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Molecular communications systems use the presence or absence of a selected type of "molecule to "digitally encode messages[1]. The molecules are delivered into communications media such as air and water for transmission. The technique also is not subject to the requirement of using antennas that are sized to a specific ratio of the wavelength of the signal. Molecular communication signals can be made "biocompatible and require very little energy[2][3]


Molecular signaling is used by plants and animals, such as the "pheromones that insects use for long-range signaling.[2][4]


Researchers demonstrated the use of evaporated "alcohol molecules to carry messages across several meters of open space and successfully decoded the message on the other side. The presence of molecules encoded to digital 1 and their absence encoded to 0. The hardware cost around $100.[2]


  1. ^ T. Nakano, A. Eckford, and T. Haraguchi (2013). Molecular Communication. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-1107023086. 
  2. ^ a b c "Text message using vodka: Molecular communication can aid communication underground, underwater or Inside the Body". Phys.org. Retrieved 18 October 2016. 
  3. ^ Farsad, N.; Guo, W.; Eckford, A. W. (2013). Willson, Richard C, ed. "Tabletop Molecular Communication: Text Messages through Chemical Signals". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e82935. "doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082935. "PMC 3867433Freely accessible. "PMID 24367571. 
  4. ^ Habibi, Iman; Emamian, Effat S.; Abdi, Ali (2014-10-07). "Advanced Fault Diagnosis Methods in Molecular Networks". PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e108830. "doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108830. "ISSN 1932-6203. "PMC 4188586Freely accessible. "PMID 25290670. 
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