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Middle East
""Middle East
Location of the Middle East
Population 371 million (2010)[1]
Countries
Languages
Time Zones "UTC+2:00, "UTC+3:00, "UTC+3:30, "UTC+4:00, "UTC+4:30
Largest Cities
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Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, and Central Asia.
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Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.

The Middle East[note 1] is a "transcontinental "region centered on "Western Asia and "Egypt in "North Africa. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the derived noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term "Near East (as opposed to the "Far East) beginning in the early 20th century.

"Arabs, "Turks, "Persians, "Kurds, and "Azeris (excluding Republic of Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East include "Jews, "Assyrians and other "Arameans, "Baloch, "Berbers, "Coptic Christians, "Druze, "Lurs, "Mandaeans, "Samaritans, "Shabaks, "Tats, and "Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a "Romani community. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include "Albanians, "Bosniaks, "Circassians, "Crimean Tatars, "Franco-Levantines, and "Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are "Bengalis as well as other "Indians, "Chinese, "Filipinos, "Indonesians, "Pakistanis, and "Sub-Saharan Africans.

The "history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the (geopolitical) importance of the region being recognized for millennia.[3][4][5] Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including "Judaism, "Christianity, and "Islam; the "Baha'i faith, "Mandaeism, Unitarian "Druze, and numerous other belief systems were also established within the region.

The Middle East generally has a hot, "arid climate, with several major rivers providing "irrigation to support "agriculture in limited areas such as the "Nile Delta in Egypt, the "Tigris and "Euphrates watersheds of "Mesopotamia, and most of what is known as the "Fertile Crescent.

Most of the countries that border the "Persian Gulf have vast reserves of "crude oil, with monarchs of the "Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports.

Contents

Terminology[edit]

The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British "India Office.[6] However, it became more widely known when "American naval strategist "Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902[7] to "designate the area between Arabia and India".[8][9] During this time the "British and "Russian Empires were vying for influence in "Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as "The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the "Persian Gulf.[10][11] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's "Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards "British India.[12] Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the "National Review, a British journal.

The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need "its Malta, as well as "its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about "Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf.[13]

Mahan's article was reprinted in "The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir "Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of "India or command the approaches to India."[14] After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term.[15]

Until "World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around "Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the ""Near East", while the ""Far East" centered on "China,[16] and the Middle East then meant the area from "Mesopotamia to "Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.["citation needed] In the late 1930s, the British established the "Middle East Command, which was based in "Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the "Middle East Institute founded in "Washington, D.C. in 1946, among other usage.[17]

Criticism and usage[edit]

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1957 American film about the Middle East

The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the "First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the "Balkans and the "Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to "Iran, the "Caucasus, "Afghanistan, Central Asia, and "Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of "East Asia (e.g. "China, "Japan, "Korea, etc.)

With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the "Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including "archaeology and "ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see "Ancient Near East).

The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the "United States government was in the 1957 "Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the "Suez Crisis. Secretary of State "John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including "Libya on the west and "Pakistan on the east, "Syria and "Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the "Sudan and "Ethiopia."[16] In 1958, the "State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only "Egypt, "Syria, "Israel, "Lebanon, "Jordan, "Iraq, "Saudi Arabia, "Kuwait, "Bahrain, and "Qatar.[18]

The "Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. It instructs:

Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred.[19]

The term Middle East has also been criticised as "Eurocentric ("based on a British Western perception") by Hanafi (1998).[20]

Translations[edit]

There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. In "German the term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term Mittlerer Osten is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in "Russian Ближний Восток or Blizhniy Vostok, "Bulgarian Близкия Изток, "Polish Bliski Wschód or "Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the "French Moyen-Orient, "Swedish Mellanöstern, "Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the "Italian Medio Oriente.[note 2]

Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ), has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprehending the same meaning as the term "Middle East" in North American and Western European usage. The designation, "Mashriq, also from the Arabic root for East, also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the "Maghreb, the western part).[21] Even though the term originated in the West, apart from Arabic, other languages of countries of the Middle East also use a translation of it. The "Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvar-e miyāneh), the Hebrew is המזרח התיכון (hamizrach hatikhon) and the Turkish is Orta Doğu.

Territories and regions[edit]

Territories and regions usually within the Middle East[edit]

Traditionally included within the Middle East are "Iran (Persia), "Asia Minor, "Mesopotamia, the "Levant, the "Arabian Peninsula, and "Egypt. In modern-day-country terms they are these:

"Country, with "flag "Area
(km²)
"Population
(2012)
"Density
(per km²)
"Capital "Nominal GDP[22]
(2012)
"Per capita[23]
(2012)
"Currency "Government "Official
languages
"Coat of arms
 "Bahrain 665 1,234,596 1,646.1 "Manama $30.355 billion $26,368 "Bahraini dinar "Absolute monarchy "Arabic ""Coat of arms of Bahrain
 "Cyprus 9,250 1,088,503 117 "Nicosia $22.995 billion $26,377 "Euro "Presidential republic "Greek,
"Turkish
""Coat of arms of Cyprus
 "Egypt 1,010,407 72,798,000 90 "Cairo $262.26 billion $3,179 "Egyptian pound "Presidential republic "Egyptian Arabic ""File:Coat of Arms of Egypt
 "Iran 1,648,195 78,868,711 45 "Tehran $548.59 billion $7,207 "Iranian rial "Islamic republic "Persian ""Emblem of Iran
 "Iraq 438,317 33,635,000 73.5 "Baghdad $216.04 billion $6,410 "Iraqi dinar "Parliamentary republic "Arabic,
"Kurdish
""Coat of arms of Iraq
 "Israel 20,770 7,653,600 365.3 "Jerusalem1 $257.62 billion $33,451 "Israeli shekel "Parliamentary republic "Hebrew,
"Arabic
""Emblem of Israel
 "Jordan 92,300 6,318,677 68.4 "Amman $30.98 billion $4,843 "Jordanian dinar "Constitutional monarchy "Arabic ""Coat of arms of Jordan
 "Kuwait 17,820 3,566,437 167.5 "Kuwait City $184.54 billion $48,761 "Kuwaiti dinar "Constitutional monarchy "Arabic ""Emblem of Kuwait
 "Lebanon 10,452 4,228,000 404 "Beirut $42.519 billion $10,425 "Lebanese pound "Parliamentary republic "Arabic ""Coat of arms of Lebanon
 "Oman 212,460 2,694,094 9.2 "Muscat $78.290 billion $25,356 "Omani rial "Absolute monarchy "Arabic ""National emblem of Oman
 "Palestine 6,220 4,260,636 667 "Ramallah1 $6.6 billion $1,600 "Israeli shekel,
"Jordanian dinar
"Semi-presidential "republic "Arabic ""Coat of arms of Palestine
 "Qatar 11,437 1,696,563 123.2 "Doha $192.40 billion $104,756 "Qatari riyal "Absolute monarchy "Arabic ""Emblem of Qatar
 "Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 27,136,977 12 "Riyadh $733.95 billion $25,139 "Saudi riyal "Absolute monarchy "Arabic ""Emblem of Saudi Arabia
 "Syria 185,180 23,695,000 118.3 "Damascus n/a n/a "Syrian pound "Presidential republic "Arabic ""Coat of arms of Syria
 "Turkey 783,562 73,722,988 94.1 "Ankara $788.04 billion $10,523 "Turkish lira "Parliamentary republic "Turkish ""Emblem of the Republic of Turkey
 "United Arab Emirates 82,880 8,264,070 97 "Abu Dhabi $383.79 billion $43,774 "UAE dirham "Federal "Absolute monarchy "Arabic ""Emblem of the United Arab Emirates
 "Yemen 527,970 23,580,000 44.7 "Sana'a $35.05 billion $1,354 "Yemeni rial "Presidential republic "Arabic ""Emblem of Yemen

Notes: 1 "Jerusalem is the "proclaimed capital of Israel and the actual location of the "Knesset, "Israeli Supreme Court, and other governmental institutions of Israel. "Ramallah is the actual location of the government of Palestine, whereas the proclaimed capital of Palestine is "East Jerusalem, which is "disputed.

Other definitions of the Middle East[edit]

Various concepts are often being paralleled to Middle East, most notably Near East, "Fertile Crescent and the Levant. Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning.

The countries of the "South Caucasus—"Armenia, "Azerbaijan, and "Georgia—are occasionally included in definitions of the Middle East.[24]

The "Greater Middle East was a "political term coined by the "second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century,[25] to denote various countries, pertaining to the "Muslim world, specifically "Iran, "Turkey, "Afghanistan and "Pakistan.[26] Various "Central Asian countries are sometimes also included.[27]

History[edit]

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The "Kaaba, located in "Mecca, "Saudi Arabia

The Middle East lies at the juncture of "Eurasia and "Africa and of the "Mediterranean Sea and the "Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and "spiritual center of religions such as "Christianity, "Islam, "Judaism, "Manichaeism, "Yezidi, "Druze, "Yarsan and "Mandeanism, and in Iran, "Mithraism, "Zoroastrianism, "Manicheanism, and the "Bahá'í Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area.

The world's earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia ("Sumer, "Akkad, "Assyria and "Babylonia) and "ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and "Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. These were followed by the "Hittite, "Greek and "Urartian civilisations of "Asia Minor, "Elam in pre-Iranian Persia, as well as the civilizations of the "Levant (such as "Ebla, "Ugarit, "Canaan, "Aramea, "Phoenicia and Israel), "Persian and "Median civilizations in Iran, "North Africa ("Carthage/Phoenicia) and the "Arabian Peninsula ("Magan, "Sheba, "Ubar). The Near East was first largely unified under the "Neo Assyrian Empire, then the "Achaemenid Empire followed later by the "Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the "Iranian empires (namely the "Parthian and "Sassanid Empires), the "Roman Empire and "Byzantine Empire. However, it would be the later "Arab Caliphates of the "Middle Ages, or "Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant "Islamic "ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The "Mongols, the "Kingdom of Armenia, the "Seljuks, the "Safavids, the Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire also dominated the region.

The modern Middle East began after "World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the "Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and "partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably "Britain and "France by the end of the 1960s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards.

In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of "crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the "United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.[28] Estimated "oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel "OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries.

During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: "NATO and the United States on one side, and the "Soviet Union and "Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. Of course, besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as "Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...][29] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between "Sunnis and "Shiites.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic groups[edit]

"Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by "Turkic people. Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, "Jews, "Arameans, "Assyrians, "Baloch, "Berbers, "Copts, "Druze, "Kurds, "Lurs, "Mandaeans, "Persians, "Samaritans, "Shabaks, "Tats, and "Zazas.

Migration[edit]

"Migration has always provided an important vent for labor market pressures in the Middle East. For the period between the 1970s and 1990s, the Arab states of the PersianGulf in particular provided a rich source of employment for workers from Egypt, Yemen and the countries of the Levant, while Europe had attracted young workers from North African countries due both to proximity and the legacy of colonial ties between Franceand the majority of North African states." [30] According to the "International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation migrants from "Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009 Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in "remittance in-flows and remittances sent to "Jordan, "Egypt and "Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries.[31] In "Somalia, the "Somali Civil War has greatly increased the size of the "Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left for "Europe, "North America and other Middle Eastern countries.

Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as "Turkey, "Israel and "Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics.

A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks.["citation needed] Large numbers of "Kurds, "Jews, "Assyrians, "Greeks and "Armenians as well as many "Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. In Iran, many religious minorities such as "Christians, "Baha'is and "Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979.["citation needed]

Religions[edit]

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Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are "prostrating during prayer in a mosque.
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""
"Lebanese Christians account for roughly 40.5% of the population in "Lebanon, and have made significant contributions to various different sectors of society.

The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to "religions, many of which originated there. "Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as "Judaism and "Christianity, are also well represented. Christians represent 40.5% of Lebanon, where the "Lebanese president, half of the cabinet, and half of the parliament follow one of the various Lebanese Christian rites. There are also important minority religions like the "Bahá'í Faith, "Yarsanism, "Yazidism, "Zoroastrianism, "Mandaeism, "Druze, and "Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to "Mesopotamian religions, "Canaanite religions, "Manichaeism, "Mithraism and various "monotheist "gnostic sects.

Languages[edit]

The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are "Arabic, "Persian, "Turkish, "Kurdish, and "Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the "Afro-Asiatic "language family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the "Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to "Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East.

Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with "Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the "Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Several "Modern South Arabian languages such as "Mehri and "Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. Another Semitic language such as "Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by "Assyrians and "Mandaeans. There is also a "Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as "Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language.

"Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in "Iran and some border areas in neighbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the "Indo-Iranian branch of the family of "Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include "Achomi, "Daylami, "Kurdish dialects, "Semmani, "Lurish, amongst many others.

The third-most widely spoken language, "Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the "Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, "Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran.

"Hebrew is one of the two official languages of "Israel, the other being Arabic. Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel's population, the other 20% using Arabic.

"English is commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the "middle and "upper classes, in countries such as "Egypt, "Jordan, "Iran, "Kurdistan, "Iraq, "Qatar, "Bahrain, "United Arab Emirates and "Kuwait.[32][33] It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.

"French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in "Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of "Egypt and "Syria. "Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the "Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt.

"Armenian and "Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. "Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. "Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of "emigration in the late 1990s. Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in "Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. "Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The largest "Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in "Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[note 3][34][35]

"Bengali, "Hindi and "Urdu is widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20–25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50–55% of the population is South Asian), and Qatar, which have large numbers of "Pakistani, "Bangladeshi and "Indian immigrants.

Economy[edit]

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"Oil and "gas pipelines in the Middle-East

Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar and UAE). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth.

According to the "World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($794,228,000,000), Saudi Arabia ($467,601,000,000) and Iran ($385,143,000,000) in terms of "Nominal GDP.[36] Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745).[37] Turkey ($1,028,897,000,000), Iran ($839,438,000,000) and Saudi Arabia ($589,531,000,000) had the largest economies in terms of "GDP-PPP.[38] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100).

The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain.

With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater number of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies.

Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region's total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the "International Labour Organization, was 13.2%,[39] and among youth is as high as 25%,[40] up to 37% in "Morocco and 73% in "Syria.[41]

Gallery[edit]

This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the "International Space Station.
This video over the "Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station.
A pass beginning over "Turkmenistan, east of the "Caspian Sea to south-eastern "China, just north-west of "Hong Kong.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Arabic: الشرق الأوسط‎‎, Ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ; "Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Miǰin Arevelk’; "Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; "Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; "French: Moyen-Orient; "Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, Axlo Aɣmosavleti; "Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; "Hebrew: המזרח התיכון‎‎, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; "Northern Kurdish: 'Rojhilata Navîn'; "Persian: خاورمیانه‎‎, Xāvar-Miāne; "Somali: Bariga Dhexe; "Turkish: Orta Doğu; "Urdu: مشرق وسطی‎, Maśriq Vosta
  2. ^ In Italian, the expression "Vicino Oriente" (Near East) was also widely used to refer to Turkey, and Estremo Oriente (Far East or Extreme East) to refer to all of Asia east of Middle East
  3. ^ According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, at a population of 5,548,523 (census 1995).

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Population 1971–2010 (pdf pages 89) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
  2. ^ Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Cairo, Michael F. The Gulf: The Bush Presidencies and the Middle East University Press of Kentucky, 2012 "ISBN "978-0813136721 p xi.
  4. ^ Government Printing Office. History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense: The formative years, 1947–1950 "ISBN "978-0160876400 p 177
  5. ^ Kahana, Ephraim. Suwaed, Muhammad. Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Intelligence Scarecrow Press, 13 apr. 2009 ISBN 978- 0810863026 p xxxi.
  6. ^ Beaumont, Blake & Wagstaff 1988, p. 16.
  7. ^ Koppes, CR (1976). "Captain Mahan, General Gordon and the origin of the term "Middle East"". Middle East Studies. 12: 95–98. "doi:10.1080/00263207608700307. 
  8. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1965). The Middle East and the West. p. 9. 
  9. ^ Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to end all Peace. p. 224. "ISBN "0-8050-0857-8. 
  10. ^ Melman, Billie, Companion to Travel Writing, Collections Online, 6 The Middle East/Arabia, Cambridge, retrieved January 8, 2006 .
  11. ^ Palmer, Michael A. Guardians of the Persian Gulf: A History of America's Expanding Role in the Persian Gulf, 1833–1992. New York: The Free Press, 1992. "ISBN "0-02-923843-9 pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ Laciner, Dr. Sedat. "Is There a Place Called 'the Middle East'?", The Journal of Turkish Weekly, June 2, 2006. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  13. ^ Adelson 1995, pp. 22–23.
  14. ^ Adelson 1995, p. 24.
  15. ^ Adelson 1995, p. 26.
  16. ^ a b Davison, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs. 38 (4): 665–75. "doi:10.2307/20029452. 
  17. ^ Held, Colbert C. (2000). Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics. Westview Press. p. 7. "ISBN "0-8133-8221-1. 
  18. ^ "'Near East' is Mideast, Washington Explains". The New York Times. August 14, 1958. Retrieved 2009-01-25. (subscription required)
  19. ^ Goldstein, Norm. The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York: Basic Books, 2004. "ISBN "0-465-00488-1 p. 156
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