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Mudéjar (Spanish: "[muˈðexar, muˈðehar], Portuguese: "[muˈðɛʒaɾ], "Catalan: Mudèjar "[muˈðɛʒər], "Arabic: مدجن‎ "trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated"[1]) is the name given to "Moors or Muslims of "Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian "Reconquista but were not converted to "Christianity. This term is used to contrast with both Muslims in Muslim-ruled areas (for example, Muslims of Granada before 1492), and also in contrast to "Moriscos who were forcibly converted and may or may not have continued to secretly practice Islam.[2]

By extension, "Mudéjar" refers to an "architecture and "decoration style in (post-Moorish) Christian Iberia that was strongly influenced by "Moorish taste and workmanship, reaching its greatest expression in Medieval "Aragon, "Andalusia and the city of "Toledo. The distinctive Mudéjar style is still evident in regional "architecture, as well as in music, "art, and "crafts, especially "Hispano-Moresque ware, "lustreware pottery that was widely exported across Europe.

The "Treaty of Granada (1491) protected religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims in the imminent transition from the "Emirate of Granada to a Province of "Castile. After the fall of the last Islamic kingdom in the "Battle of Granada in January 1492, Mudéjars, unlike the Jews who were expelled that same year, kept a protected religious status, although there were Catholic efforts to convert them. However, over the next several decades this religious freedom deteriorated. Islam was outlawed in Portugal by 1497,[3] the Crown of Castile by 1502,[4] and the Crown of Aragon by 1526,[5] forcing the Mudéjars to convert or in some cases leave the country.[6] Following the forced conversion, they then faced suspicions that they were not truly converted but remained crypto-Muslims, and were known as "Moriscos. The Moriscos, too, were "eventually expelled, in 1609–1614.

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Etymology[edit]

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Façade of Parroquieta Chapel of "La Seo de Zaragoza, "Aragon, one of the most elaborate examples of Gothic Mudéjar masonry

The word Mudéjar is a "Medieval "Spanish borrowing of the "Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning "tamed", in a reference to the Muslims who submitted to the rule of the Christian kings. The term likely originated as a taunt, as the word were usually applied to domesticated animals such as poultry.[7] Another term with the same root, ahl al-dajn ("people who stay on"), were used by Muslim writers, notably "al-Wansharisi in his work Kitab al-Mi'yar.[7]

This term is used to contrast with both Muslims in Muslim-ruled areas (for example, Muslims of Granada before 1492), and also in contrast to "Moriscos who were forcibly converted and may or may not have secretly practiced Islam.[2] A related word is "mozarab, which refers to a Christian individual living under Islamic rule.[2]

Mudéjar style[edit]

Spain[edit]

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"Nuestra Señora de Loreto, Algezares, city of Murcia: wooden ceiling on "diaphragm" arches
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Ceiling of Mudéjar carpentry, "Segorbe town hall (former ducal palace), "Valencia Region
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Santa Eulalia Church in "Totana, "Murcia Region

In erecting "Romanesque, "Gothic, and "Renaissance buildings, builders used elements of "Islamic art and often achieved striking results. Its influence survived into the 17th century.[8]

The Mudéjar style, a "symbiosis of techniques and ways of creating "architecture resulting from "Muslim and "Christian cultures living side by side, emerged as an architectural style in the 12th century on the "Iberian peninsula. It is characterised by the use of "brick as the main material, in particular for "bell towers. Mudéjar did not involve the creation of new shapes or structures, unlike Gothic or "Romanesque, but applied the elements of Islamic art and architecture to medieval Christian architecture. Such Islamic influences included ancient "Arabic calligraphic scripts, "Kufic and "Naskhi, which follow repetitive rhythmic patterns.[9][8]

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"Geometric design: "Royal Convent of Santa Clara in "Tordesillas with girih-patterned "artesonado ceiling

The dominant geometrical character, distinctly Islamic, emerged conspicuously in the crafts: elaborate "tilework, "brickwork, "wood carving, "plasterwork, and ornamental metals. To enliven the surfaces of wall and floor, Mudéjar style developed complicated "tiling patterns. Even after Muslims were no longer employed in architecture, many of the elements they had introduced continued to be incorporated into Spanish architecture, giving it a distinctive appearance. The term Mudejar style was first coined in 1859 by the "Andalusian historian and "archeologist "José Amador de los Ríos.

Mudéjar often makes use of "girih geometric strapwork decoration, as used in Middle Eastern Islamic architecture, where "Maghreb buildings tended to use vegetal "arabesques. Scholars have sometimes considered the geometric forms, both girih and the complex vaultings of "muqarnas, as innovative, and arabesques as retardataire, but in Al-Andalus, both geometric and vegetal forms are freely used and combined.[10]

Historians agree that the Mudéjar style first developed in the town of "Sahagún, León under Christian rule, as an adaptation of architectural and "ornamental "motifs, especially through decoration with "plasterwork and brick.[9] Mudéjar then extended to the rest of the "Kingdom of León, "Toledo, "Ávila, "Segovia, etc., giving rise to what has been called brick Romanesque style. Centers of Mudéjar art are found in other cities, such as "Toro, "Cuéllar, "Arévalo and "Madrigal de las Altas Torres.

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Locations of some of the main sites of Mudéjar architecture in Spain and Portugal, showing early examples (grey) and regional subtypes: Portugal (blue); Aragon (yellow); Castile & León (red); Toledo (purple); Andalusia (green); other (white)

It became most highly developed in Aragon, especially in "Teruel[11] but also in towns such as "Zaragoza, "Utebo, "Tauste, "Daroca, and "Calatayud. During the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, many imposing Mudéjar-style towers were built in the city of Teruel, changing the aspect of the city. This distinction has survived to the present day. Mudéjar led to a fusion between the incipient "Gothic style and the Muslim influences that had been integrated with late "Romanesque. A particularly fine Mudéjar example is the "Casa de Pilatos, built in the early 16th century at "Seville. Seville includes many other examples of Mudéjar style. The "Alcázar of Seville is considered one of the greatest surviving examples. The Alcázar includes "Gothic and "Renaissance styles, as well as Mudéjar. The palace originally began as a Moorish fort. "Pedro of Castile continued the Islamic architectural style when he ordered the palace expanded. The parish church of Santa Catalina (pictured) was built in the 14th century over an old mosque.

While international interest tends to emphasize Mudéjar masonry, including the sophisticated use of bricks and tiles, Spanish scholars also note Mudéjar carpentry, as well as the combination of the two. Several churches have slanting wooden ceilings supported by transverse arches of stone, called "diaphragms.[12]

Portugal[edit]

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Wooden mudéjar roof of the chapel of the "Royal Palace of Sintra (Portugal) with 4-, 6-, 8- and 12-point stars in "girih strapwork

"Portugal also has examples of Mudéjar art and architecture, although the examples are fewer and the style simpler in decoration than in neighbouring Spain. Mudéjar brick architecture is only found in the "apse of the Church of "Castro de Avelãs [1], near "Braganza, which is similar to the prototypical Church of "Sahagún in León. A hybrid Gothic-Mudéjar style also developed in the "Alentejo province in southern Portugal during the 15th and 16th centuries, where it overlapped with the "Manueline style. The windows of the Royal Palace and the Palace of the Counts of Basto in "Évora are good examples of this style. Decorative arts of Mudéjar inspiration are also found in the tile patterns of churches and palaces, such as the 16th-century tiles, imported from Seville, that decorate the "Royal Palace of Sintra. Mudéjar wooden roofs are found in churches in "Sintra, "Caminha, "Funchal, "Lisbon and some other places.

Latin America[edit]

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Mudéjar tower of the Chapel of the "Immaculate Conception in "Cali, "Colombia

Latin America also has examples of Mudéjar art and architecture, for example in "Coro, a UNESCO "World Heritage Site in Venezuela. Other examples of the style in Latin America include the "Monastery of San Francisco in "Lima, Peru, and the Iglesia del Espíritu Santo in "Havana, Cuba.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wehr, Hans (1979). Arabic-English Dictionary. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. "ISBN "0-87950-003-4. 
  2. ^ a b c Harvey 1992, p. 2.
  3. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 15.
  4. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 57.
  5. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 94.
  6. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 48.
  7. ^ a b Harvey 1992, p. 4.
  8. ^ a b "Mudejar Architecture of Aragon". "UNESCO. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "Arquitectura Mudéjar" (in Spanish). Arteguias. September 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Roxburgh, David J. (2014). Envisioning Islamic Art and Architecture: Essays in Honor of Renata Holod. Brill. pp. 28–30. "ISBN "978-90-04-28028-1. 
  11. ^ "Mudejar Architecture of Aragon". World Heritage Site. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  12. ^ Regiòn de Murcia, Arte mudéjar
  13. ^ Puig, Francisco Prat (1947). El pre-Barroco en Cuba: una escuela criolla de arquitectura morisca. Biblioteca Nacional José Marti. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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