Succession amid crisis
July 4, 1850 was a very hot day in Washington, and "President Taylor, who attended "Fourth of July ceremonies, refreshed himself, likely with cold milk and cherries. What he consumed probably gave him "gastroenteritis, and he died on July 9. Taylor, nicknamed "Old Rough and Ready", had gained a reputation for toughness through his military campaigning in the heat, and his sudden death came as a shock to the nation.
Fillmore had been called from his chair presiding over the Senate on July 8, and had sat with members of the cabinet in a vigil outside Taylor's bedroom at the White House. He received the formal notification of the president's death, signed by the cabinet, on the evening of July 9 in his residence at the "Willard Hotel. After acknowledging the letter, and spending a sleepless night, Fillmore went to the House of Representatives, where, at a "joint session of Congress, he took the oath as president from "William Cranch, chief judge of "the federal court for the District of Columbia, and the man who had sworn in President Tyler. The cabinet officers, as was customary when a new president took over, submitted their resignations, expecting Fillmore to refuse, allowing them to continue in office. Fillmore had been marginalized by the cabinet members, and the new president accepted the resignations, though he asked them to stay on for a month, which most refused to do. Fillmore is the only president who succeeded by death or resignation not to retain, at least initially, his predecessor's cabinet. He was already in discussions with Whig leaders, and on July 20 began to send new nominations to the Senate, with the Fillmore cabinet to be led by Webster as Secretary of State. Webster had outraged his Massachusetts constituents by supporting Clay's bill, and with his Senate term to expire in 1851, had no electoral future in his home state. Fillmore appointed his old law partner, Nathan Hall, as "Postmaster General, a cabinet position that controlled many patronage appointments. The new department heads were mostly supporters of the Compromise, as was Fillmore.
The brief pause from politics out of national grief at Taylor's death did not abate the crisis. Texas had attempted to assert its authority in New Mexico territory, and the state's governor, "Peter H. Bell, had sent belligerent letters to President Taylor. Fillmore received another such after becoming president. He reinforced federal troops in the area, and warned Bell to keep the peace. By July 31, Clay's bill was effectively dead, as all the significant provisions had been deleted by amendment other than the organization of Utah Territory—one wag put it that the "Mormons" were the only remaining passengers on the Omnibus. Illinois Senator "Stephen A. Douglas then stepped to the fore, with Clay's agreement, proposing to break the Omnibus into individual bills that could be passed piecemeal. Fillmore endorsed this strategy, with the Omnibus to become (as it proved) five bills.
Fillmore sent a special message to Congress on August 6, 1850, disclosing the letter from Governor Bell and his reply, warning that armed Texans would be viewed as intruders, and urging Congress to defuse sectional tensions by passing the Compromise. Without the "Great Triumvirate of "John C. Calhoun, Webster and Clay who had long dominated the Senate,[h] Douglas and others led that body towards the administration-backed package of bills. Each bill passed the Senate with the support of the section that wanted it, plus a few members who were determined to see all the bills passed. The battle then moved to the House, which had a Northern majority because of population. Most contentious was the "Fugitive Slave Bill, whose provisions were anathema to abolitionists. Fillmore applied pressure to get Northern Whigs to abstain rather than oppose, including New Yorkers—threatening to kill the renomination of Congressman "Abraham Schermerhorn of "Rochester, whose constituents included "Frederick Douglass, if he voted against the bill. Through the legislative process, various changes were made, including the setting of a boundary between "New Mexico Territory and Texas—the state would be given a payment to settle any claims. California was admitted as a free state, the District slave trade was ended, and the final status of slavery in New Mexico and Utah would be settled later. Fillmore signed the bills as they reached his desk, holding the Fugitive Slave Bill for two days until he received a favorable opinion as to its constitutionality from the new Attorney General, "John J. Crittenden. Although some Northerners were unhappy at the Fugitive Slave Act, relief was widespread, as was the hope this would settle the slavery question.
The Fugitive Slave Act continued to be contentious after its enactment: Southerners complained bitterly about any slackness, but enforcement was highly offensive to many Northerners. Abolitionists recited the inequities of the law: it punished severely any aid to an escaped slave, and if captured, he had no due process and could not testify before a magistrate who would be paid more for deciding he was a slave than for deciding he was not. Nevertheless, Fillmore believed himself bound by his oath as president and by the bargain made in the Compromise to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act. He did so even though some prosecutions or attempts to return slaves ended badly for the government, with acquittals or "the slave taken from federal custody and to freedom by a Boston mob. Such cases were widely publicized North and South, and inflamed passions in both places, undermining the good feeling that had followed the Compromise.
In August 1850, the social reformer "Dorothea Dix wrote to Fillmore, urging support for her proposal in Congress for land grants to finance asylums for the impoverished mentally ill. Though her proposal did not pass, they became friends, meeting in person and corresponding, continuing well after Fillmore's presidency. In September of that year, Fillmore appointed "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints leader "Brigham Young as the first governor of "Utah Territory. In gratitude, Young named the first territorial capital ""Fillmore" and the surrounding county ""Millard".
A longtime supporter of national infrastructure development, Fillmore signed bills to subsidize the "Illinois Central railroad from Chicago to "Mobile, and for "a canal at "Sault Ste. Marie. The 1851 completion of the "Erie Railroad in New York prompted Fillmore and his cabinet to ride the first train from New York City to the shores of Lake Erie, in company with many other politicians and dignitaries. Fillmore made many speeches along the way from the train's rear platform, urging acceptance of the Compromise, and afterwards went on a tour of New England with his Southern cabinet members. Although Fillmore urged Congress to authorize a transcontinental railroad, it did not do so until a decade later.
Fillmore appointed one justice to the "Supreme Court of the United States, and made four appointments to "United States District Courts, including that of his law partner and cabinet officer, Nathan Hall, to the "federal district court in Buffalo. When Supreme Court Justice "Levi Woodbury died in September 1851 with the Senate not in session, Fillmore made a "recess appointment of "Benjamin Robbins Curtis to the high court. In December, Congress having convened, Fillmore made formal nomination of Curtis, who was confirmed. Justice Curtis would, in 1857, dissent in the slavery case of "Dred Scott v. Sandford, and resign as a matter of principle.
Justice "John McKinley's death in 1852 led to repeated, fruitless attempts by the president to fill the vacancy. The Senate took no action on the nomination of "New Orleans attorney "Edward A. Bradford. Fillmore's second choice, "George Edmund Badger, asked that his name be withdrawn. Senator-elect "Judah P. Benjamin declined to serve. The nomination of "William C. Micou, a New Orleans lawyer recommended by Benjamin, was not acted on by the Senate. The vacancy was finally filled after Fillmore's term, when President "Franklin Pierce nominated "John Archibald Campbell, who was confirmed by the Senate.
Fillmore oversaw two highly competent Secretaries of State, "Daniel Webster, and after the New Englander's 1852 death, "Edward Everett, looking over their shoulders and making all major decisions. The president was particularly active in Asia and the Pacific, especially with regard to Japan, which at this time still prohibited nearly all foreign contact. American merchants and shipowners wanted Japan "opened up" for trade. This would allow not only commerce, but permit American ships to call there for food and water, and in emergencies without being punished. They were concerned that American sailors cast away on the Japanese coast were imprisoned as criminals. Fillmore and Webster dispatched "Commodore "Matthew C. Perry to open Japan to relations with the outside world, by force if necessary. Though the commodore did not reach Japan until after the end of Fillmore's term, Fillmore ordered the "Perry Expedition.
Fillmore was a staunch opponent of European influence in Hawaii. France under "Napoleon III sought to annex Hawaii, but backed down after Fillmore issued a strongly worded message warning that "the United States would not stand for any such action." Taylor had pressed Portugal for payment of American claims dating as far back as the "War of 1812, and had refused offers of arbitration; Fillmore gained a favorable settlement.
Fillmore had difficulties regarding "Cuba; many Southerners hoped to see the island part of the U.S. as slave territory: Cuba was a colony of Spain where slavery was practiced. Venezuelan adventurer "Narciso López recruited Americans for three "filibustering expeditions to Cuba, in the hope of overthrowing Spanish rule there. After the second attempt in 1850, López and some of his followers were indicted for breach of the "Neutrality Act, but were quickly acquitted by friendly Southern juries. The final López expedition ended with his execution by the Spanish, who put several Americans before the firing squad, including the nephew of Attorney General Crittenden. This resulted in riots against the Spanish in New Orleans, causing their consul to flee; historian Elbert E. Smith, who wrote of the Taylor and Fillmore presidencies, suggested that Fillmore could have had war against Spain had he wanted it. Instead, Fillmore, Webster and the Spanish worked out a series of face-saving measures that settled the crisis without armed conflict. Many Southerners, including Whigs, supported the filibusters, and Fillmore's response helped divide his party as the 1852 election approached.
A much-publicized event of Fillmore's presidency was the arrival in late 1851 of "Lajos Kossuth, the exiled leader of a failed Hungarian revolution against Austria. Kossuth wanted the U.S. to recognize Hungary's independence. Many Americans were sympathetic to the Hungarian rebels, especially recent German immigrants, who were now coming to the U.S. in large numbers and had become a major political force. Kossuth was feted by Congress, and Fillmore allowed a White House meeting after receiving word that Kossuth would not try to politicize it. In spite of his promise, Kossuth made a speech promoting his cause. The American enthusiasm for Kossuth petered out, and he departed for Europe; Fillmore refused to change American policy, remaining neutral.
|The Fillmore Cabinet|
|"Secretary of State||"Daniel Webster||1850–1852|
|"Secretary of Treasury||"Thomas Corwin||1850–1853|
|"Secretary of War||"Charles Magill Conrad||1850–1853|
|"Attorney General||"Reverdy Johnson||1850|
|"John J. Crittenden||1850–1853|
|"Postmaster General||"Nathan K. Hall||1850–1852|
|"Samuel Dickinson Hubbard||1852–1853|
|"Secretary of the Navy||"William Alexander Graham||1850–1852|
|"John P. Kennedy||1852–1853|
|"Secretary of the Interior||"Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan||1850|
|"Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart||1850–1853|
Election of 1852 and completion of term
As the "election of 1852 approached, Fillmore remained undecided whether to run for a full term as president. Secretary Webster had long coveted the presidency and, though past seventy, planned a final attempt to gain the White House. Fillmore was sympathetic to the ambitions of his longtime friend, but though he issued a letter in late 1851 stating that he did not seek a full term, was reluctant to rule it out, fearing the party would be captured by the Sewardites. Thus, approaching the "national convention in Baltimore, to be held in June 1852, the major candidates were Fillmore, Webster and General Scott. Weed and Seward backed Scott; in late May, the Democrats nominated former New Hampshire senator "Franklin Pierce, who had been out of national politics for nearly a decade before 1852, but whose profile had risen as a result of his military service in the Mexican War. The nomination of Pierce, a northerner sympathetic to the southern view on slavery, united the Democrats and meant the Whig candidate would face an uphill battle to gain the presidency.
Fillmore was by then unpopular with northern Whigs for signing and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act, but had considerable support from the South, where he was seen as the only candidate capable of uniting the party. Once the convention passed a "party platform endorsing the Compromise as a final settlement of the slavery question, Fillmore was willing to withdraw, but found that many of his supporters could not accept Webster and his action would nominate Scott. The convention deadlocked, and this persisted through Saturday, June 19, when a total of 46 ballots had been taken; delegates adjourned until Monday. Party leaders proposed a deal to both Fillmore and Webster: if the secretary could increase his vote total over the next several ballots, enough Fillmore supporters would go along to put him over the top; if he could not, Webster would withdraw in favor of Fillmore. The president quickly agreed, but Webster did not do so until Monday morning. On the 48th ballot, Webster delegates began to defect to Scott, and the general gained the nomination on the 53rd ballot. Webster was far more unhappy at the outcome than was Fillmore, who refused the secretary's resignation. Bereft of the votes of much of the South, and also of Northerners who depended on peaceful intersectional trade, Scott was easily beaten by Pierce in November. Smith suggested that the Whigs might have done much better with Fillmore.
The final months of Fillmore's term were uneventful. Webster died in October 1852, but during the final illness, Fillmore effectively acted as his own Secretary of State without incident, and Everett stepped competently into Webster's shoes. Fillmore intended to lecture Congress on the slavery question in his final "annual message in December, but was talked out of it by his cabinet, and he contented himself with pointing out the prosperity of the nation and expressing gratitude for the opportunity to serve it. There was little discussion of slavery during the "lame duck session of Congress, and Fillmore left office on March 4, 1853, succeeded by Pierce.
Tragedy and political turmoil (1853–1855)
Fillmore was the first president to return to private life without being independently wealthy or in possession of a landed estate, and, with no pension to anticipate, was unsure how he would make a living consistent with the dignity of his former office. His friend, Judge Hall, assured him that it would be proper for him to practice law in the higher courts of New York, and Fillmore intended to do so. The Fillmores had planned a tour of the South after leaving the White House, but Abigail caught a cold at President Pierce's inauguration, developed pneumonia, and died in Washington on March 30, 1853. A saddened Fillmore returned to Buffalo for the burial. The fact that he was in mourning limited his social activities, and he made ends meet on the income from his investments. He was bereaved again on July 26, 1854 when his only daughter Mary died of "cholera.
The former president ended his seclusion in early 1854, as debate over Senator Douglas' "Kansas-Nebraska Bill embroiled the nation. This would open the northern portion of the Louisiana Purchase to settlement, including slavery, and would end the northern limit on slavery under the "Missouri Compromise of 1820. Fillmore decided on an ostensibly nonpolitical national tour, hoping to rally disaffected Whig politicians to preserve the Union and back a run for president, for he retained many supporters. This occupied much of the late winter and spring of 1854. Fillmore made public appearances opening railroads and visiting the grave of Senator Clay, but met behind the scenes with politicians.
Such a comeback could not be under the auspices of the Whig Party, with its remnants divided by the Kansas-Nebraska legislation (which passed with the support of Pierce). Many northern foes of slavery, such as Seward, gravitated towards a new party, the "Republicans, but Fillmore saw no home for himself there. There was in the early 1850s considerable hostility towards immigrants, especially Catholics, who had recently arrived in the United States in large numbers, and several "nativist organizations, including the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner, sprang up in response. By 1854, the Order had morphed into the American Party, which became known as the "Know Nothings, for in its early days, members were sworn to hold private its internal deliberations, and if asked were to say they knew nothing about them. Many from Fillmore's "National Whig" faction had joined the Know Nothings by 1854, and influenced the organization to take up causes besides nativism. The success of the Know Nothings in the 1854 midterm elections, in which they won in several Northeastern states and showed strength in the South encouraged Fillmore, and on January 1, 1855, he sent a letter for publication, warning against immigrant influence in American elections, and soon thereafter joined the Order of the Star Spangled Banner.
Later that year, Fillmore went abroad, stating publicly that as he lacked office, he might as well travel. The trip was at the advice of political friends, who felt that by touring, he would avoid involvement in the contentious issues of the day, and he spent over a year, from March 1855 to June 1856, in Europe and the Middle East. "Queen Victoria is said to have pronounced the ex-president the handsomest man she had ever seen, while his presence in the gallery of the "House of Commons at the same time as Van Buren excited a comment from MP "John Bright. Fillmore was offered an "honorary "Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) degree by the University of Oxford. Fillmore turned down the honor, explaining that he had neither the "literary nor scientific attainment" to justify the degree. He is also quoted as having explained that he "lacked the benefit of a classical education" and could not, therefore, understand the "Latin text of the diploma, adding that he believed "no man should accept a degree he cannot read." Another possibility is that Fillmore refused the degree to escape the heckling and taunting to which Oxford students typically subjected the recipients of such honors.[i]
Dorothea Dix had preceded him to Europe, and was lobbying to improve conditions for the mentally ill. They continued to correspond, and met several times. In Rome, Fillmore had "an audience with "Pope Pius IX. Fillmore carefully weighed the political advantages and disadvantages of meeting with Pius, and nearly withdrew from the meeting when told he would have to kneel and kiss the pope's hand. To avoid this, Pius remained seated throughout the meeting.
Fillmore's allies were in full control of the American Party, and they arranged for him to get its presidential nomination while he was in Europe. As Fillmore's running mate, the "Know Nothing convention chose "Andrew Jackson Donelson of Kentucky, nephew by marriage and onetime ward of President Jackson. Fillmore returned in June 1856, arriving to a huge reception in New York City. He progressed across the state to Buffalo, speaking at a series of welcomes. These addresses were ostensibly in thanks for his reception, and so did not violate the custom that it was considered office-seeking for a presidential hopeful to make campaign speeches. Fillmore warned that electing the Republican candidate, former California senator "John C. Frémont, who had no support in the South, would divide the Union and lead to civil war. Both Fillmore and the Democratic candidate, former Pennsylvania senator "James Buchanan, agreed that slavery was principally a matter for state and not federal government. Fillmore rarely spoke about the immigration question, and focused on the sectional divide, urging preservation of the Union.
Once Fillmore was back home in Buffalo, he had no excuse to make speeches, and his campaign stagnated through the summer and fall of 1856. Political fixers who had been Whigs, such as Weed, tended to join the Republican Party, and the Know Nothings lacked experience at selling anything but nativism. Accordingly, Fillmore's pro-Union stance mostly went unheard. Although the South was friendly towards Fillmore, many there feared a Frémont victory would lead to secession, and some sympathetic to Fillmore moved into the Buchanan camp lest the anti-Frémont vote be split, which might elect the Republican. Scarry suggested that the events of 1856, including "the conflict in "Kansas Territory and the "caning of Charles Sumner on the floor of the Senate polarized the nation, making Fillmore's moderate stance obsolete.
On Election Day, Buchanan won with 1,836,072 votes (45.3%) and 174 electoral votes to Frémont's 1,342,345 votes (33.1%) and 114 electoral votes. Fillmore and Donelson finished third, winning 873,053 votes (21.6%) and carrying the state of Maryland and its 8 electoral votes.[j] The American Party ticket narrowly lost in several southern states, and a change of fewer than 8,000 votes in Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee would have thrown the election to the House of Representatives, where the sectional divide would have made the outcome uncertain.
Historian "Allan Nevins wrote that Fillmore was not a Know Nothing or a nativist. He was out of the country when the nomination came and had not been consulted about running. Furthermore, "By no spoken or written word had he indicated a subscription to American tenets." He sought national unity and felt the American Party was the "only hope of forming a truly national party, which shall ignore this constant and distracting agitation of slavery."
Later life and death
With his defeat in 1856, Fillmore deemed his political career at an end. He again felt inhibited from returning to the practice of law. But his financial worries were removed when on February 10, 1858, Fillmore married "Caroline McIntosh, a wealthy widow. Their combined wealth allowed them to purchase a large house on "Niagara Square in Buffalo, where they lived for the remainder of Millard Fillmore's life. There, the Fillmores devoted themselves to entertaining and philanthropy, according to Smith, "they generously supported almost every conceivable cause". Among these was the "Buffalo Historical Society and the "Buffalo General Hospital, which he helped found.
In the "election of 1860, Fillmore voted for Senator Douglas, the nominee of the northern Democrats. After the vote, in which the Republican candidate, former Illinois representative "Abraham Lincoln was elected, many sought out Fillmore's views but he refused to take any part in the secession crisis that followed, feeling that he lacked influence. He decried Buchanan's inaction as states left the Union, writing that while the federal government could not coerce a state, those advocating secession should simply be regarded as traitors. When Lincoln came to Buffalo en route to his inauguration, Fillmore led the committee selected to receive the president-elect, hosted him at his mansion, and took him to church. Once war came, Fillmore supported Lincoln in his efforts to preserve the Union. He commanded the Union Continentals, a corps of "home guards of males over the age of 45 from the upstate New York area. The Continentals trained to defend the Buffalo area in the event of a Confederate attack. They performed military drill and ceremonial functions at parades, funerals, and other events. The Union Continentals guarded Lincoln's funeral train in Buffalo. They continued operations after the war, and Fillmore remained active with them almost until his death.
Despite Fillmore's zeal in the war effort, he was attacked in many newspapers when he gave a speech in early 1864 calling for magnanimity towards the South at war's end, and counting the heavy cost, financial and in blood, of the war. The Lincoln administration saw this as an attack on it, that could not be tolerated in an election year, and Fillmore was called a "Copperhead and even a traitor. This led to lasting ill-feeling against Fillmore in many circles. In the "1864 presidential election Fillmore supported Democratic candidate "George B. McClellan for the presidency, believing that the Democratic Party's plan for immediate cessation of fighting and allowing the seceded states to return with slavery intact was the best possibility for restoring the Union.
After "Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, black ink was thrown on Fillmore's house as it was not draped in mourning like others, though he was apparently out of town at the time and put black drapes in the windows once he returned. Although he retained his position as Buffalo's leading citizen and was among those selected to escort the body when Lincoln's funeral train passed through Buffalo, there was still anger against him for his wartime positions. Fillmore supported President "Andrew Johnson's "Reconstruction policies, feeling that the nation needed to be reconciled as quickly as possible. Most of his time was devoted to his civic activities. He aided Buffalo in becoming the third American city, after Boston and Philadelphia, to have a permanent art gallery with the "Buffalo Fine Arts Academy.
Fillmore stayed in good health almost to the end, but suffered a stroke in February 1874, and died after a second one on March 8. Two days later, he was buried at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo after a funeral procession of hundreds of notables; the U.S. Senate sent three of its members to honor its former president, including Lincoln's first vice president, Maine's "Hannibal Hamlin.
Legacy and historical view
According to his biographer, Scarry: "No president of the United States ... has suffered as much ridicule as Millard Fillmore". He ascribed much of the abuse to a tendency to denigrate the presidents who served in the years just prior to the Civil War as lacking in leadership. For example, later president "Harry Truman "characterized Fillmore as a weak, trivial thumb-twaddler who would do nothing to offend anyone", responsible in part for the war. Anna Prior, writing in "The Wall Street Journal in 2010, stated that Fillmore's very name connotes mediocrity. Another Fillmore biographer, Finkelman, commented, "on the central issues of the age his vision was myopic and his legacy is worse ... in the end, Fillmore was always on the wrong side of the great moral and political issues". Rayback, however, applauded "the warmth and wisdom with which he had defended the Union".
Although Fillmore has become something of a cult figure as America's most forgettable chief executive, Smith found him to be "a conscientious president" who chose to honor his oath of office and enforce the Fugitive Slave Act, rather than govern based on his personal preferences. Paul G. Calabresi and "Christopher S. Yoo, in their study of presidential power, deemed Fillmore "a faithful executor of the laws of the United States—for good and for ill". But, according to Smith, the enforcement of the act has given Fillmore an undeserved pro-southern reputation. Fillmore's place in history has also suffered because "even those who give him high marks for his support of the compromise have done so almost grudgingly, probably because of his Know-Nothing candidacy in 1856". Smith argued that Fillmore's association with the Know Nothings looks far worse in retrospect than it did at the time, and that the former president was not motivated by nativism in his candidacy.
Benson Lee Grayson suggested that the Fillmore administration's ability to avoid potential problems is too often overlooked. Fillmore's constant attention to Mexico avoided a resumption of the war and laid the groundwork for the "Gadsden Treaty during Pierce's presidency. Meanwhile, the Fillmore administration resolved a controversy with Portugal left over from the Taylor administration, smoothed over a disagreement with Peru over "guano islands, and peacefully resolved disputes with Britain, France, and Spain over Cuba. All of these crises were resolved without the United States going to war or losing face. Grayson also applauded Fillmore's firm stand against Texas' ambitions in New Mexico during the 1850 crisis. Fred I. Greenstein and Dale Anderson praised Fillmore for his resoluteness in his early months in office, noting that Fillmore "is typically described as stolid, bland, and conventional, but such terms underestimate the forcefulness evinced by his handling of the Texas–New Mexico border crisis, his decision to replace Taylor's entire cabinet, and his effectiveness in advancing the Compromise of 1850".
Millard Fillmore, with his wife Abigail, established the first White House library. There are a number of remembrances of Millard Fillmore; his East Aurora house still stands, and sites honor him at his birthplace (where a replica log cabin was dedicated in 1963 by the Millard Fillmore Memorial Association) and boyhood home. A statue of Fillmore stands outside Buffalo City Hall. At the university he helped found, now "SUNY Buffalo, Millard Fillmore Academic Center and Millard Fillmore College bear his name. On February 18, 2010, the "United States Mint released the thirteenth coin in the "Presidential $1 Coin Program, bearing Fillmore's likeness.
According to the assessment of Fillmore by the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia:
Any assessment of a President who served a century and a half ago must be refracted through a consideration of the interesting times in which he lived. Fillmore's political career encompassed the tortuous course toward the two-party system that we know today. The Whigs were not cohesive enough to survive the slavery imbroglio, while parties like the Anti-Masonics and Know-Nothings were too extremist. When, as President, Fillmore sided with proslavery elements in ordering enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, he all but guaranteed that he would be the last Whig President. The first modern two-party system of Whigs and Democrats had succeeded only in dividing the nation in two by the 1850s, and seven years later, the election of the first Republican President, Abraham Lincoln, would guarantee civil war.
The house is designated a "National Historic Landmark.
The "DAR placed this plaque on the house in 1931.
- "List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- "U.S. Presidents on U.S. postage stamps
- Fillmore was Vice President under President "Zachary Taylor and became President upon Taylor's death on July 9, 1850. Prior to the adoption of the "Twenty-Fifth Amendment in 1967, a vacancy in the office of Vice President was not filled.
- The original log cabin was demolished in 1852, but in 1965, the Millard Fillmore Memorial Association using materials from a similar cabin, constructed a replica, which is located in "Fillmore Glen State Park in Moravia.
- South Carolina did not yet use the popular vote for choosing electors, with the legislature electing them instead.
- Until 1913, senators were elected by state legislatures, not by the people.
- Today's New Mexico and Arizona, less the "Gadsden Purchase
- The constitution designates the vice president as the Senate's presiding officer.
- For it carried all the proposals as passengers, the origination of that political term.
- With, by then, Calhoun dead, Webster as Secretary of State, and Clay recovering from his exertions on behalf of the bill at "Newport, Rhode Island.
- In fact, Fillmore had been awarded an honorary "LL.D. from "Geneva College in 1850; he accepted, even though its text was in Latin.
- Fillmore thus became the first former president to receive electoral votes, a distinction he would be joined in by "Grover Cleveland (1892) and "Theodore Roosevelt (1912).
- "Presidential Places: Millard Fillmore". "American Presidents: Life Portraits. "C-SPAN. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- American National Biography.
- Bahles, Gerald (2010). "Millard Fillmore: Life Before the Presidency". American President: Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Bassett, Mary Cooley; Johnston, Sarah Hall (1914). Lineage Book, National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 39. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Printing Company. p. 111.
- Lineage Book, National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution.
- Phillimore, William Phillimore Watts (1886). Memorials of the Family of Fynmore. London, England: W. P. W. Phillmore. p. 62.
- Drake, Samuel Gardner (1856). The History and Antiquities of Boston. Boston, MA: Luther Stevens. p. 570.
- Memorials of the Family of Fynmore.
- Rayback, 191–97.
- Storke, Elliot G. (1879). History of Cayuga County. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co. p. 513.
- Smith, Henry Perry (1884). History of the City of Buffalo and Erie County. I. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co. p. 197.
- Scarry, 18.
- Doty, Lockwood Lyon (1876). A History of Livingston County, New York. Geneseo, New York: Edward L. Doty. pp. 673–676. "OCLC 14246825.
- Scarry, 19.
- Scarry, 20.
- Rayback, 224–58.
- Scarry, 22.
- Scarry, 23.
- Scarry, 24.
- Scarry, 25.
- Rayback, 258–308.
- Finkelman, p. 5.
- Dayer, Donald H.; Utts, Harold L.; Utts, Janet R. (2000). Town of Aurora: 1818-1930. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 24. "ISBN "978-0-7385-0445-2.
- Snyder, p. 50.
- Fillmore, Millard; Severance, Frank H. (1907). Millard Fillmore Papers. 2. Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Historical Society. pp. 151, 510.
- Scarry, 26.
- Scarry, 528–34.
- Finkelman, pp. 5–6.
- Scarry, 128–34.
- TownRecords. A-1, pages 1-200. Bennington, VT: Bennington Town Clerk. 1767. pp. 39, 50, 73.
- Johnson, Crisfield (1876). Centennial History of Erie County, New York. Buffalo, NY: Matthews & Warren. pp. 355–356.
- Centennial History of Erie County, New York.
- Finkelman, pp. 12–13.
- Scarry, 42.
- Smith, p. 45.
- Rayback, 314, 750–810.
- Skinner, Roger Sherman (1830). The New-York State Register for 1830. New York, NY: Clayton & Van Norden. p. 361.
- Millard Fillmore Papers.
- Scarry, 936–940, 993–999.
- Rayback, 878–905.
- Finkelman, p. 13.
- Rayback, 1261.
- Scarry, 999.
- Finkelman, p. 14.
- Scarry, 1079.
- Rayback, 1495–1508.
- Rayback, 1556–1679.
- Scarry, 1326–1331.
- Scarry, 1356–1361.
- Scarry, 1891.
- Rayback, 1950–1957.
- Rayback, 1957–2186.
- Scarry, 1729–1776.
- Scarry, 1766.
- Scarry, 1776–1820.
- Rayback, 2417.
- Rayback, 2425–2471.
- Rayback, 2471–2486.
- Rayback, 2486–2536.
- Rayback, 2536–2562.
- Finkelman, p. 24.
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- Finkelman, p. 25.
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- Finkelman, pp. 43–45.
- Rayback, 2902–2955.
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- Snyder, p. 37.
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- Finkelman, p. 53.
- Scarry, 3188–3245.
- Finkelman, p. 51.
- Scarry, 3245–3258.
- Rayback, 3090.
- Scarry, 3283.
- Finkelman, pp. 51–52.
- Snyder, pp. 39–41.
- Congressional Globe, March 5, 1849
- Rayback, 3101–3307.
- Smith, pp. 160–162.
- Rayback, 3307–3367.
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- Smith, pp. 138–139, 163–165.
- Finkelman, p. 1.
- Snyder, p. 43.
- Finkelman, pp. 72–77.
- Greenstein & Anderson, p. 48.
- Smith, pp. 152–157.
- Smith, pp. 158–160.
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- Finkelman, pp. 82–85.
- Smith, pp. 208–213.
- Snyder, pp. 80–82.
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- Winder, Michael Kent (2007). "Presidents and Prophets: The Story of America's Presidents and the LDS Church. American Fork, UT: Covenant Communications. "ISBN "978-1-59811-452-2.
- Smith, pp. 199–200.
- "Biographical Dictionary of the Federal Judiciary". Washington, DC: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved March 4, 2012. searches run from page, "select research categories" then check "court type" and "nominating president", then select U.S. District Courts (or U.S. Circuit Courts) and also Millard Fillmore.
- Smith, pp. 218, 247.
- "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789–Present". Senate.gov. U.S. Senate. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Smith, p. 233.
- Bahles, Gerald (2010). "Millard Fillmore: Foreign Affairs". American President: Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Smith, pp. 72–73.
- Smith, p. 228.
- Smith, pp. 230–232.
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- Smith, pp. 244–247.
- Smith, pp. 247–249.
- Rayback, 5726–5745.
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- Millard Fillmore, author, Frank H. Severance, editor, Millard Fillmore Papers, Volume X, 1907, p. 25.
- Rayback, 6038–6057.
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- "Honorary Degree Recipients, 1827–1913" (PDF). Hobart and William Smith Colleges Library. Geneva, NY: Hobart and William Smith Colleges. 2013. p. 39.
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- Rayback, 6458–6473.
- Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union: A House Dividing 1852–1857 (1947) 2:467. Nevins states that Fillmore was not publicly a member but historian William Gienapp says he was a secret member. William E. Gienapp, The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856 (1987) p 260n
- Tyler Anbinder. "Fillmore, Millard" American National Biography Online (2000)
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- Smith, pp. 254–255.
- "Hospital History". Kaleida Health. Kaleida Health. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
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- Proceedings, Volumes 23–37. Buffalo Historical Society. 1885. p. 72.
- Smith, pp. 264–265.
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- Neil A. Hamilton, Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary, 2010, p. 111.
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- Anna Prior (February 18, 2010). "No Joke: Buffalo and Moravia Duke It Out Over Millard Fillmore". "The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
- Finkelman, p. 137.
- Rayback, 6953.
- Smith, pp. 257, 260.
- Calabresi & Yoo, p. 151.
- Smith, pp. 260–261.
- Smith, p. 254.
- Grayson, p. 120.
- Grayson, p. 83.
- Grayson, pp. 103–109.
- Smith, pp. 288–289.
- Greenstein & Anderson, p. 55.
- "First Lady Biography: Abigail Fillmore". The National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- Rayback, 8151–8157.
- Scarry, 6946–6953.
- "Millard Fillmore College". Millard Fillmore College. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- "Millard Fillmore Academic Center (MFAC)". University at Buffalo. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- Smith, Lester (ed.). "Millard Fillmore Presidential $1 Coin — 13th President, 1850–1853". United States Mint. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. "Millard Fillmore: Impact and Legacy". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Anbinder, Tyler (February 2000). "Fillmore, Millard". American National Biography Online. Retrieved September 27, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
- Calabresi, Steven G.; "Yoo, Christopher S. (2008). The Unitary Executive: Presidential Power from Washington to Bush. Yale University Press. "ISBN "978-0-300-12126-1.
- Finkelman, Paul (2011). Millard Fillmore. The American Presidents. Times Books. "ISBN "978-0-8050-8715-4.
- Grayson, Benson Lee (1981). The Unknown President: The Administration of Millard Fillmore. University Press of America. "ISBN "978-0-8191-1457-0.
- Greenstein, Fred I.; Anderson, Dale (2013). Presidents and the Dissolution of the Union: Leadership Style from Polk to Lincoln. Princeton University Press. "ISBN "978-1-4008-4641-2.
- Rayback, Robert J. (2015) . Millard Fillmore: Biography of a President (Kindle ed.). Pickle Partners Publishing.
- Scarry, Robert J. (2001). Millard Fillmore (Kindle ed.). McFarland & Co., Inc. "ISBN "978-1-4766-1398-7.
- Smith, Elbert B. (1988). The Presidencies of Zachary Taylor & Millard Fillmore. The American Presidency. University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "978-0-7006-0362-6.
- Snyder, Charles M. (1975). The Lady and the President: The Letters of Dorothea Dix and Millard Fillmore. University Press of Kentucky. "ISBN "978-0-8131-1332-6.
- Anbinder, Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s (1992), covers 1856 campaign.
- Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis, eds. (2004). The American Presidency. pp. 145–151. "ISBN "978-0-618-38273-6.
- "Overdyke, W. Darrell (1950). The Know-Nothing Party in the South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. "OCLC 1377033.
- Silbey, Joel H. (2014). A Companion to the Antebellum Presidents 1837–1861. Wiley. "ISBN "978-1-118-60929-3. pp. 309–44.
- Van Deusen, Glyndon G. "Fillmore, Millard". Encyclopedia Americana. Archived from the original on May 10, 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
|""||"Wikisource has original works written by or about:
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Millard Fillmore|
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- United States Congress. "Millard Fillmore (id: F000115)". "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Millard Fillmore: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
- White House Biography
- Biography by Appleton's and Stanley L. Klos
- Finding Aid to Millard Fillmore Letters, 1829–1859 at the "New York State Library
- Works by Millard Fillmore at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Millard Fillmore at "Internet Archive
- Works by Millard Fillmore at "LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Millard Fillmore: A bibliography by The "Buffalo History Museum
- Millard Fillmore House, Buffalo, NY
- Millard and Abigail Fillmore House, East Aurora, NY
- Millard Fillmore at Encyclopedia American: The American Presidency
- Essays on Fillmore and each member of his cabinet and First Lady
- "Life Portrait of Millard Fillmore", from "C-SPAN's "American Presidents: Life Portraits, June 11, 1999