series.

Notable motorsports tracks include "Watkins Glen International, "Dover International Speedway and "Pocono Raceway, which have hosted "Formula One, "IndyCar, "NASCAR, "World Sportscar Championship and "IMSA races. Also, the "Englishtown and "Reading drag strips such have hosted "NHRA national events. "Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and "Belmont Park at New York host the "Preakness Stakes and "Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the "Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  2. ^ "News Release: GDP by State" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  3. ^ "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). 2.census.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  4. ^ "Middle Atlantic states - region, United States". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  5. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  6. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". "USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013.Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  7. ^ "Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-08-30. 
  8. ^ "Word Net Definition". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  9. ^ "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  10. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". "USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  11. ^ Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 2005 Southern Regional Map
  12. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Religions.pewforum.org. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  13. ^ "U.S. Census 2000 Report" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  14. ^ "Turner: The Frontier In American History". Xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

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