While Rome is Italy's political capital, Milan is the country's industrial and financial heart. With a 2010 GDP estimated at €132.5 billion, the province of Milan generates approximately 9% of the national GDP; while the economy of the "Lombardy region generates approximately 20% of Italy's GDP (or an estimated €325 billion in 2010, roughly the size of "Belgium). The province of Milan is home to about 45% of businesses in the Lombardy region and more than 8 percent of all businesses in Italy, including three "Fortune 500 companies.
Milan is, since the late 1800s, an important industrial and manufacturing centre, especially for the automotive industry, with companies such as "Alfa Romeo, "Pirelli and "Techint having a significant presence in the city. Other important products manufactured in Milan include chemicals, machinery, pharmaceuticals and plastics, health and biotechnologie and food & beverage.
The city is home to a large number of media and advertising agencies, "national newspapers and telecommunication companies, including both the public service broadcaster "RAI and private television companies like "Mediaset, "La7 and "Sky Italia. The city hosts the headquarters of the largest Italian publishing companies, such as "Feltrinelli, "Mondadori, "RCS Media Group, Messaggerie Italiane, and Giunti Editore. Milan has also seen a rapid increase in internet companies with both domestic and international companies such as "Altavista, "Google, "Lycos, "Virgilio and "Yahoo! establishing their Italian operations in the city.
Milan is the seat of Italy's main banking groups (198 companies), including "Banca Popolare di Milano, "Mediobanca, "Banca Mediolanum and "UniCredit and over forty foreign banks. Also, most asset management companies are based in Milan, including Anima Holding, "Azimut Holding, "ARCA SGR, and Eurizon Capital. The "Associazione Bancaria Italiana representing the Italian banking system and "Milan Stock Exchange (225 companies listed on the stock exchange) are both located in the city.
Milan is a major world fashion centre, where the sector can count on 12,000 companies, 800 show rooms, and 6,000 sales outlets (with brands such as "Armani, "Prada, "Versace, "Valentino and "Luxottica), while four weeks a year are dedicated to top shows and other fashion events. The city is also a global hub for trade and design. The city successfully hosted "Expo 2015. "FieraMilano, the historical city trade fair operator, operates one of the largest expo areas in the world and the second in Europe (after Hannover) in the northern suburb of "Rho, responsible for fairs such as "Milan Furniture Fair, "EICMA, "EMO on 0.7 mln m² of exhibition areas with about 4.5 million visitors every year.
"Porta Nuova is the main "business district of Milan, and one of the most important in "Italy. "AXA, "Bank of America, "BNP Paribas, "Celgene, "China Construction Bank, "Finanza & Futuro Banca, "FinecoBank, "FM Global, "Google, "Herbalife, "HSBC, "KPMG, "Maire Tecnimont, "Microsoft, "Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, "Samsung, "Shire, "Telecom Italia, "UniCredit, "UnipolSai and many other companies have their main Italian headquarters located there.
Tourism is an increasingly important part of the city's economy: with 7.65 million registered international arrivals in 2016 (up 1.8% on the previous year), Milan ranked as the world's 14th most visited city.
Museums and art galleries
Milan is home to many cultural institutions, museums and art galleries, that account for about a tenth of the national total of visitors and receipts. The "Pinacoteca di Brera is one of Milan's most important art galleries. It contains one of the foremost collections of Italian painting, including masterpieces such as the "Brera Madonna by "Piero della Francesca. The "Castello Sforzesco hosts numerous art collections and exhibitions, especially statues, ancient arms and furnitures, as well as the "Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco, with an art collection including "Michelangelo's last sculpture, the "Rondanini Pietà, "Andrea Mantegna's "Trivulzio Madonna and "Leonardo da Vinci's "Codex Trivulzianus manuscript. The Castello complex also includes "The Museum of Ancient Art, The Furniture Museum, The "Museum of Musical Instruments and the "Applied Arts Collection, "The Egyptian and Prehistoric sections of the "Archaeological Museum and the Achille Bertarelli Print Collection.
Milan's figurative art flourished in the "Middle-Ages, and with the "Visconti family being major patrons of the arts, the city became an important centre of "Gothic art and architecture ("Milan Cathedral being the city's most formidable work of Gothic architecture). Leonardo worked in Milan from 1482 until 1499. He was commissioned to paint the "Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception and "The Last Supper for the monastery of "Santa Maria delle Grazie.
The city was affected by the "Baroque in the 17th and 18th centuries, and hosted numerous formidable artists, architects and painters of that period, such as "Caravaggio and "Francesco Hayez, which several important works are hosted in "Brera Academy. The "Museum of Risorgimento is specialised on the history of "Italian unification Its collections include iconic paintings like "Baldassare Verazzi's Episode from the Five Days and "Francesco Hayez's 1840 ""Portrait of Emperor "Ferdinand I of Austria. The "Triennale is a design museum and events venue located in Palazzo dell'Arte, in Sempione Park. It hosts exhibitions and events highlighting contemporary Italian design, urban planning, architecture, music, and media arts, emphasising the relationship between art and industry.
Milan in the 20th century was the epicentre of the "Futurist artistic movement. "Filippo Marinetti, the founder of Italian "Futurism wrote in his 1909 ""Futurist Manifesto" (in Italian, Manifesto Futuristico), that Milan was "grande...tradizionale e futurista" ("grand...traditional and futuristic", in English). "Umberto Boccioni was also an important "Futurism artist who worked in the city. Today, Milan remains a major international hub of modern and contemporary art, with numerous modern art galleries. The "Modern Art Gallery, situated in the Royal Villa, hosts collections of Italian and European painting from the 18th to the early 20th centuries. The "Museo del Novecento, situated in the "Palazzo dell'Arengario, is one of the most important art galleries in Italy about 20th-century art; of particular relevance are the sections dedicated to "Futurism, "Spatialism and "Arte povera. In the early 1990s architect "David Chipperfield was invited to convert the premises of the former Ansaldo Factory into a Museum. Museo delle Culture (MUDEC) opened in April 2015. The "Gallerie di Piazza Scala, a modern and contemporary museum located in Piazza della Scala in the Palazzo Brentani and the Palazzo Anguissola, hosts 195 artworks from the collections of "Fondazione Cariplo with a strong representation of nineteenth century Lombard painters and sculptors, including "Antonio Canova and "Umberto Boccioni. A new section was opened in the Palazzo della Banca Commerciale Italiana in 2012. Other private ventures dedicated to contemporary art include the exhibiting spaces of the "Prada Foundation and "HangarBicocca. The "Nicola Trussardi Foundation is renewed for organising temporary exhibition in venues around the city. Milan is also home to many public art projects, with a variety of works that range from sculptures to murals to pieces by internationally renowned artists, including "Arman, "Francesco Barzaghi, "Alberto Burri, "Pietro Cascella, "Maurizio Cattelan, "Leonardo Da Vinci, "Giorgio de Chirico, Fausto Melotti, "Claes Oldenburg, "Igor Mitoraj, "Michelangelo Pistoletto, "Arnaldo Pomodoro, "Aldo Rossi, "Giuseppe Spagnulo and "Domenico Trentacoste.
Milan is a major national and international centre of the performing arts, most notably opera. The city hosts "La Scala operahouse, considered one of the world's most prestigious, having throughout history witnessed the "premieres of numerous operas, such as "Nabucco by "Giuseppe Verdi in 1842, "La Gioconda by "Amilcare Ponchielli, "Madama Butterfly by "Giacomo Puccini in 1904, "Turandot by "Giacomo Puccini in 1926, and more recently "Teneke, by "Fabio Vacchi in 2007. Other major theatres in Milan include the "Teatro degli Arcimboldi, "Teatro Dal Verme, "Teatro Lirico and formerly the "Teatro Regio Ducal. The city is also the seat of a renowned "symphony orchestra and "musical conservatory, and has been, throughout history, a major centre for musical composition: numerous famous composers and musicians such as "Gioseppe Caimo, "Simon Boyleau, "Hoste da Reggio, "Verdi, "Giulio Gatti-Casazza, "Paolo Cherici and "Alice Edun lived and worked in Milan. The city is also the birthplace of many modern ensembles and bands, including "Camaleonti, "Camerata Mediolanense, "Gli Spioni, "Dynamis Ensemble, "Elio e le Storie Tese, "Krisma, "Premiata Forneria Marconi, "Quartetto Cetra, "Stormy Six and "Le Vibrazioni.
Fashion and design
Milan is widely regarded as a global capital in industrial design, fashion and architecture. In the 1950s and 60s, as the main industrial centre of Italy and one of Europe's most dynamic cities, Milan became a world capital of design and architecture. There was such a revolutionary change that Milan’s fashion exports accounted for $726 million (US currency) in 1952, and by 1955 that number grew to $2.5 billion. Modern skyscrapers, such as the "Pirelli Tower and the "Torre Velasca were built, and artists such as "Bruno Munari, "Lucio Fontana, "Enrico Castellani and "Piero Manzoni gathered in the city. Today, Milan is still particularly well known for its high-quality furniture and interior design industry. The city is home to "FieraMilano, Europe's largest permanent trade exhibition, and "Salone Internazionale del Mobile, one of the most prestigious international furniture and design fairs.
Milan is also regarded as one of the "fashion capitals of the world, along with "New York City, "Paris, and "London. Milan is synonymous with the Italian prêt-à-porter industry, as many of the most famous "Italian fashion brands, such as "Valentino, "Gucci, "Versace, "Prada, "Armani and "Dolce & Gabbana, are headquartered in the city. Numerous international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan. Furthermore, the city hosts the "Milan Fashion Week twice a year, one of the most important events in the international fashion system. Milan's main upscale fashion district, "quadrilatero della moda, is home to the city's most prestigious shopping streets ("Via Monte Napoleone, "Via della Spiga, "Via Sant'Andrea, "Via Manzoni and "Corso Venezia), in addition to "Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, one of the world's oldest shopping malls.
Languages and literature
In the late 18th century, and throughout the 19th, Milan was an important centre for intellectual discussion and literary creativity. The "Enlightenment found here a fertile ground. "Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria, with his famous "Dei delitti e delle pene, and Count "Pietro Verri, with the periodical Il Caffè were able to exert a considerable influence over the new "middle-class culture, thanks also to an open-minded Austrian administration.
In the first years of the 19th century, the ideals of the "Romantic movement made their impact on the cultural life of the city and its major writers debated the primacy of Classical versus "Romantic poetry. Here, too, "Giuseppe Parini, and "Ugo Foscolo published their most important works, and were admired by younger poets as masters of ethics, as well as of literary craftsmanship. Foscolo's poem "Dei sepolcri was inspired by a Napoleonic law that—against the will of many of its inhabitants—was being extended to the city.
In the third decade of the 19th century, "Alessandro Manzoni wrote his novel "I Promessi Sposi, considered the manifesto of Italian Romanticism, which found in Milan its centre; in the same period "Carlo Porta, reputed the most renowned local vernacular poet, wrote his poems in "Lombard Language. The periodical "Il Conciliatore published articles by "Silvio Pellico, "Giovanni Berchet, "Ludovico di Breme, who were both Romantic in poetry and patriotic in politics.
After the "Unification of Italy in 1861, Milan lost its political importance; nevertheless it retained a sort of central position in cultural debates. New ideas and movements from other countries of Europe were accepted and discussed: thus "Realism and "Naturalism gave birth to an Italian movement, "Verismo. The greatest verista novelist, "Giovanni Verga, was born in Sicily but wrote his most important books in Milan.
In addition to Italian, approximately 2 million people in the Milan metropolitan area can speak the "Milanese dialect or one of its "Western Lombard variations.
Milan is an important national and international media centre. "Corriere della Sera, founded in 1876, is one of the oldest Italian newspapers, and it is published by "Rizzoli, as well as "La Gazzetta dello Sport, a daily dedicated to coverage of various sports and currently considered the most widely read daily newspaper in Italy. Other popular local dailies are the general broadsheets "Il Giorno, "Il Giornale, the Roman Catholic Church-owned "Avvenire, and "Il Sole 24 Ore, a daily business newspaper owned by "Confindustria (the Italian employers' federation). Free daily newspapers include "Leggo and "Metro. Milan is also home to many architecture, art, and fashion periodicals, including "Abitare, "Casabella, "Domus, "Flash Art, "Gioia, "Grazia, and "Vogue Italia. "Panorama and "Oggi, two of Italy’s most important weekly news magazines, are also published in Milan.
Several commercial broadcast television networks have their national headquarters in the Milan conurbation, including "Mediaset Group (owner of "Canale 5, "Italia 1, "Iris and "Rete 4), "Telelombardia and "MTV Italy. National radio stations based in Milan include "Radio Deejay; "Radio 105 Network; "R101 (Italy); "Radio Popolare; "RTL 102.5; "Radio Capital and "Virgin Radio Italia.
Like most cities in Italy, Milan has developed its own local culinary tradition, which, as it is typical for North Italian cuisines, uses more frequently "rice than "pasta, "butter than "vegetable oil and features almost no "tomato or "fish. Milanese traditional dishes includes "cotoletta alla milanese, a breaded veal (pork and turkey can be used) cutlet pan-fried in butter (similar to Viennese "Wiener Schnitzel). Other typical dishes are "cassoeula (stewed pork rib chops and sausage with "Savoy cabbage), "ossobuco (braised "veal shank served with a condiment called "gremolata), "risotto alla milanese (with "saffron and beef marrow), busecca (stewed "tripe with beans), and brasato (stewed beef or pork with wine and potatoes).
Season-related pastries include chiacchiere (flat fritters dusted with sugar) and tortelli (fried spherical cookies) for "Carnival, colomba (glazed cake shaped as a dove) for "Easter, pane dei morti ("Deads' Day bread", cookies aromatised with "cinnamon) for "All Souls' Day and "panettone for Christmas. The salame Milano, a "salami with a very fine grain, is widespread throughout Italy. Renowned Milanese cheeses are "gorgonzola (from the "namesake village nearby), "mascarpone, used in pastry-making, "taleggio and quartirolo.
Milan is well known for its world-class restaurants and cafés, characterised by innovative cuisine and design. As of 2014[update], Milan has 157 Michelin-selected places, including three 2-Michelin-starred restaurants; these include "Cracco, Sadler and il Luogo di Aimo e Nadia. Many historical restaurants and bars are found in the historic centre, the "Brera and "Navigli districts. One of the city's oldest surviving cafés, "Caffè Cova, was established in 1817. In total, Milan has 15 cafés, bars and restaurants registered among the Historical Places of Italy, continuously operating since at least 70 years.
Milan hosted the "FIFA World Cup in "1934 and "1990, the "UEFA European Football Championship in "1980 and most recently the "2003 World Rowing Championships, the "2009 World Boxing Championships, and some games of the "Men's Volleyball World Championship in "2010 and the final games of the "Women's Volleyball World Championship in "2014.
Milan is the only city in Europe that is home to two "European Cup/Champions League winning teams – "Serie A renewed football clubs "A.C. Milan and "F.C. Internazionale Milano. Both teams have also won the Intercontinental Cup (now "FIFA Club World Cup). With a combined ten Champions League titles, Milan is second after Madrid as city that have won the most European Cups. They are the most successful clubs in the world of football in terms of international trophies. Both teams play at the UEFA 5-star rated Giuseppe Meazza Stadium, more commonly known as the "San Siro, that is one of the biggest stadiums in Europe, with a "seating capacity of over 80,000. The Meazza Stadium hosted the "2016 UEFA Champions League Final, in which "Real Madrid C.F. defeated "Atlético Madrid 5-3 in a "penalty shoot out. A third team, "Brera Calcio F.C. plays in "Seconda Categoria.
There are currently four professional "Lega Basket clubs in Milan: "Olimpia Milano, Pallacanestro Milano 1958, Società Canottieri Milano and A.S.S.I. Milano. Olimpia is the most titled basketball club in "Italy, having won 27 "Italian League championships, 6 "Italian National Cups, 1 "Italian Super Cup, 3 "European Champions Cups, 1 "FIBA Intercontinental Cup, 3 "FIBA Saporta Cups, 2 "FIBA Korać Cups and many junior titles. The team play at the "Mediolanum Forum, with a capacity of 12,700 where it has been hosted the final of the "2013-14 Euroleague. In some cases the team play also at the "PalaDesio, with a capacity of 6,700.
Milan is also home to Italy's oldest American football team: "Rhinos Milano, that won 4 Italian Super Bowls. The team play at the "Velodromo Vigorelli, with a capacity of 8,000. Milan has also two cricket teams, Milano Fiori (currently competing in the second division) and Kingsgrove Milan, who won the Serie A championship in 2014. "Amatori Rugby Milano, the most titled rugby team in Italy, was founded in Milan in 1927. The world-famous "Monza "Formula One circuit is located near the city, inside a suburban park. It is one of the world's oldest "car racing circuits. The capacity for the "F1 races is currently of over 113,000. It has hosted an F1 race nearly every year since the first year of competition, with the exception of 1980.
Milan is home to some of Italy's most prominent educational institutions. Milan's higher education system includes 7 universities, 48 faculties and 142 departments, with 185,000 university students in 2011 (approximately 11 percent of the national total) and the largest number of university graduates and postgraduate students (34,000 and more than 5,000, respectively) in Italy.
Founded in 1863, the "Politecnico di Milano is the oldest university in Milan. The Politecnico is organised in 16 departments and a network of 9 Schools of engineering, architecture and industrial design spread over 7 campuses in the "Lombardy region. The number of students enrolled in all campuses is approximately 38,000, which makes Politecnico the largest technical university in Italy. The "University of Milan, founded in 1923, is the largest public teaching and research university in the city, with 9 faculties, 58 departments, 48 institutes and a teaching staff of 2,500 professors. A leading institute in Italy and Europe in scientific publication, the University of Milan is the sixth largest university in Italy, with approximately 60,000 enrolled students.
Other prominent universities in Milan include: the "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, a private institute founded in 1921 and located in the "Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, famous for its law and economics teaching, currently the largest Catholic university in the world with 42,000 enrolled students; the "Bocconi University, a private management and finance school established in 1902, ranking as the seventh best "business school in Europe; the "University of Milan Bicocca, a multidisciplinary public university with more than 30,000 enrolled students; the "IULM University of Milan, specialising in marketing, information and communications technology, tourism and fashion; the "Università Vita Salute San Raffaele, linked to the "San Raffaele hospital, is home to "research laboratories in neurology, neurosurgery, diabetology, molecular biology, AIDS studies and cognitive science.
Milan is also well known for its fine arts and music schools. The "Milan Academy of Fine Arts (Brera Academy) is a public "academic institution founded in 1776 by Empress "Maria Theresa of Austria; the "New Academy of Fine Arts is the largest private art and design university in Italy; the "European Institute of Design is a private university specialised in fashion, industrial and interior design, audio/visual design including photography, advertising and marketing and business communication; the "Marangoni Institute, is a fashion institute with campuses in Milan, London, and Paris; the "Domus Academy is a private postgraduate institution of design, fashion, architecture, interior design and management; the Pontifical Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music, a "college of music founded in 1931 by the blessed cardinal A.I. Schuster, archbishop of Milan, and raised according to the rules by the Holy See in 1940, is – similarly to the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome, which is consociated with – an Institute "ad instar facultatis" and is authorised to confer university qualifications with canonical validity and the "Milan Conservatory, a "college of music established in 1807, currently Italy's largest with more than 1,700 students and 240 music teachers.
Milan is one of southern Europe's key transport nodes and one of Italy's most important railway hubs. Its five major railway stations, such as the "Milan Central station, are among Italy's busiest. Since the end of 2009, two "high speed train lines link Milan to Rome, "Naples and "Turin, considerably shortening travel times with other major cities in Italy.
The "Azienda Trasporti Milanesi (ATM) operates within the metropolitan area, managing a public transport network consisting of an "underground rapid transit network and tram, "trolley-bus and "bus lines. Overall the network covers nearly 1,400 km (870 mi) reaching 86 "municipalities. Besides public transport, ATM manages the interchange "parking lots and other transportation services including "bike sharing and "car sharing systems.
"Milan Metro is the "rapid transit system serving the city, that with 4 lines and a total length of more than 100 km (62 mi) is one of the largest in Europe. The recently opened M5 line is undergoing further expansion and the construction of the M4 line has been approved. The "Milan suburban railway service comprises 12 lines and connects the metropolitan area with the city centre through the "Milan Passerby underground railway. Commonly referred to as "Il Passante", it has a train running every 6 minutes (and in the city functions as a subway line with full transferability to the Milan Metro).
The city tram network consists of approximately 160 kilometres (99 mi) of track and 17 lines. Bus lines cover over 1,070 km (665 mi). Milan has also "taxi services operated by private companies and licensed by the City council of Milan. The city is also a key node for the national road network, being served by all the major highways of Northern Italy. Numerous long-distance bus lines link Milan with many other cities and towns in Lombardy and throughout Italy.
Milan is served by three "international airports. "Linate, the oldest and the only airport lying within the city limits, is mainly used for domestic and short-haul international flights, and served 9 million passengers in 2014. "Malpensa International Airport, the second busiest airport in Italy (about 19 million passengers in 2014), is 45 km (28 mi) from central Milan and connected to the city by the "Malpensa Express" railway service. The airport of "Orio al Serio, near the city of "Bergamo, serves the low-cost traffic of Milan (8.8 million passengers in 2014). Milano "Bresso Airport, operated by Aero Club Milano, is a "general aviation airport.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Milan has fifteen official "sister cities as reported on the city's website. The date column indicates the year in which the relationship was established. "São Paulo was Milan's first sister city.
The partnership with the city of "St. Petersburg, "Russia, that started in 1967, was suspended in 2012 (a decision taken by the city of Milan), because of the prohibition of the Russian government on ""homosexual propaganda".
Other forms of co-operation, partnership and city friendship
Milan has the following collaborations:
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- medius + lanum; Alciato's "etymology" is intentionally far-fetched.
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- Ibid., p. 38.
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