In the 16th and 17th centuries, "Copernicus, "Kepler, "Galileo and others developed a new approach to physics and astronomy which changed the way people came to think about many things. Copernicus presented new models of the "solar system which no longer placed humanity's home, on "Earth, in the centre. Kepler used mathematics to discuss physics and described regularities of nature this way. Galileo actually made his famous proof of uniform acceleration in "freefall using mathematics (Kennington 2004, chapt. 1,4["page needed]).
"Francis Bacon, especially in his "Novum Organum, argued for a new experimental based approach to science, which sought no knowledge of "formal or final causes, and was therefore "materialist, like the ancient philosophy of "Democritus and "Epicurus. But he also added a theme that science should seek to control nature for the sake of humanity, and not seek to understand it just for the sake of understanding. In both these things he was influenced by Machiavelli's earlier criticism of medieval "Scholasticism, and his proposal that leaders should aim to control their own fortune (Kennington 2004, chapt. 1,4["page needed]).
Influenced both by Galileo's new physics and Bacon, "René Descartes argued soon afterward that "mathematics and "geometry provided a model of how scientific knowledge could be built up in small steps. He also argued openly that human beings themselves could be understood as complex machines (Kennington 2004, chapt. 6["page needed]).
"Isaac Newton, influenced by Descartes, but also, like Bacon, a proponent of experimentation, provided the archetypal example of how both "Cartesian "mathematics, "geometry and "theoretical "deduction on the one hand, and "Baconian "experimental observation and "induction on the other hand, together could lead to great advances in the practical understanding of regularities in "nature (d'Alembert 2009 ; Henry 2004).
After modernist political thinking had already become widely known in France, "Rousseau's re-examination of human nature led to a new criticism of the value of "reasoning itself which in turn led to a new understanding of less rationalistic human activities especially the arts. The initial influence was upon the movements known as "German Idealism and "Romanticism in the 18th and 19th century. Modern art therefore belongs only to the later phases of modernity (Orwinand Tarcov 1997, chapt. 2,4["page needed]).
For this reason "art history keeps the term "modernity" distinct from the terms "Modern Age and "Modernism – as a discrete "term applied to the cultural condition in which the seemingly absolute necessity of "innovation becomes a primary fact of life, work, and thought". And modernity in art "is more than merely the state of being modern, or the opposition between old and new" (Smith 2009).
In the "essay "The Painter of Modern Life" (1864), Charles Baudelaire gives a literary definition: "By modernity I mean the transitory, the fugitive, the contingent" (Baudelaire 1964, 13).
Advancing technological innovation, affecting artistic technique and the means of manufacture, changed rapidly the possibilities of art and its status in a rapidly changing society. Photography challenged the place of the painter and painting. Architecture was transformed by the availability of steel for structures.
From theologian "Thomas C. Oden's perspective, "modernity" is marked by "four fundamental values" (Hall 1990):
- "Moral relativism (which says that what is right is dictated by culture, social location, and situation)"
- "Autonomous individualism (which assumes that moral authority comes essentially from within)"
- "Narcissistic hedonism (which focuses on egocentric personal pleasure)"
- "Reductive naturalism (which reduces what is reliably known to what one can see, hear, and empirically investigate)"
Modernity rejects anything "old" and makes "novelty ... a criterion for truth." This results in a great "phobic response to anything antiquarian." In contrast, "classical Christian consciousness" resisted "novelty" (Hall 1990).
Of the available conceptual definitions in "sociology, modernity is "marked and defined by an obsession with '"evidence'," "visual culture, and personal visibility (Leppert 2004, 19). Generally, the large-scale social integration constituting modernity, involves["citation needed] the:
- increased movement of goods, "capital, people, and information among formerly discrete populations, and consequent influence beyond the local area
- increased formal social organization of mobile populaces, development of "circuits" on which they and their influence travel, and societal standardization conducive to socio-economic mobility
- increased specialization of the segments of society, i.e., "division of labor, and area inter-dependency
- increased level of excessive stratification in terms of social life of a modern man
- Increased state of dehumanisation, dehumanity, unionisation, as man became embittered about the negative turn of events which sprouted a growing fear.
- man became a victim of the underlying circumstances presented by the modern world
- Increased competitiveness amongst people in the society (survival of the fittest) as the jungle rule sets in.
- "Buddhist modernism
- "Islam and modernity
- "Late modernity
- "Mass society
- "Modern Orthodox Judaism
- "Modernism (Roman Catholicism)
- "Mythopoeic thought
- "Rationalization (sociology)
- "Second modernity
- "Traditional society
- Quotation from Fackenheim 1967, 272–73:
But there does seem to be a necessary conflict between modern thought and the Biblical belief in revelation. All claims of revelation, modern science and philosophy seem agreed, must be repudiated, as mere relics of superstitious ages. ... [to a modern phylosopher] The Biblical God...was a mere myth of bygone ages.
When, with the beginning of modern times, religious belief was becoming more and more externalized as a lifeless convention, men of intellect were lifted by a new belief, their great belief in an autonomous philosophy and science.
- Quotation from Heidegger 1938["page needed]:
The essence of modernity can be seen in humanity's freeing itself from the bonds of Middle Ages... Certainly the modern age has, as a consequence of the liberation of humanity, introduced subjectivism and indivisualism. ... For up to Descartes... The claim [of a self-supported, unshakable foundation of truth, in the sense of certainty] originates in that emancipation of man in which he frees himself from obligation to Christian revelational truth and Church doctrine to a legislating for himself that takes its stand upon itself.
- Quotation from Kilby 2004, 262:
... a cluster of issues surrounding the assessment of modernity and of the apologetic task of theology in modernity. Both men [Rahner and Balthasar] were deeply concerned with apologetics, with the question of how to present Christianity in a world which is no longer well-disposed towards it. ... both though that modernity raised particular problems for being a believing Christian, and therefore for apologetics.
- Adorno, Theodor W. 1973. Negative Dialectics, translated by E.B. Ashton. New York: Seabury Press; London: Routledge. (Originally published as Negative Dialektik, Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1966.)
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- Calinescu, Matei. 1987. "Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism". Durham: Duke University Press. "ISBN 0822307677.
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- Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. 2003. Comparative Civilizations and Multiple Modernities, 2 vols. Leiden and Boston: Brill.
- "Fackenheim, Emil L.. 1957. Martin Buber's Concept of Revelation. [Canada]: s.n.
- "Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, translated by Alan Sheridan. New York and Toronto: Vintage Books. "ISBN 0-679-75255-2
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- Larraín, Jorge. 2000. "Identity and Modernity in Latin America". Cambridge, UK: Polity; Malden, MA: Blackwell. "ISBN 0-7456-2623-8 (cloth); "ISBN 0-7456-2624-6 (pbk).
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- "Wagner, Peter. 2008. Modernity as Experience and Interpretation: A New Sociology of Modernity. Polity Press: London. "ISBN 978-0-7456-4218-5
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