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Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the "meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies "universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of "culture, "race, "sex, "religion, "nationality, "sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature. Moral universalism is opposed to "moral nihilism and "moral relativism. However, not all forms of moral universalism are "absolutist, nor are they necessarily "value monist; many forms of universalism, such as "utilitarianism, are non-absolutist, and some forms, such as that of "Isaiah Berlin, may be "value pluralist.["citation needed]
In addition to the theories of "moral realism, moral universalism includes other cognitivist moral theories, such as the subjectivist "ideal observer theory and "divine command theory, and also the non-cognitivist moral theory of "universal prescriptivism.
According to R. W. Hepburn, philosophy professor, "To move towards the objectivist pole is to argue that moral judgements can be rationally defensible, true or false, that there are rational procedural tests for identifying morally impermissible actions, or that moral values exist independently of the feeling-states of individuals at particular times."
"if we adopt the principle of universality: if an action is right (or wrong) for others, it is right (or wrong) for us. Those who do not rise to the minimal moral level of applying to themselves the standards they apply to others—more stringent ones, in fact—plainly cannot be taken seriously when they speak of appropriateness of response; or of right and wrong, good and evil."
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The "United Nations' "Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be read as assuming a kind of moral universalism. The drafting committee of the Universal Declaration did assume, or at least aspired to, a "universal" approach to articulating international human rights. Although the Declaration has undeniably come to be accepted throughout the world as a cornerstone of the international system for the protection of human rights, a belief among some that the Universal Declaration does not adequately reflect certain important worldviews has given rise to more than one supplementary declaration, such as the "Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam and the "Bangkok Declaration.
Global environmental treaties may also assume and present a moral universalism. The "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is founded upon the "common heritage of mankind". Protecting this heritage is presented in the treaty as a shared moral duty requiring protective actions based on "common but differentiated responsibilities". This has been criticised as anthropocentric and state-centric but it does assert universal goals.
In his "Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, "Immanuel Kant attempts to derive a supreme principle of morality that binds all "rational agents. Similarly, "divine command theory presents a form of universalism, by way of the unconditional morality of God's commandments.
According to Immanuel Kant and Richard Mervyn Hare...moral imperatives must be regarded as equally binding on everyone.
Let us say that moral objectivism maintains that moral judgments are ordinarily true or false in an absolute or universal sense, that some of them are true, and that people sometimes are justified in accepting true moral judgments (and rejecting false ones) on the basis of evidence available to any reasonable and well-informed person.