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Main article: "Old Patent Office Building
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National Portrait Gallery
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The Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard at the National Portrait Gallery.

The National Portrait Gallery occupies a portion of the Old Patent Office Building, a "National Historic Landmark. The building is located just south of "Chinatown in downtown Washington. Constructed between 1836 and 1867,[65] the building has a "sandstone and "marble façade,[66] and "porticoes modeled after the "Parthenon.[67]

The building was used as a hospital during the American Civil War, and both "Clara Barton and "Walt Whitman worked as nurses there.[68] The "Bureau of Indian Affairs, the "General Land Office, and the "Bureau of Pensions jointly occupied the building with the Patent Office through the Civil War and into the post-war period.[69] The massive increase in pension processing required by the Civil War lead to the construction of a new "Pension Bureau Building into which the Bureau of Pensions moved in 1887.[70] The General Land Office and the Bureau of Indian Affairs vacated the building in 1898.[71] The "United States Civil Service Commission and the "Government Accounting Office occupied the building after the Patent Office vacated it in 1932.[72] The Government Accounting Office vacated the structure in 1942, after its new headquarters nearby was complete.[73] The Civil Service Commission began constructing its own headquarters, and planned to vacate the building in 1962.[74]

Local D.C. businessmen asked the General Services Administration (GSA) to tear down the building and sell the land so a private parking garage could be built on the centrally located site. Legislation for this purpose was introduced in Congress in the waning days of the "82nd United States Congress in 1952, but did not pass. The legislation encountered resistance from a few members of Congress, architects, and the influential "Committee of 100 on the Federal City (a private business group dedicated to promoting the D.C. economy).[75] GSA reversed course, and said in June 1956 it no longer wanted to demolish the building. However, the agency said it would continue to use it for federal office space (which was in short supply) until the Civil Service Commission vacated the structure.[76] On March 21, 1958, Congress unanimously passed legislation authorizing the transfer of the building to the Smithsonian for a national art museum.[77] President "Dwight Eisenhower signed the legislation a few days later.[78]

Congress passed legislation establishing the National Portrait Gallery in 1962, and the Civil Service Commission moved out of the structure in November 1963.[79] Preparations for the renovation began in November 1964,[80] and the Grunley, Walsh Construction Co. began demolition of non-historic interior structures by May 1965.[81] The $6 million renovation was complete by April 1968,[82] and the National Portrait Gallery opened on October 7.[83]

2000–2007 renovation[edit]

In 1995, the Smithsonian revealed that the Old Patent Office Building was in serious disrepair.[84] The Smithsonian announced in January 1997 that the building would close in January 2000 for a two-year, $42 million renovation. Hartman-Cox Architects was hired to oversee the conservation and repair.[85] But just three years later, as the renovation was about to begin, the cost of repairs had risen to $110 million to $120 million.[86]

Prior to the building's closure in January 2000, a decision was reached to allot about one-third of the building's total space to the National Portrait Gallery while simultaneously eliminating the informal north-south division between the NPG and American Art Museum.[87] This led to acrimony between the two museums, and a public debate about which collection deserved more space. The Smithsonian resolved the dispute practically: Art that best fit an exhibition space got it. (For example, since modern art often tends toward large canvases, this art is on the high-ceilinged third floor.)[59]

The cost of the renovation rose to $180 million by March 2001. That month, Nan Tucker McEvoy (a "California newspaper heiress and arts patron) donated $10 million for the renovation.[88] The Henry Luce Foundation gave another $10 million later that year.[89] Costs continued to rise. Although Congress appropriated $33.5 million for the renovation, reconstruction costs were estimated at $214 million in June 2001 and the museum not scheduled to reopen until 2005.[90] Just a month later, the reopening was pushed back even further to July 2006.[91]

In 2003, the government increased its contribution to $166 million. Smithsonian officials subsequently began discussing a major change to the renovation design: Adding a glass roof to the open courtyard in the center of the Old Patent Office Building. Congress approved the change in August 2003. In March 2004, the Smithsonian announced that architect "Norman Foster, would design the glass canopy.[92] In November, Robert Kogod (a real estate development executive) and his wife, Arlene (heiress to Charles E. Smith Construction fortune) donated $25 million to complete the canopy. By then, costs had risen to $298 million. $60 million in private funds still needed to be raised.[89]

Design approval for the canopy proved difficult. The design had to be approved by the "National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC), which has statutory authority to approve all buildings and renovations in the D.C. metropolitan area. Although the NCPC approved the preliminary design,[89] the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the "United States Department of the Interior, the D.C. State Preservation Office, and the "National Trust for Historic Preservation all opposed the enclosure of the courtyard.[93] The NCPC reversed its preliminary approval on June 2, 2005.[94] Unwilling to lose the canopy, the Smithsonian brought five alternatives to the NCPC on August 4.[95] On September 8, 2005, the NCPC reversed itself yet again, and approved one of the revised designs.[96] The delay cost the Smithsonian $10 million.[59] In October 2005, the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation made a $45 million donation to the NPG to finish both the building renovation and the canopy.[97] The Smithsonian agreed to call the two museums, the conservation center, courtyard, storage facility, and other operations within the Old Patent Office complex the "Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture" in appreciation for the gift.[98] The National Portrait Gallery reopened on July 1, 2006.[99] The total cost of the building's renovation was $283 million.[100]

Attendance at the renovated building rose significantly to 214,495 in just two months. In the past, both museums had drawn just 450,000 over 12 months. The achievement was even more impressive in the face of flat or declining attendance at all other Smithsonian museums.[101] The higher attendance was not all positive. Some patrons spit on art they did not like, while others kissed or touched some paintings. Video security cameras were hastily installed in September 2007 to stop the vandalism.[102] By the end of the year, more than 786,000 people had visited the two museums.[103]

Governance and directors[edit]

The National Portrait Gallery is governed by a board of directors known as the National Portrait Gallery Commission. The commission members are appointed by the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum is led by a Director, who oversees its day-to-day activities. Directors of the museum include:

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Images are paintings, drawings, or similar media, unless otherwise noted.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Thompson, Bob. "Who Gets Into the National Portrait Gallery, and Why?" Washington Post. June 13, 1999.
  2. ^ Smith, p. 268.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Chronology of the National Portrait Gallery." Chronology of Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. 2012. Accessed 2013-02-05.
  4. ^ Oehser, p. 146.
  5. ^ Oehser, p. 200.
  6. ^ a b c Schultz, p. 272.
  7. ^ a b Richard, Paul. "A New Face for the Stuffy Old Portrait." Washington Post. April 3, 1977.
  8. ^ Alexander, p. 302.
  9. ^ Richard, Paul. "A National Family Album." Washington Post. October 6, 1968; Martin, Judith. "'Semi, Demi-Heroes' Open New Gallery." Washington Post. October 7, 1968.
  10. ^ "Avery C. Faulkner." Wilmington Star-News. February 25, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Richard, Paul. "American Masterwork: Portrait Gallery's New 'Cornerstone' A Copley Self-Portrait for the Portrait Gallery." Washington Post. January 16, 1978.
  12. ^ Permanent Collection Illustrated Checklist, p. 7.
  13. ^ Glueck, Grace. "Athenaeum's Dilemma." New York Times. April 6, 1979; "Free George and Martha." Washington Post. April 9, 1979.
  14. ^ Richard, Paul. "Marvin Sadik: 'I'm Resolute'." Washington Post. April 11, 1979.
  15. ^ Cowen, Peter. "For $5m, Portraits Stay Here." Boston Globe. April 12, 1979.
  16. ^ Knight, Michael. "Boston City Officials Go to Court to Keep 2 Washington Portraits." New York Times. April 11, 1979.
  17. ^ Richard, Paul. "Bound in Boston." Washington Post. April 13, 1979.
  18. ^ a b c "Bostonians Are Falling Short in Drive to Keep Art." Associated Press. November 25, 1979.
  19. ^ "Portrait Fund Drive Falls $4 Million Short." Washington Post. January 18, 1980.
  20. ^ "Museums in Capital and Boston to Share Washington Portraits." New York Times. February 8, 1980; "Museums Come to Terms on Stuarts." Washington Post. February 23, 1980.
  21. ^ a b "Pact on Stuarts Approved By Massachusetts Official." Associated Press. March 22, 1980; "Stuart Portraits Plan Wins Tentative Approval." Washington Post. March 24, 1980.
  22. ^ Rosenfeld, Megan. "New Faces in Town." Washington Post. June 24, 1980; Radcliffe, Donnie. "Back In the Picture." Washington Post. July 4, 1980.
  23. ^ a b c "Sadik, Director, Quits National Portrait Gallery." New York Times. June 1, 1981. Accessed 2013-02-05.
  24. ^ a b Glueck, Grace. "5 Stuarts Go to U.S. Gallery." Washington Post. April 10, 1979.
  25. ^ a b Richard, Paul. "Lodge Donates Two Portraits." Washington Post. December 15, 1979.
  26. ^ a b Kernan, Michael. "GEE!! It's Christy." Washington Post. January 11, 1980; "The Loving Eye That Created the Christy Girl." Washington Post. January 11, 1980.
  27. ^ a b Ostrow, Joanne. "The Meserves' Photo Legacy." Washington Post. May 14, 1982.
  28. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "The Photographer Who Went to War." Washington Post. November 7, 2010.
  29. ^ a b Richard, Paul. "Gilbert Stuart's Jefferson Acquired for $1 Million." Washington Post. September 10, 1982.
  30. ^ a b Richard, Paul. "Portrait Gallery Buys Degas." Washington Post. May 22, 1984.
  31. ^ "Civil War Era Notes Are Stolen." Washington Post. January 1, 1985; Ringle, Ken. "FBI Probes Theft of Notes From Gallery." Washington Post. January 2, 1985; Barker, Karyn. "FBI Arrests D.C. Man in Lincoln Letter Case." Washington Post. February 9, 1985; "Man Sentenced For Stealing Notes From Civil War Era." Washington Post. April 24, 1985.
  32. ^ "Man Gets 6 Months for Stealing Documents." Associated Press. April 24, 1985. Accessed 2013-02-07.
  33. ^ a b Grundberg, Andy. "The Beautiful Peoples." Washington Post. June 19, 2005.
  34. ^ a b "Daguerreotype of Frederick Douglass." Washington Post. December 23, 1990.
  35. ^ a b Ringle, Ken. "John Brown, Captured For History." Washington Post. December 19, 1996.
  36. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Battles to Keep Prized Portrait of Washington." Washington Post. February 23, 2001.
  37. ^ The Reynolds Foundation board had discretion to make grants in areas that presented patriotic or entrepreneurial opportunities or which supported a lifetime interest of foundation founder Donald W. Reynolds.
  38. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "A Washington Bailout." Washington Post. March 14, 2001.
  39. ^ Farhi, Paul. "Committee Sees a Lack of Money, Leadership at 8 Smithsonian Museums." Washington Post. March 21, 2007.
  40. ^ a b Argetsinger, Amy and Roberts, Roxanne. "Fit for a T: New at the Portrait Gallery." Washington Post. January 7, 2009.
  41. ^ Gopnik, Blake. "'Hide/Seek' Finds a Frame for Showing Sexual Identity." Washington Post. November 5, 2010.
  42. ^ a b c d e f Trescott, Jacqueline. "Portrait Gallery Removes Crucifix Video From Exhibit After Complaints." Washington Post. December 1, 2010.
  43. ^ Almost no taxpayer money was spent on the exhibit, since it was funded by private donations.
  44. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Clough Defends Removal of Video". Washington Post. January 19, 2011.
  45. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "After Smithsonian Exhibit's Removal, Banned Ant Video Still Creeps Into Gallery." Washington Post. December 6, 2010.
  46. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "'Hide/Seek' Sponsor Threatens to Cut Funding for Smithsonian." Washington Post. December 14, 2010; Taylor, Kate. "Foundation Says It's Ending Smithsonian Support." New York Times. December 13, 2010.
  47. ^ Capps, Kriston. "Mapplethorpe Foundation Withdraws Support for Smithsonian Exhibitions." Washington City Paper. December 17, 2010. Accessed 2013-02-06.
  48. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Regents Support Censorship Decision." Washington Post. February 1, 2011.
  49. ^ Gopnik, Blake. "Portrait Capital." Washington Post. May 29, 2005.
  50. ^ Gambino, Megan. "Last Call: Outwin Boochever Portrait Competition." Smithsonian Magazine. October 25, 2011. Accessed 2013-02-08.
  51. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution." [1] Accessed 2013-06-07.
  52. ^ Sanford, Barbara. " Eunice Kennedy Shriver Portrait Unveiled. " Smithsonian Magazine [2] May 11, 2009.
  53. ^ " National Portrait Gallery's Portrait Competition" PBS Newshour. [3] November 5, 2009.
  54. ^ Kennicott, Philip. " Boochever Portrait Competition winners. " Washington Post. [4] March 22, 2013.
  55. ^ Bloom, Benjamin (November 19, 2014). "Bo Gehring: Reminding Us to Slow Down". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved March 10, 2016. 
  56. ^ Kennicott, Philip. "American Poets, On the Surface." Washington Post. November 4, 2012.
  57. ^ a b c "Fact Sheets: National Portrait Gallery." Smithsonian Institution. February 1, 2013. Accessed 2013-02-06.
  58. ^ Thompson, Bob. "The Changing Face of American Portraiture." Washington Post. June 25, 2006.
  59. ^ a b c Trescott, Jacqueline. "Museums Reopen to a Brand-New View." Washington Post. July 1, 2006.
  60. ^ a b Copeland, Libby. "The Clintons: They've Been Framed!" Washington Post. April 25, 2006.
  61. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Have Renovation, Will Travel." Washington Post. December 14, 2005.
  62. ^ Harlan, Becky (January 13, 2017). "National Portrait Gallery Installs Photo Of President-Elect Trump". NPR.org. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  63. ^ Mcgraw, Meridith (January 16, 2017). "Trump Photograph Installed at the National Portrait Gallery". ABC News. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  64. ^ "National Portrait Gallery Annual Report" [5] October 1, 2008 – September 30, 2009. p. 4,15,back cover.
  65. ^ Price and Price, p. 102; Silber, p. 61; Acker, p. 14, accessed 2013-02-08.
  66. ^ Ross, p. 87.
  67. ^ Sandler, p. 51.
  68. ^ Dale, p. 47.
  69. ^ Fixico, p. 27; Bureau of Land Management, p. 25; National Park Service, p. 8.
  70. ^ Moeller and Feldblyum, p. 100.
  71. ^ Secretary of the Interior, 1899, p. 107.
  72. ^ Public Buildings Commission, p. 24-27.
  73. ^ Committee on Appopriations, p. 466.
  74. ^ Select Subcommittee on Education, p. 159.
  75. ^ "Sen. Maybanks Fights Plan to Raze CSC Building." Washington Post. November 17, 1953; "Architects Fight Plan to Raze CSC Building." Washington Post. February 24, 1954; "Committee Protests Razing Plan." Washington Post. December 17, 1955.
  76. ^ "GSA Wants to Preserve Patent Bldg." Washington Post. June 3, 1956.
  77. ^ "CSC Building to Become Art Museum." Washington Post. March 22, 1958.
  78. ^ Sampson, Paul. "Exhibit to Tell American Art Story." Washington Post. April 2, 1958.
  79. ^ Doolittle, Jerry. "Civil Service Dedicates Home." Washington Post. November 13, 1963.
  80. ^ Scott, David W. "Patent Building to Become Arty." Washington Post. December 27, 1964.
  81. ^ Hailey, Jean R. "Art Collection to Go in Old Patent Office." Washington Post. May 21, 1965.
  82. ^ Richard, Paul. "A Major New Art Museum to Open." Washington Post..' April 28, 1968.
  83. ^ Richard, Paul. "A National Family Album." Washington Post. October 6, 1968.
  84. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "The Dilapidated State of the Nation's Attic." Washington Post. June 10, 1995.
  85. ^ Lewis, Jo Ann. "Repairs to Close Two Art Museums." Washington Post. January 29, 1997.
  86. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Extensive Leaks In the Nation's Attic." Washington Post. April 1, 2000.
  87. ^ Forgey, Benjamin. "The Old Patent Office, Pending Renewal." Washington Post. January 1, 2000.
  88. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Art Museum Gets Second $10 Million." Washington Post. March 7, 2001.
  89. ^ a b c Trescott, Jacqueline. "Old Patent Office Gets A $25 Million Boost." Washington Post. November 16, 2004.
  90. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Projects Face Delays." Washington Post. June 23, 2001.
  91. ^ Forgey, Benjamin. "Naked Splendor." Washington Post. July 20, 2003.
  92. ^ Zach Mortice (December 21, 2007). "Museum Courtyard Glides Through the Ages". AIArchitect. ; Epstein, Edward (2006-07-02). "Openings THU 13 Cesar Chavez Student". The San Francisco Chronicle. ; Trescott, Jacqueline. "Way Clear for British Architect's Glass Act." Washington Post. March 16, 2004.
  93. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Patent Office Roof: Pending." Washington Post. April 25, 2005.
  94. ^ Forgey, Benjamin. "Panel Rejects Smithsonian Plan For Patent Office." Washington Post. June 3, 2005.
  95. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Old Patent Office Options Clearly Still Favor Glass." Washington Post. August 5, 2005.
  96. ^ Forgey, Benjamin. "A Roof That's Patently the Best Option." Washington Post. September 9, 2005.
  97. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Scores a $45 Million Gift." Washington Post. October 12, 2005.
  98. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Thanks Its Big Donor By Name." Washington Post. October 13, 2005.
  99. ^ "'Looking History in the Eye' at Portrait Gallery". National Public Radio. July 13, 2006. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  100. ^ Philip Kennicott (November 19, 2007). "Seeing the Light at Last". Washington Post. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  101. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Smithsonian Attendance Down." Washington Post. September 20, 2006.
  102. ^ Grimaldi, James V. "GAO Faults Smithsonian Upkeep and Security." Washington Post. September 29, 2007.
  103. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Some People Would Die to Wind Up at This Museum." Washington Post. May 23, 2008.
  104. ^ "Portrait Gallery Chief Alan Fern to Retire". Washingtonpost.com. 2000-02-04. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  105. ^ Jacqueline Trescott (December 12, 2006). "Portrait Gallery Director to Retire in '07". The Washington Post. 
  106. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "Martin Sullivan Steps Down as Portrait Gallery Director." Washington Post. May 7, 2012. Accessed 2013-02-05.
  107. ^ Boyle, Katherine. "National Portrait Gallery Names Kim Sajet as Its New Director." Washington Post. February 5, 2013. Accessed 2013-02-05.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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