The "theater of Miletus
|Location||"Balat, Didim, "Aydın Province, "Turkey|
|Area||90 ha (220 acres)|
|Builder||"Minoans (later "Mycenaeans) on site of the "Luwian or "Carian city|
|Website||Miletus Archaeological Site|
Miletus ("//; "Ancient Greek: Μίλητος, "translit. Milētos; "Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata ("exonyms); "Latin: Miletus; "Turkish: Milet) was an "ancient Greek city on the western coast of "Anatolia, near the mouth of the "Maeander River in ancient "Caria. Its ruins are located near the modern village of "Balat in "Aydın Province, "Turkey. Before the "Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus was considered the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities. In other sources however it is mentioned that the city was much more modest up until the "Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), when, for example, the city state of Samos on the island of "Samos opposite Miletus was considered a larger and more important city and harbor. Miletus' greatest wealth and splendor was reached during the "Hellenistic era (323–30 BC) and later Roman times.
Evidence of first settlement at the site has been made inaccessible by the rise of sea level and deposition of sediments from the Maeander. The first available evidence is of the "Neolithic. In the early and middle "Bronze age the settlement came under "Minoan influence. Legend has it that an influx of Cretans occurred displacing the indigenous "Leleges. The site was renamed Miletus after a place in "Crete.
The "Late Bronze Age, 13th century BC, saw the arrival of "Luwian language speakers from south central Anatolia calling themselves the "Carians. Later in that century other Greeks arrived. The city at that time rebelled against the "Hittite Empire. After the fall of that empire the city was destroyed in the 12th century BC and starting about 1000 BC was resettled extensively by the "Ionian Greeks. Legend offers an Ionian foundation event sponsored by a founder named Neleus from the "Peloponnesus.
The "Greek Dark Ages were a time of Ionian settlement and consolidation in an alliance called the "Ionian League. The "Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art and philosophy on the coast of "Anatolia. In the 6th century BC, Miletus was the site of origin of the Greek philosophical (and scientific) tradition, when "Thales, followed by "Anaximander and "Anaximenes (known collectively, to modern scholars, as the "Milesian School) began to speculate about the material constitution of the world, and to propose speculative naturalistic (as opposed to traditional, supernatural) explanations for various natural phenomena.
Miletus is the birthplace of the "Hagia Sophia's architect (and inventor of the "flying buttress) "Isidore of Miletus and "Thales, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (and one of the "Seven Sages of Greece) in c. 624 BC.
In antiquity the city possessed a "harbour at the southern entry of a large bay, on which two more of the traditional twelve Ionian cities stood: "Priene and "Myus. The harbour of Miletus was additionally protected by the nearby small island of Lade. Over the centuries the gulf silted up with "alluvium carried by the "Meander River. Priene and Myus had lost their harbours by the Roman era, and Miletus itself became an inland town in the early Christian era; all three were abandoned to ruin as their economies were strangled by the lack of access to the sea. There is a Great Harbour Monument where, according to the New Testament account, the apostle Paul stopped on his way back to Jerusalem by boat. He met the Ephesian Elders and then headed out to the beach to bid them farewell, recorded in the book of Acts 20:17-38.
During the "Pleistocene epoch the Miletus region was submerged in the "Aegean Sea. It subsequently emerged slowly, the sea reaching a low level of about 130 meters (430 ft) below present level at about 18,000 "BP. The site of Miletus was part of the mainland.
A gradual rise brought a level of about 1.75 meters (5 ft 9 in) below present at about 5500 BP, creating several "karst block islands of limestone, the location of the first settlements at Miletus. At about 1500 BC the karst shifted due to small crustal movements and the islands consolidated into a peninsula. Since then the sea has risen 1.75 m but the peninsula has been surrounded by sediment from the "Maeander river and is now land-locked. Sedimentation of the harbor began at about 1000 BC, and by AD 300 "Lake Bafa had been created.
The earliest available archaeological evidence indicates that the islands on which Miletus was originally placed were inhabited by a "Neolithic population in 3500–3000 BC. Pollen in core samples from Lake Bafa in the "Latmus region inland of Miletus suggests that a lightly grazed climax forest prevailed in the "Maeander valley, otherwise untenanted. Sparse Neolithic settlements were made at "springs, numerous and sometimes "geothermal in this karst, rift valley topography. The islands offshore were settled perhaps for their strategic significance at the mouth of the Maeander, a route inland protected by "escarpments. The "graziers in the valley may have belonged to them, but the location looked to the sea.
Recorded history at Miletus begins with the records of the "Hittite Empire and the Mycenaean records of "Pylos and "Knossos, in the Late Bronze Age. The prehistoric archaeology of the Early and Middle Bronze Age portrays a city heavily influenced by society and events elsewhere in the Aegean, rather than inland.
Beginning at about 1900 BC artifacts of the "Minoan civilization acquired by trade arrived at Miletus. For some centuries the location received a strong impulse from that civilization, an archaeological fact that tends to support but not necessarily confirm the founding legend—that is, a population influx, from "Crete. According to "Strabo:
Ephorus says: Miletus was first founded and fortified above the sea by Cretans, where the Miletus of olden times is now situated, being settled by Sarpedon, who brought colonists from the Cretan Miletus and named the city after that Miletus, the place formerly being in possession of the "Leleges.
The legends recounted as history by the ancient historians and geographers are perhaps the strongest; the late mythographers have nothing historically significant to relate.
Miletus was a "Mycenaean stronghold on the coast of Asia Minor from c. 1450 to 1100 BC. In c. 1320 BC, the city supported an anti-Hittite rebellion of "Uhha-Ziti of nearby "Arzawa. Mursili ordered his generals Mala-Ziti and Gulla to raid Millawanda, and they proceeded to burn parts of it; damage from "LHIIIA found on-site has been associated with this raid. In addition the town was fortified according to a Hittite plan.
Miletus is then mentioned in the ""Tawagalawa letter", part of a series including the "Manapa-Tarhunta letter and the "Milawata letter, all of which are less securely dated. The Tawagalawa letter notes that Milawata had a governor, Atpa, who was under the jurisdiction of "Ahhiyawa (a growing state probably in "LHIIIB "Mycenaean Greece); and that the town of Atriya was under Milesian jurisdiction. The Manapa-Tarhunta letter also mentions Atpa. Together the two letters tell that the adventurer "Piyama-Radu had humiliated Manapa-Tarhunta before Atpa (in addition to other misadventures); a Hittite king then chased Piyama-Radu into Millawanda and, in the Tawagalawa letter, requested Piyama-Radu's extradition to "Hatti.
The Milawata letter mentions a joint expedition by the Hittite king and a "Luwiyan vassal (probably "Kupanta-Kurunta of Mira) against Miletus, and notes that the city (together with Atriya) were now under Hittite control.["citation needed]
In the last stage of LHIIIB, the citadel of bronze age "Pylos counted among its female slaves a mi-ra-ti-ja, "Mycenaean Greek for "women from Miletus", written in "Linear B syllabic script. During the collapse of Bronze Age civilization, Miletus was burnt again, presumably by the "Sea Peoples.
Mythographers told that Neleus, a son of "Codrus the last "King of Athens, had come to Miletus after the ""Return of the Heraclids" (so, during the "Greek Dark Ages). The Ionians killed the men of Miletus and married their widows. This is the mythical commencement of the enduring alliance between Athens and Miletus, which played an important role in the subsequent "Persian Wars.
Miletus was one of the cities involved in the "Lelantine War of the 8th century BC.
Miletus is known to have early ties with "Megara in Greece. According to some scholars, these two cities had built up a “colonisation alliance”. In the 7th/6th century BCE they acted in accordance with each other.
Both cities acted under the leadership and sanction of an "Apollo oracle. Megara cooperated with that of "Delphi. Miletus had her own oracle of Apollo Didymeus Milesios in "Didyma. Also, there are many parallels in the political organisation of both cities.
According to "Pausanias, the Megarians said that their town owed its origin to "Car, the son of "Phoroneus, who built the city citadel called 'Caria'. This 'Car of Megara' may or may not be one and the same as the 'Car of the Carians', also known as "Car (King of Caria).
In the late 7th century BC, the tyrant "Thrasybulus preserved the independence of Miletus during a 12-year war fought against the "Lydian Empire. Thrasybulus was an ally of the famous "Corinthian tyrant "Periander.
Miletus was an important center of philosophy and science, producing such men as "Thales, "Anaximander and "Anaximenes. Referring to this period, "religious studies professor "F. E. Peters described "pan-deism as "the legacy of the Milesians."
When "Cyrus of Persia defeated "Croesus of Lydia in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus fell under "Persian rule. In 499 BC Miletus's "tyrant "Aristagoras became the leader of the "Ionian Revolt against the Persians under "Darius the Great, who quashed this rebellion and punished Miletus by selling all of the women and children into slavery, killing the men, and expelling all of the young men as eunuchs, thereby assuring that no Miletus citizen would ever be born again. A year afterward, "Phrynicus produced the tragedy The Capture of Miletus in Athens. The Athenians fined him for reminding them of their loss.
In 479 BC the Greeks decisively defeated the Persians on the Greek mainland at the "Battle of Plataea, and Miletus was freed of Persian rule. During this time several other cities were formed by "Milesian settlers, spanning across what is now Turkey and even as far as "Crimea. The city's gridlike layout became famous, serving as the basic layout for "Roman cities.
In 358 BC Artaxerxes II died and was succeeded by his son "Artaxerxes III, who in 355 BC forced Athens to conclude a peace which required its forces to leave Asia Minor (Anatolia) and acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies.
In 334 BC the "Siege of Miletus by the forces of "Alexander the Great of Macedonia liberated the city from Persian rule, soon followed by most of Asia Minor. In this period the city reached its greatest extent, occupying within its walls an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres).
When Alexander died in 323 BC, Miletus came under the control of Ptolemy, governor of "Caria and his satrap of Lydia Asandrus, who had become autonomous. In 312 BC Macedonian general "Antigonus I Monophthalmus sent Docimus and Medeius to free the city and grant autonomy, restoring the democratic patrimonial regime. After Antigonus I was killed in the "Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC by the coalition of "Lysimachus of Macedon, "Cassander of Macedon, and "Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the "Seleucid Empire, Miletus maintained good relations with all the successors after Seleucus I Nicator made substantial donations to the sanctuary of Didyma and returned the statue of Apollo that had been stolen by the Persians in 494 BC.
In 295 BC Antigonus I's son "Demetrius Poliorcetes was the eponymous archon (stephanephorus) in the city, which allied with "Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt, while Lysimachus assumed power in the region, enforcing a strict policy towards the Greek cities by imposing high taxes, forcing Miletus to resort to lending
Around 287/286 BC Demetrius Poliorcetes returned, but failed to maintain his possessions and was imprisoned in Syria. Nicocles of Sido, the commander of Demetrius' fleet surrendered the city. Lysimachus dominated until 281 BC, when he was defeated by the Seleucids at the "Battle of Corupedium. In 280/279 BC the Milesians adopted a new chronological system based on the Seleucids.
In 279 BC the city was taken from Seleucid king "Antiochus II by Egyptian king "Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who donated a large area of land to cement their friendship, and it remained under Egyptian sway until the end of the century.
The "New Testament mentions Miletus as the site where the Apostle "Paul in AD 57 met with the elders of the "church of "Ephesus near the close of his Third Missionary Journey, as recorded in "Acts of the Apostles (Acts 20:15–38). It is believed that Paul stopped by the Great Harbour Monument and sat on its steps. He may have met the Ephesian elders there and then bid them farewell on the nearby beach. Miletus is also the city where Paul left "Trophimus, one of his travelling companions, to recover from an illness ("2 Timothy 4:20). Because this cannot be the same visit as Acts 20 (in which Trophimus accompanied Paul all the way to Jerusalem, according to Acts 21:29), Paul must have made at least one additional visit to Miletus, perhaps as late as AD 65 or 66. Paul's previous successful three-year ministry in nearby "Ephesus resulted in the evangelization of the entire province of Asia (see Acts 19:10, 20; "1 Corinthians 16:9). It is safe to assume that at least by the time of the apostle's second visit to Miletus, a fledgling Christian community was established in Miletus.
During the "Byzantine age the "see of Miletus was raised to an archbishopric and later a "metropolitan bishopric. The small Byzantine castle called Palation located on the hill beside the city, was built at this time. Miletus was headed by a "curator.
Due to ancient and subsequent "deforestation, overgrazing (mostly by goat herds), "erosion and "soil degradation the ruins of the city lie some 10 km (6.2 mi) from the sea with "sediments filling the plain and bare hill ridges without soils and trees, a "maquis shrubland remaining.
The first excavations in Miletus were conducted by the French archaeologist "Olivier Rayet in 1873, followed by the German archaeologists Julius Hülsen and "Theodor Wiegand between 1899 and 1931. Excavations, however, were interrupted several times by wars and various other events. Carl Weickart excavated for a short season in 1938 and again between 1955 and 1957. He was followed by Gerhard Kleiner and then by Wolfgang Muller-Wiener. Today, excavations are organized by the "Ruhr University of "Bochum, "Germany.
One remarkable artifact recovered from the city during the first excavations of the 19th century, the "Market Gate of Miletus, was transported piece by piece to "Germany and reassembled. It is currently exhibited at the "Pergamon museum in "Berlin. The main collection of artifacts resides in the Miletus Museum in "Didim, "Aydın, serving since 1973.
Miletus became known for the great number of colonies it founded. It was considered the greatest Greek metropolis and founded more colonies than any other Greek city. "Pliny the Elder mentions 90 colonies founded by Miletus in his "Natural History (5.112), among them:
The political history of Miletos/Millawanda, as it can be reconstructed from limited sources, shows that despite having a material culture dominated by Aegean influences it was more often associated with Anatolian powers such as Arzawa and the Hittites than it was with the presumed Aegean power of Ahhijawa
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