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Main article: "2011 Egyptian revolution
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Mohammed ElBaradei during Friday of Anger

During the early days of the Egyptian Revolution, ElBaradei's speechwriter and long-time associate "Laban Coblentz and other IAEA colleagues of ElBaradei contradicted the notion that ElBaradei had only recently become engaged in Egyptian politics, saying he had never relinquished his focus on human rights deficiencies in his home country. Coblentz noted that ElBaradei had first confronted Mubarak in early 2003, during the lead-up to the Iraq War, as well as on subsequent encounters.[33]

Coblentz also pointed out the role that social media played in convincing ElBaradei that the young people of Egypt were ready for change: "It was really this last 14 months, where someone I knew as not being particularly computer savvy, taught himself to use Facebook and Twitter and YouTube and started to do in virtual space what was forbidden to do by the Mubarak regime, the freedom of assembly by large groups."[34]

While speaking at the "Harvard "Kennedy School of Government on 27 April 2010, ElBaradei joked that he is "looking for a job" and is seeking to be an "agent of change and an advocate for democracy" within Egyptian politics. He also made clear that his wife is not very enthusiastic about any potential run.[35]

On 27 January 2011, ElBaradei returned to Egypt amid ongoing "turmoil, with the largest mass protests in 30 years, which had begun two days earlier, on 25 January 2011. ElBaradei declared himself ready to lead a transitional government if that was the will of the nation, saying that, "If [people] want me to lead the transition, I will not let them down."[36] Subsequently, "when he joined protesters Friday after noon prayers, police fired water cannons at him and his supporters. They used batons to beat some of ElBaradei's supporters, who surrounded him to protect him."[37] On 28 January 2011, ElBaradei was reported to have been placed under house arrest in Egypt.[38] However, the next day, when he was interviewed by "Al Jazeera, he said that he was unaware of any such arrest.[39]

Later on, ElBaradei arrived in "Tahrir Square to join thousands of other protesters against the Mubarak regime and spoke directly to the people, stating that they "have taken back [their] rights" and that they cannot go back. A number of Egyptian political movements have called on ElBaradei to form a transitional government.[40] ElBaradei has also stated that "the people [of Egypt] want the regime to fall." In response to the appointment of "Omar Suleiman as the new vice president of Egypt, ElBaradei stated that it was a "hopeless, desperate attempt by Mubarak to stay in power. I think [that] it is loud and clear...that Mubarak has to leave today." Additionally, ElBaradei restated his position that, when Egypt does become a democratic nation, "there is no reason to believe that a democracy in Egypt would not lead to a better relationship with the US based on respect and equity."[41]

The Guardian reported that ElBaradei has been mandated by the "Muslim Brotherhood and four other opposition groups to negotiate an interim "national salvation government." However, BBC reports that the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest opposition party banned by Mubarak's regime, has not consented to the choice of ElBaradei as the representative of the opposition. "The people have not appointed Mohamed ElBaradei to become a spokesman of them. The Muslim Brotherhood is much stronger than Mohamed ElBaradei as a person. And we do not agree [that he should represent] this movement. The movement is represented by itself, and it will [appoint] a committee. . .to [delegate its representatives]."[42]

His appointment is controversial largely because of the long periods that he has spent outside the country. His appointment is seen as a recognition of the importance of various Western nations' support of the revolts.

Possible presidential candidacy[edit]

Egyptian presidential election, 2012 and "National Association for Change

ElBaradei's name has been circulated by opposition groups since 2009 as a possible candidate to succeed President "Hosni Mubarak in Egypt's highest executive position.[43][44][45]

ElBaradei did not make any clear statements regarding his intentions to run for the office; however, he has demanded that certain conditions be met to ensure fair elections accompanied by changes to the constitution that will allow more freedom for independent candidates before he would actually consider running for the presidency. Several opposition groups have endorsed him, considering him a neutral figure who could transition the country to greater "democracy.

On 24 February 2010, ElBaradei met with several opposition leaders and notable intellectuals at his home in "Cairo. The meeting was concluded with an announcement for the formation of a new non-party-political movement called the ""National Association for Change." The movement aims for general reforms in the political scene and mainly article 76 of the Egyptian constitution, which places restrictions on free presidential elections, especially when it comes to independent candidates. The banned political group, the Muslim Brotherhood, was represented at the meeting by one of its key figures; however, its stand in accepting a non-member of its group as a representative is still unclear. It is also unknown whether "Amr Moussa, the head of the "Arab League who met with ElBaradei a day earlier, will be part of the new movement.[46]

On 7 March 2011 it was announced that ElBaradei intended to run for the presidential elections, this intention was later clearly stated in a live interview by ElBaradei to the ON TV channel 10 March 2011.[47] On 14 January 2012 ElBaradei declared he would not run for president.[48]

On 4 July 2013 ElBaradei was mentioned as a favorite to head a transitional Egyptian government amid the "2013 Egyptian coup d'état[49] as the "prime minister.[50]

President of Constitution Party[edit]

On 28 April 2012, ElBaradei launched the "Constitution Party (DL). This date was too late to allow him to run for the presidency.[51] The party claims itself as liberal, in order to protect and promote the principles and objectives of the "25 January 2011 Revolution according to liberal ideals. ElBaradei became a prominent figure of the Egyptian opposition.[52] On 24 November, DL formed together with the secular parties the "National Salvation Front, a coalition of the primary opposition parties against President "Mohamed Morsi’s decrees. On 5 December 2012, he became the coordinator of National Salvation Front.

Vice President[edit]

2013 Egyptian coup d'état and "Post-coup unrest in Egypt (2013–2014)

Mohamed ElBaradei was involved in the "coup d'état that toppled democratically elected President "Mohamed Morsi amid mass protests against the perceived mismanagement of the country, the refusal of Morsi to form a coalition government, and the authoritarian influence of the "Muslim Brotherhood on what had been a "secular "Muslim-majority state for decades. ElBaradei was one of the opposition figures who met with Defence Minister "Abdul Fatah al-Sisi in the days before the coup; he was described by "Reuters as the "designated negotiator" for the political opposition. ElBaradei gave support to the military's plan to oust Morsi and begin implementing a "political road map" for Egypt, including the installation of "Supreme Constitutional Court Chief Justice "Adly Mansour as interim "president of Egypt. He was present when General Sisi announced the temporary suspension of the "constitution and the removal of Morsi from power.

In the political transition following Morsi's ejection from the presidency, ElBaradei was immediately mentioned as a candidate for interim prime minister.[53] He reportedly denied interest in the position at first.[54] There were reports that ElBaradei would be named prime minister, which were retracted after objections by the "Nour Party, on 7 July.[55][56] He was sworn in as Vice President, responsible for international relations, on 14 July 2013.[57]

14 August government raids and resignation[edit]

On 14 August 2013, following a "violent crackdown by security forces on supporters of deposed president "Mohamed Morsi, in which at least 525 people were killed,[58] ElBaradei resigned as vice president.[59] In his resignation letter, ElBaradei stated: "...I always saw peaceful alternatives for resolving this societal wrangling. Certain solutions were proposed, which could have led to national conciliation, but things have come this far ... It has become difficult for me to continue bearing the responsibility for decisions with which I do not agree and the consequences of which I fear. I cannot bear the responsibility for a single drop of blood before God, before my own conscience or the citizens..."[60] He then left the country for Vienna, where he was previously based in his UN capacity.[61]

After his resignation, an Egyptian law professor at "Helwan University, Sayyed Ateeq, filed lawsuit against ElBaradei, accusing him of a "betrayal of trust".[62] As Ateeq told "Reuters, "Dr. ElBaradei was entrusted with this position and he had a duty to go back to those who entrusted him and ask to resign."[63] The case was heard in Cairo in October that year, and dismissed.[61][63][64]

Awards[edit]

During his tenure as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, ElBaradei has been recognized with many awards for his efforts to ensure that nuclear energy is used for peaceful purposes.

2005 Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

On 7 October 2005, ElBaradei and the "IAEA were announced as joint recipients of the "Nobel Peace Prize for their "efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy, for peaceful purposes, is used in the safest possible way." ElBaradei donated all of his winnings to building "orphanages in "Cairo. The IAEA's winnings are being spent to train scientists from developing countries to use nuclear techniques in combating cancer and malnutrition. ElBaradei is the fourth Egyptian to receive the Nobel Prize, following "Anwar Sadat (1978 in Peace), "Naguib Mahfouz (1988 in Literature), and "Ahmed Zewail (1999 in Chemistry).

In his Nobel lecture, ElBaradei said that the changing landscape of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament may be defined by the emergence of an extensive black market in nuclear material and equipment, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technology, and the stagnation in "nuclear disarmament. To combat proliferation, ElBaradei has suggested keeping nuclear and radiological material out of the hands of extremist groups, tightening control over the operations for producing the nuclear material that could be used in weapons, and accelerating disarmament efforts.[65] ElBaradei also stated that only one percent of the money spent to develop new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world and that, if we hope to escape self-destruction, nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience and no role in our security.

"United Nations Secretary General "Kofi Annan said that he was delighted that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded to the UN nuclear watchdog and its head, ElBaradei. "The secretary general congratulates him and the entire staff of the agency, past and present, on their contributions to global peace," a spokesman for Annan said.[66]

Postage issues[edit]

"Egypt Post on 8 October 2005 commemorated this award by issuing a set of two postage stamps.[67] On 1 June 2009, to commemorate 4th Extraordinary Session of PAPU Plenipotentiary Conference held in Cairo between the 1st and 9 June,[68] Egypt Post issued a set of 16 stamps bearing African winners of Nobel Prizes, among which one is of ElBaradei[69]

Other awards and recognition[edit]

ElBaradei has received many awards for his work as director of the IAEA:

ElBaradei has also received honorary doctoral degrees from the "University of Dublin, Trinity College; "New York University; the "University of Maryland; the "American University in Cairo; the "Free Mediterranean University (LUM) in Bari, Italy; "Soka University of Japan; "Tsinghua University of Beijing; the "Polytechnic University of Bucharest; the "Universidad Politecnica de Madrid; "Konkuk University in "Seoul; the "University of Florence; the "University of Buenos Aires; the "National University of Cuyo in Argentina; "Amherst College and "Cairo University.[85]

He is also a member of the "Mo Ibrahim Foundation’s "Ibrahim Prize Committee.

Publications[edit]

ElBaradei is the author or editor of several books:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Articles

Nomination of ElBaradei[edit]

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
"Hans Blix
Director General of the "International Atomic Energy Agency
1997–2009
Succeeded by
"Yukiya Amano
Party political offices
New political party Leader of the "Constitution Party
2012–2013
Succeeded by
Sayed El-Masry
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
"Mahmoud Mekki
"Vice-President of Egypt
Interim

2013
Succeeded by
Vacant, later abolished
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
"Wangari Maathai
"Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
2005
Served alongside: "International Atomic Energy Agency
Succeeded by
"Muhammad Yunus
Succeeded by
"Grameen Bank
) )