In "physics, motion is a change in "position of an object over time. Motion is described in terms of "displacement, "distance, "velocity, "acceleration, "time and "speed. Motion of a body is observed by attaching a "frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame.
If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant ("time-invariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a "force, as described. Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's "momentum is directly related to the object's "mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in an isolated system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the "law of conservation of momentum.
As there is no absolute frame of reference, absolute motion cannot be determined. Thus, everything in the universe can be considered to be moving.:20–21
Motion applies to objects, bodies, and matter particles, to radiation, radiation fields and radiation particles, and to space, its curvature and space-time. One can also speak of motion of shapes and boundaries. So, the term motion in general signifies a continuous change in the configuration of a physical system. For example, one can talk about motion of a wave or about motion of a quantum particle, where the configuration consists of probabilities of occupying specific positions.
Motion involves a change in position, such as in this perspective of rapidly leaving "Yongsan Station
Laws of motion
In physics, motion is described through two sets of apparently contradictory "laws of mechanics. Motions of all large scale and familiar objects in the universe (such as "projectiles, "planets, "cells, and "humans) are described by "classical mechanics. Whereas the motion of very small "atomic and "sub-atomic objects is described by "quantum mechanics.
||In an "inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant "velocity, unless acted upon by a "net force.
||In an inertial reference frame, the vector "sum of the "forces F on an object is equal to the "mass m of that object multiplied by the "acceleration a of the object: F = ma.
||When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.
Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of "macroscopic objects, from "projectiles to parts of "machinery, as well as "astronomical objects, such as "spacecraft, "planets, "stars, and "galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest in "science, "engineering, and "technology.
Classical mechanics is fundamentally based on "Newton's laws of motion. These laws describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and the motion of that body. They were first compiled by "Sir Isaac Newton in his work "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. Newton"s three laws are:
- A "body either is at rest or moves with constant velocity, until and unless an outer force is applied to it.
- An object will travel in one direction only until an outer force changes its direction.
- Whenever one body exerts a force F onto a second body,(in some cases, which is standing still) the second body exerts the force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in sense. So, the body which exerts F will go backwards.
Newton's three laws of motion were the first to accurately provide a mathematical model for understanding "orbiting bodies in "outer space. This explanation unified the motion of celestial bodies and motion of objects on earth.
Classical mechanics was later further enhanced by "Albert Einstein's "special relativity and "general relativity. Special relativity is concerned with the motion of objects with a high "velocity, approaching the "speed of light; general relativity is employed to handle "gravitational motion at a deeper level.
When an object moves with a constant speed at a particular direction at regular intervals of time it's known as the uniform motion. For example: a bike moving in a straight line with a constant speed.
EQUATIONS OF UNIFORM MOTION:
If v = final velocity, u = initial velocity, a = acceleration, t = time, s = displacement, then :
v = u + at, v = at
s = ut + 1/2at2, s = 1/2at2
v2 = u2 + 2as, v2 = 2as
if the object is in a constant speed, If the object starts from rest,
"Quantum mechanics is a set of principles describing "physical reality at the atomic level of matter ("molecules and "atoms) and the "subatomic particles ("electrons, "protons, and even smaller particles). These descriptions include the simultaneous wave-like and particle-like behavior of both "matter and "radiation energy as described in the "wave–particle duality.
In classical mechanics, accurate "measurements and "predictions of the state of objects can be calculated, such as "location and "velocity. In the quantum mechanics, due to the "Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the complete state of a subatomic particle, such as its location and velocity, cannot be simultaneously determined.
In addition to describing the motion of atomic level phenomena, quantum mechanics is useful in understanding some large scale phenomenon such as "superfluidity, "superconductivity, and "biological systems, including the function of "smell receptors and the "structures of proteins.
List of "imperceptible" human motions
Humans, like all known things in the universe, are in constant motion,:8–9 however, aside from obvious movements of the various external "body parts and "locomotion, humans are in motion in a variety of ways which are more difficult to "perceive. Many of these "imperceptible motions" are only perceivable with the help of special tools and careful observation. The larger scales of "imperceptible motions" are difficult for humans to perceive for two reasons: 1) "Newton's laws of motion (particularly "Inertia) which prevent humans from feeling motions of a mass to which they are connected, and 2) the lack of an obvious "frame of reference which would allow individuals to easily see that they are moving. The smaller scales of these motions are too small for "humans to "sense.
- "Spacetime (the fabric of the universe) is actually "expanding. Essentially, everything in the "universe is stretching like a "rubber band. This motion is the most obscure as it is not physical motion as such, but rather a change in the very nature of the universe. The primary source of verification of this expansion was provided by "Edwin Hubble who demonstrated that all galaxies and distant astronomical objects were moving away from us (""Hubble's law") as predicted by a universal expansion.
- The "Milky Way Galaxy, is moving through "space. Many astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 600 km/s relative to the observed locations of other nearby galaxies. Another reference frame is provided by the "Cosmic microwave background. This frame of reference indicates that The Milky Way is moving at around 582 km/s.
Sun and solar system
- The Milky Way is "rotating around its "dense "galactic center, thus the "sun is moving in a circle within the "galaxy's "gravity. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar "velocity is between 210 and 240 km/s. All planets and their moons move with the sun. Thus the solar system is moving.
- The Earth is "rotating or spinning around its "axis, this is evidenced by "day and "night, at the equator the earth has an eastward velocity of 0.4651 km/s (1040 mi/h).
- The Earth is "orbiting around the "Sun in an "orbital revolution. A complete orbit around the sun takes one "year or about 365 days; it averages a speed of about 30 km/s (67,000 mi/h).
- The Theory of "Plate tectonics tells us that the "continents are drifting on "convection currents within the "mantle causing them to move across the surface of the "planet at the slow speed of approximately 1 inch (2.54 cm) per year. However, the velocities of plates range widely. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the "Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/yr (3.0 in/yr) and the "Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/yr (2.1–2.7 in/yr). At the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the "Eurasian Plate, progressing at a typical rate of about 21 mm/yr (0.8 in/yr).
- The human "heart is constantly contracting to move "blood throughout the body. Through larger veins and arteries in the body blood has been found to travel at approximately 0.33 m/s. Though considerable variation exists, and peak flows in the venae cavae have been found between 0.1 m/s and 0.45 m/s.
- The "smooth muscles of hollow internal "organs are moving. The most familiar would be "peristalsis which is where digested "food is forced throughout the "digestive tract. Though different foods travel through the body at different rates, an average speed through the human "small intestine is 2.16 m/h (0.036 m/s).
- Typically some "sound is audible at any given moment, when the vibration of these sound waves reaches the "ear drum it moves in response and allows the sense of "hearing.
- The human "lymphatic system is constantly moving excess "fluids, "lipids, and immune system related products around the body. The lymph fluid has been found to move through a lymph capillary of the "skin at approximately 0.0000097 m/s.
The "cells of the "human body have many structures which move throughout them.
- According to the "laws of thermodynamics all "particles of "matter are in constant random motion as long as the "temperature is above "absolute zero. Thus the "molecules and "atoms which make up the human body are vibrating, colliding, and moving. This motion can be detected as temperature; higher temperatures, which represent greater "kinetic energy in the particles, feel warm to humans who sense the thermal energy transferring from the object being touched to their nerves. Similarly, when lower temperature objects are touched, the senses perceive the transfer of heat away from the body as feeling cold.
- Within each atom, "electrons exist in an area around the nucleus. This area is called the "electron cloud. According to Bohr's model of the atom, electrons have a high "velocity, and the larger the nucleus they are orbiting the faster they would need to move. If electrons 'move' about the electron cloud in strict paths the same way planets orbit the sun, then electrons would be required to do so at speeds which far exceed the speed of light. However, there is no reason that one must confine one's self to this strict conceptualization, that electrons move in paths the same way macroscopic objects do. Rather one can conceptualize electrons to be 'particles' that capriciously exist within the bounds of the electron cloud.
- Inside the "atomic nucleus the "protons and "neutrons are also probably moving around due to the electrical repulsion of the protons and the presence of "angular momentum of both particles.
Light propagates at 299,792,458 m/s, often approximated as 299,792 kilometres per second or 186,282 miles per second. The speed of light (or c) is also the speed of all "massless particles and associated "fields in a vacuum, and it is the upper limit on the speed at which energy, matter, and "information can travel. The speed of light is the limit of speed for physical systems.
In addition, the speed of light is an invariant quantity: it has the same value, irrespective of the position or speed of the observer. This property makes the speed of light c the natural measurement unit for speed.
Types of motion
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